Teachers Perception On The Challenges Of Teaching History In Secondary Schools

History Education Project and Seminar Material

Teachers Perception On The Challenges Of Teaching History In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to teachers perception on the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government, Enugu State as a case study. Specifically the study was carried out to ascertain the extent history is taught in secondary schools, ascertain teachers perception on whether the teaching of history in secondary schools promotes moral principles values on the students, and find out the the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of History teachers of some selected secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government, Enugu State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 59 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals the extent history is taught in secondary schools is low. The study also revealed that the teaching of history in secondary schools promotes moral principles values on the students. Therefore, it is recommended that principals, teachers and school administrators should give full support to the teaching and learning of History in their schools in order to foster a conducive ambience for effective teaching and learning of the subject. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Since the British introduced Western education in Nigeria, History as a subject has featured prominently in the secondary school curriculum. The term History means different things to different philosophers of History. Fafunwa, (1974) opined that, History is to people what memory is to the individual. People with no knowledge of their past are a victim of collective amnesia, groping blindly into the future without guidepost of precedence to shape their course. This connotes that people without knowledge of the past are likely to suffer from historic myopia as their future will remain uncertain. Similarly, Jekayinfa, (2010) stated that history is the account of past events investigated, analyzed and interpreted in order to discover generalizations that are helpful in understanding the present and to a limited extent, in anticipating the future.

As a study of the past, History draws on significant events of the past to inform the present and to safeguard the future, in effect, History does not study the past in isolation from the present, but relates intricately, the successes, achievements and failures of antecedent generations to the contemporary case and sets the stage for a better living in the morrow (Boadu, 2016). In this light, it is believed that History is a systematic account of the past events in relation to the present time in order to be able to predict the future for the purpose of shaping it for better. Ajai, Ajibade and Aniemeka, (1999) opined that “History education is important because it inculcates in the individual the development of social awareness.” In this respect, it is through the knowledge of history that people, particularly younger ones come to understand and appreciate the background, culture, beliefs, and traditions of others. On the submission of Adeyeni (1999), the goal of History teaching in schools is to help young people develop an integrated spiritual world, via assimilation of the ethno-cultural, national and universal values that have been developed in the course of historical development, and by giving them experience in defining themselves in relation to these values. Osinsawo (1990) observed that, History is a living subject that deals with drama of human beings or the stage of the world which is still growing on, and this drama should be presented before children in a vivid manner in classroom, for this, a history teacher should be active and full life.

In Nigeria, the teaching and learning of History in schools is undergoing tremendous changings in terms of modernization, methodologies which can be understood only in the context of the subject. According to Ajayi, (2015), it is now clear that the process of History teaching and learning has become more varied and interesting, with a possibility for greater personal input. At the same time, it should be remembered that History education is based on a rich legacy. Ajayi, (2015) further stated that, History teaching and learning in Nigerian schools has a long tradition, the indisputable achievement of the History as a subject and the methodologies used in teaching it have been recognized internationally.

However, it should be noted that teaching and learning of History in schools has witnessed some changes over the years. The changes have really affected the structure of History education, the principles for selecting subject matter and the instructional materials used to teach the subject. Bining and Bining (1952) observed that problem of principle guiding the selection of teaching methods in History is another problem confronting the learning and teaching of History in our secondary schools and classified teaching method into eight categories; they are lecture, exercise, project, problem, supervised study, social recitation, laboratory and unit method. Cobbold and Oppong (2010) stated that recommended methods were not used by History teachers in teaching the subject, and even those used were not used appropriately. It was also revealed that instructional resources were not frequently used in History lessons because such resources were either not available at all or were inadequate. Also, Students were also found to possess negative perceptions about the subject as they regarded History as a compendium of facts to be memorized. Wactyze (1991) believed that an effective History teacher does not rely on a single method of teaching.

Effectiveness is multi-dimensional rather than unidimensional. He stated further that effective teaching of History involves setting conditions that make selected works more interesting. Effective instruction has a bearing on the interest of students and their motivation to learning History; and also influences them to make critical judgment on historical issues, and understand current events in the appropriate historical context Noboa, (2013). Grant and Gradwell (2009) observed that ambitious teachers have a good depth of understanding regarding their subject matter and consciously seek ways of connecting the subject matter to students’ experiences. Effective History teaching thus, involves teaching in no single pattern, taking no single shape in teaching, and assessing students in no single fashion. Hence, History as a subject which is being taught in senior secondary schools is facing a lot of challenges in terms of scope and coverage. This study therefore examines teachers perception on the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools


1.2 Statement of Problem

The teaching of history in schools cannot be said to be without problems and challenges. Some studies (eg. Adeyinka, 1989; Cobbold & Oppong, 2010a; Ruto, 2013) highlight several factors that affect the teaching and learning of history. For instance, a study conducted by Adeyinka (1989) on the problems of history teaching in some Nigerian secondary schools revealed that lack of essential teaching aids was the most serious problem of history teaching as the majority 41 (56.9%) of respondents regarded it as a very serious problem, 22 (30.6%) as serious, and 5 (6.9%) as an average problem. Other problems revealed by the study were the absence of well-equipped libraries or history rooms, large classes, inadequate motivation of teachers, and students’ low standard of written English. Assessing the teaching and learning of history in the Central Region of Ghana, Cobbold & Oppong (2010a) found that recommended methods were not used by history teachers in teaching the subject, and even those used were not used appropriately. It was also revealed that instructional resources were not frequently used in history lessons because such resources were either not available at all or were inadequate. Also, the number of periods allocated for history on the school timetable was found to be inadequate for the entire syllabus to be covered. Students were also found to possess negative perceptions about the subject as they regarded history as a compendium of facts to be memorized.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine teachers perception on the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain the extent history is taught in secondary schools.
  2. Ascertain teachers perception on whether the teaching of history in secondary schools promotes moral principles values on the students.
  3. Find out the the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions are formulated inline with the study objectives;

  1. What is the extent history is taught in secondary schools?
  2. Does the teaching of history in secondary schools promotes moral principles values on the students?
  3. What are the the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The teaching of history in secondary schools does not promotes moral principles values on the student
  • Ha: The teaching of history in secondary schools promotes moral principles values on the student.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this research project will reveal to the teachers, students, and the government about the problems of using instructional materials. It will as well be of great significance owing to its quality and contribution.

The result of this research will also guide History teachers to effectively and efficiently use instructional materials and to know the causes of the problems of using these materials.

When these problems are tackled, it will help to stimulate the students’ mind and make them spirited, hence showing positive interest towards teaching and learning, if the materials are efficiently used.

Similarly, the result shall contribute as a source of material to researchers, educational administrators, and stakeholders and curriculum planners to update their knowledge of the causes and problems of using instructional materials.

The result of the study will also enlighten the teachers about the different problems encountered during the use of instructional materials in the process of teaching and learning of history.

The result of the study will also serve as a guide to other researchers who would wish to carry out research on a related aspect of the topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the teachers perception on the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools. However the study will be delimited to secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government, Enugu State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Challenges:

Something new and difficult that necessitates a lot of effort and determination.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on teachers perception on the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government, Enugu State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine teachers perception on the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools using selected secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government, Enugu State as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain the extent history is taught in secondary schools, ascertain teachers perception on whether the teaching of history in secondary schools promotes moral principles values on the students, and find out the the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were History teachers of some selected secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government, Enugu State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent history is taught in secondary schools is low.
  2. The teaching of history in secondary schools promotes moral principles values on the students.
  3. The the challenges of teaching history in secondary schools includes: lack of qualified teachers, lack of instructional aids, lack of Correlation between History and other subject, Misconceptions about History, and government policy.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends;

  1. Educational policies should be designed to draw more attention to History. The government should initiate 21st century policies at secondary school level and make it one of the core educational subjects.
  2. Principals, teachers and school administrators should give full support to the teaching and learning of History in their schools in order to foster a conducive ambience for effective teaching and learning of the subject.
  3. Teachers should be innovative by improving on teaching aids in order to convey effective content to students. Practical examples from the physical environment should be used during lessons in order to make the subject vivid and less abstract.
  4. Stake holders in education should provide the necessary human and material resources needed for teaching and learning of History in junior secondary school level.
  5. History producing universities and colleges of education should make History education program attractive so that more students can enroll to be trained as History teachers. This will help meet the demand for History teachers. Scholarship scheme for History can be initiated by Enugu state Government in order to attract students to History.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the challenges of history teaching and learning?

Teachers highlighted various challenges to history teaching and learning in their schools. These include shortage of teaching and learning materials, use of English as the medium of instruction, lack of professional development opportunities and examination oriented teaching.

What do teachers think about teaching and learning history in Tanzania?

Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that, teachers had positive perceptions regarding the rationale of teaching and learning history in secondary schools in Tanzania.

Why do teachers fail to teach history in schools?

This situation is attributed to lack of teacher professional development programs on new curriculum, lack of teaching and learning resources in schools (Makunja 2015; Paulo & Tilya, 2014). . . Students’ Learning of History The teachers were asked about ways used by students to learn history.

Do history teachers have negative perception about the SHS history syllabus?

This research is novel in the context of the country. Using the interpretive phenomenological case study approach, the study interviewed eight history teachers who participated in the study on their volition. Results from the analysed transcript revealed that History teachers have negative perception about the SHS history syllabus. 

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