Teachers Perception Of Entrepreneurship Education And Its Impact On Poverty Reduction In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Entrepreneurship

Teachers Perception Of Entrepreneurship Education And Its Impact On Poverty Reduction In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the perception of teachers on entrepreneurship education on its contribution to poverty reduction in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected secondary school in Ajaokuta local government area of Kogi state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 63 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypothesis were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the teachers perceived that poverty in Nigeria is caused by poor employment opportunity, corruption, poor education system, and poor government policies. The findings further show that the teachers perceived that entrepreneurship education has significant effect on poverty reduction in Nigeria as it promotes innovation, it promotes skill acquisition, it promotes self-employment, and it helps to create employment opportunities. Therefore it is recommended that there is need to ensure the development of entrepreneurship skills and education, establishment of entrepreneurship centres in schools, empowerment of medium and small business enterprises (MSBE), improvement in infrastructures, creation of more awareness on entrepreneurship and teaching of entrepreneurship at all levels of education in Nigeria.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Small company expansion has long been considered as a driver of economic development and modernization. As a result, evidence from both developed and developing nations abounds that entrepreneurship aids the growth of small and medium-sized businesses. Furthermore, in African emerging nations where population expansion outpaces employment growth, entrepreneurship development is both a desired instrument for job creation and a strategy for poverty reduction. As a result of the growing recognition of entrepreneurship and new business formation as growth and innovation engines, numerous developing nation governmental policies are increasingly focusing on private sector development [Obasan,2005]. In addition, governments in the Euro zone see entrepreneurship as a source of job creation and economic progress, and they promote it through legislation [Druker, 1985]. [Hills,1988] refer to the link between government activities for entrepreneurial education and poverty reduction in a conceptual model.

By studying the available literature, it was discovered that there are opposing sides to the entrepreneurial schools of thought, as well as an inherent absence of a standard definition of entrepreneurship (Sexton and Bowman, 1984). There has been a debate over the use of terms such as entrepreneurship education versus enterprise education (Hills, 1988), as well as the substitution of entrepreneurship education with entrepreneurial education (Jones and English, 2004).

According to Jones and English (2004) who argue that there is a conceptual difference between entrepreneurship education and enterprise education: the former is concerned with developing a self-reliant attitude, while the latter is concerned with developing opportunity-seeking individuals. Others, such as Gibb (1993), as quoted in Fank et al.(2005), believe that the two concepts are conceptually similar but contextually distinct. Entrepreneurship education, according to Gibb (1993), as stated in Fank et al. (2005), is mostly employed in the United States and Canada, whereas enterprise education is used in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Another interesting observation comes from Jones and English (2004), who define entrepreneurship education as “a process of providing individuals with the ability to recognize commercial opportunities and the insight, self-esteem, knowledge, and skills to act on them” and define it as “a process of providing individuals with the ability to recognize commercial opportunities and the insight, self-esteem, knowledge, and skills to act on them” (Jones and English, 2004 ). Apart from the aforementioned debate, most papers, according to Wai and Man (2007) and Hynes (1996), have used these words interchangeably (entrepreneurship education, enterprise education, or even entrepreneurial education). Some similarity may be found by analyzing various definitions. Entrepreneurs are described as ‘innovators’ by Contillon (1931), as mentioned by Ahmad & Seymor (2006). Entrepreneurs, according to Drucker (1985), are wealth creators and risk takers. Entrepreneurship education is the study of the sources of possibilities and the process of discovery through which a person exercises their capacity to be creative, take risks, and put their ideas into action. Entrepreneurship education, according to some scholars, is “training for an unpredictable future” (Kratko, 1997), and it “provides the competencies of venture development.” However, the majority of the examined research on entrepreneurship education focuses on developing entrepreneurial attitudes, skills, and management characteristics ( Bechard and Toulouse, 1998; Gibb, 1993 as cited in Fank et al. 2005; Hills, 1988).

In all cultures, education has been the driving force behind social, economic, and political revolution. It functions as a societal integrator, instilling principles that promote individual excellence, social harmony, and national progress. Recognizing the significance of education in national development, policymakers (European Commission, 2008) have put exceptional emphasis on a newly discovered concept in the area of education known as “entrepreneurial skill development via education” at all levels. An attempt has been made in this review research to conceptualize the term entrepreneurship education? How did it end up in a situation like this? Its nature, as well as the new role that teachers will play in promoting entrepreneurial education, are discussed, as well as the teachers perception of entrepreneurship education and how it can help eradicate poverty in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Entrepreneurship education is primarily concerned with the development of an entrepreneurial culture. It assists aspiring entrepreneurs in identifying and pursuing business possibilities. It isn’t only about encouraging new businesses, creative initiatives, and employment. Entrepreneurship is a skill that can be learned by everyone, and it may help young people become more creative and self-assured in anything they do. According to Obasan (2005), adequate information is documented, instituted, and inculcated in all business minded people.

Teachers perception on Entrepreneurship education is one that believes that when a student is thought how to go about a business it is a way that reduces unemployment and in so doing helps reduce poverty and this involves students of higher learning, and teaching them on how to start a business, manage its growth profitably by making entrepreneurial philosophies an action guide, and how to manage small medium scale enterprises in an entrepreneurial manner to ensure continuous success through entrepreneurship education. The goal of entrepreneurship education in the classroom is to achieve this goal.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of the study is as follows;

  1. Assess teachers perception on the causes of poverty in Nigeria.
  2. Assess the perception of teachers on the effect of entrepreneurship education on poverty reduction in Nigeria.
  3. Assess the perception of teachers on the challenges of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

  1. What are the causes of poverty in Nigeria?
  2. What is the effect of entrepreneurship education on poverty reduction in Nigeria?
  3. What are the challenges of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Entrepreneurship education has not contributed to poverty reduction in Nigeria.
  • Ha: Entrepreneurship education has contributed to poverty reduction in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will focus on teachers perception of entrepreneurship education and its Impact on poverty reduction in Nigeria and will be beneficial to the ministry of education so they will see the need to include it in the curriculum.
This study will also be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will evaluate the perception of teachers on entrepreneurship education on its contribution to poverty reduction in Nigeria. Geographically, the study will be delimited to selected senior secondary school in Ajaokuta local government area of Kogi state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data.

Financial constraint was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires.

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Entrepreneurship Education:

Education and training designed to develop and encourage entrepreneurial spirit and success.

Perception:

The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the perception of teachers on entrepreneurship education on its contribution to poverty reduction in Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the perception of teachers on entrepreneurship education on its contribution to poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study is was specifically set to; assess teachers perception on the causes of poverty in Nigeria, assess the perception of teachers on the effect of entrepreneurship education on poverty reduction in Nigeria, and assess the perception of teachers on the challenges of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 63 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers of some selected secondary school in Ajaokuta local government area of Kogi state.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The teachers perceived that poverty in Nigeria is caused by poor employment opportunity, corruption, poor education system, and poor government policies.
  2. The teachers perceived that entrepreneurship education has significant effect on poverty reduction in Nigeria as it promotes innovation, it promotes skill acquisition, it promotes self-employment, and it helps to create employment opportunities.
  3. The teachers perceived that the challenges of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria include; poor supervision of curriculum implementation, inadequate teaching materials, unconducive learning environment, inadequate qualified teacher, and emphasizing theoretical knowledge rather than practical knowledge.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. There is need to ensure the development of entrepreneurship skills and education, establishment of entrepreneurship centres in schools, empowerment of medium and small business enterprises (MSBE), improvement in infrastructures, creation of more awareness on entrepreneurship and teaching of entrepreneurship at all levels of education in Nigeria.
  2. The government should encourage the graduates to utilize what they acquire to be self-employed in order to reduce the rate of unemployed in the state.
  3. Entrepreneurship education should be integrated into the education curriculum and be made effective at all level of education, so that employment generation will be enhance.
  4. The government through its agencies should speedily establish Enterprise Development Agency and entrepreneurship development centers in every local government to promote entrepreneurship education.
  5. The government as a matter of urgency, should prioritize the entrepreneurship education activities, giving it devoted practical and visible attention with a view to making it virile and vibrant, focus and productive.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Does entrepreneurship development affect poverty alleviation in Nigeria?

Effect Of Entrepreneurship Development On Poverty Alleviation In Nigeria … construction etc. According to Anyadike, Emeh and Ukah (2012) these human and natural resources youth unemployment in Sub-Sahara Africa, and despite its alleged strong economic growth.

Do women entrepreneurs play a role in poverty reduction in Kenya?

The study concludes that women entrepreneurs play a major role in poverty reduction in Kenya. This paper examined the role of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria. Some variables were identified as possible obstacles to entrepreneurship education, they include among others: poor knowledge-based economy and poor enterprising culture.

What are the obstacles to entrepreneurship education in Nigeria?

Some variables were identified as possible obstacles to entrepreneurship education, they include among others: poor knowledge-based economy and poor enterprising culture. Also discussed were ways of avoiding the obstacles and how the teaching of creativity and problem-solving skills can reposition Nigerian youths in Nigeria.

How does entrepreneurship training and education affect youth empowerment and social welfare?

This study confirmed that entrepreneurship training and education are significantly related to the youth empowerment and social welfare services. Findings revealed that youth empowerment are influenced by their acquired technical skill. 

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