Teachers Education Qualifications And Teaching Effectiveness In Business Studies In Selected Secondary Schools
This study was carried out on teachers education qualifications and teaching effectiveness in business studies using some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of business studies students and teachers of the selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and teaching effectiveness. The study also revealed that the available business study teachers does not possess the educational qualification required for effective teaching the subject. Further findings showed that educational qualities of teachers significantly influences students’ performance in business studies. Therefore, it is recommended that schools should place more emphasis on the development of teachers qualifications and quality through training, seminars and workshops in order to improve students’ performance. There should be room for motivation and reinforcement for teachers as a way of making sure that they are motivated for effective teaching and educational practices. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
In most countries as in Nigeria, curriculum is developed to meet the national goals and objectives in the various fields and stages of manpower needs and development. It is therefore pertinent to observe that the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system currently referred to as the 9-3-4 (9-Year Basic Education: Primary 1 to Junior Secondary 3; 3-Year Senior Secondary Education and 4-Year Tertiary Education) educational system in Nigeria had the goals and the operation of the system in line with the country’s national education goals as highlighted in the National Policy on Education. The Nigerian national educational goals which are derived from the country’s philosophy and goals include, “the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society” (Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), 2004).
In order to realize fully the potentials of the contributions of education to the achievement of the national educational goals, emphasis is placed on the broad goals of secondary education which aim at preparing individuals for “useful living within the society and for higher education” (FRN, 2004). More specifically, in the junior secondary the curriculum provides for both the academic and pre-vocational subjects. The focus of the secondary education at the junior level targets the realization of the following goals, “to offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles; to provide trained manpower in the applied sciences, technology and commerce at sub-professional grades, and to provide technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development” (FRN, 2004). These goal statements had guided the efforts toward the developing of new curricula for the junior secondary education in the pre-vocational electives which include, “Agriculture, Business Studies, Home Economics, Computer Education, Fine Arts and Music” (FRN, 2004).
Business Studies is taught as one of the basic subjects that will enable students acquire further skills which are common and fundamental to all personal and occupational activities (Inyang, 1998). Business activity affects the daily lives of all Nigerians as they work, spend, save, invest, travel and play. It influences jobs, incomes and opportunities for personal enterprise. Business has significant effect on the standard of living and quality of life of people, and on the environment in which they live and which future generations will inherit (Ekanem, 2008). Eventually, all students will encounter the world of business, whether they work in urban or rural areas. They must be prepared to engage in business activity with confidence and competence. Thus, business studies is that part of the curriculum which enables the student to make informed decisions in the everyday business of living, which contributes to the student’s understanding of the world of business, which encourages a positive attitude to enterprise and which develops appropriate skills in that field. The syllabus is balanced between the business education necessary for the individual/household area and business education in the purely commercial context. This balance is achieved by devoting separate syllabus sections to ‘the Business of Living’ and ‘Enterprise’.
However, a study by Adeogun (2001) in Nigeria found that the quality of any education system depends on the quality of teachers. Related literature indicates that the most important school based determining factor of students achievement is the teacher quality (Rockoff, 2004; Rivkin et al., 2005; Aaronson et al., 2007; Harris and Sass, 2008). Therefore, there is need to assess the characteristics of the secondary school teachers in terms of qualification, experience and teaching effectiveness in order to ensure quality of education given to the youths. According to Usman (2012), a qualified teacher can be defined as one who holds a teaching certificate and/or licensed by the state, owns at least a bachelor’s degree from a four-year institution and well qualified in his/her area of specialization. Moreover, Usman quotes the Pakistan Ministry of Education officials who described a qualified teacher as one who possesses knowledge of: the subject matter, human growth and development, ethical values, instructional planning and strategies, assessment, learning environment, communication and advocacy, collaboration and partnership, continuous professional development, code of conduct and skillful use of information communication technologies.
According to Adeyemi (2010), teachers play an important role in determining the students’ interest in any subject. According to Onwum (1981) teachers are expected to make business studies more relevant, enjoyable, easy and meaningful to students. Teacher effectiveness is vital to student performance (Darling Hammond, 2010), According to Darling Hammond, effective teachers have expanded topic knowledge, are capable of planning and delivering teaching, can better manage and evaluate classrooms, and encourage student learning more effectively. Other studies, such as Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor (2007), have advocated that successful teachers should employ innovative teaching strategies, pay more attention to student learning, and utilize assessment to modify their methods.
Moreover, based on the aforementioned statement, this study examined the relationship between the educational quantity of teachers and teaching effectiveness on student interest in business studies. Since teachers can make or mar the student interest in any subject; therefore, their adequacy and quality for better service delivery needs to be assessed on a regular basis, this research examines the relationship between teacher quality and teaching effectiveness on student interest in business studies.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite the recent outcry of interactive classroom environment as an effective enhancing strategy, business studies teachers do not give regard to it, and recent research reaffirms the importance of teachers’ effectiveness at all times, since an inept teacher is ineffective for the teaching profession. This inefficiency may be caused not only by teacher qualities such as intellectual ability, poor training, and opposition to current educational approaches, but also by a negative attitude toward the teaching profession and a lack of commitment to professional tasks (Hakielimu, 2008). in addition, the conventional, docile, passive and teacher centered approach is still been preferred also majority of the business studies teachers are said to be unqualified educationally to teach the subject as many only studied related courses in the higher institution while some does not obtain there B.sc in the faculty/ college of education.
This in no small measure has led to the continuing dwindling interest and performance of students in the subject. Business studies teacher must therefore employ interactive classroom environment in teaching the subject. Hence, this study sought to find out the extent to which educational qualification and teaching effectiveness can enhance the interest of students in business studies.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to examine teachers education qualifications and teaching effectiveness in business studies.
Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Find out if there is any significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and teaching effectiveness.
- Discover whether available business study teachers possesses the educational qualification required for teaching the subject.
- Ascertain whether educational qualities of teachers significantly influences students’ performance in business studies.
- Investigate whether teachers effectiveness influences students academic performance. in Business studies.
- Identify the factors influencing teachers effectiveness in teaching business studies.
1.4 Research Question
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- Is there any significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and teaching effectiveness?
- Does the available business study teachers possess the educational qualification required for effective teaching the subject?
- Does educational qualities of teachers significantly influence students’ performance in business studies?
- Does teachers effectiveness influence students’ academic performance in business studies.
- What are the factors influencing teachers effectiveness in teaching business studies?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- H01: There is no significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and students academic performance in business studies.
- H02: There is no significant relationship between teaching effectiveness and students academic performance in business studies.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the research work will be of help to teachers, students, school management and educational planners as well as the entire society. It will guide the school management on what qualities and qualifications to look for in recruiting facilitators. It will also give teachers an insight into what is expected of them. Also, these findings can be used to guide educational planners about the need for qualified business study teachers to facilitate effective teaching and learning in secondary schools.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study borders on teachers education qualifications and teaching effectiveness in business studies. The study further seek to determine the relationship between teachers educational qualification and teaching effectiveness, and the factors influencing teachers effectiveness in teaching business studies. The respondent for this study will be obtained from some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
his research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.9 Definition of Terms
This refers to a means through which prospective teachers are trained to teach.
This refers to the level of academic achievement of a teacher beginning from the level of teachers training to the level of in-service training.
According to the oxford advanced learner dictionary (2006:469). The term effectiveness refers to produce the result that is wanted or intended, producing successful result
According to Weimer (2013:4) teacher effectiveness refers to the process of cultivating skills, stimulate interest in the subject, motivate student to learn, present material well, make subject interesting, helpful and knowledgeable, intellectual challenging, setting high standard and encourage self-initiated learning.
This refers to the ability and capacity of the student to achieve an educational aim.
1.10 Organisations of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on teachers education qualifications and teaching effectiveness in business studies using some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on teachers education qualifications and teaching effectiveness in business studies using some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out if there is any significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and teaching effectiveness, discover whether available business study teachers possesses the educational qualification required for teaching the subject, ascertain whether educational qualities of teachers significantly influences students’ performance in business studies, investigate whether teachers effectiveness influences students academic performance in business studies, and identify the factors influencing teachers effectiveness in teaching business studies.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are business studies students and teachers of the selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- There is a significant relationship between teachers educational qualification and teaching effectiveness.
- The available business study teachers does not possess the educational qualification required for effective teaching the subject.
- Educational qualities of teachers significantly influences students’ performance in business studies.
- Teachers effectiveness influences students’ academic performance in business studies.
- The factors that influences teachers effectiveness in primary schools include; low intellectual capacity, inadequate training, resistance to modern pedagogical methods, negative attitude toward the teaching profession, lack of dedication to professional duties, lack of appropriate teaching and learning tools, and over crowded class room.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Schools should place more emphasis on the development of teachers qualifications and quality through training, seminars and workshops in order to improve students’ performance.
- There should be room for motivation and reinforcement for teachers as a way of making sure that they are motivated for effective teaching and educational practices.
- Teachers should provide adequate academic information to their pupils while also emphasizing the importance of knowledge in their practical lives as responsible individuals.
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