An Assessment Of The Impact Of Quality Assurance Measures On Teachers’ Job Performance In Secondary School
This study was carried out to examine on the assessment of the impact of quality assurance measures on teachers’ job performance in secondary school using some selected public secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State as a case study. The study was set to ascertain whether quality assurance plays a significant role in enhancing teachers performance in public secondary schools, find out the extent quality assurance measures are carried out in public secondary schools, ascertain the quality assurance measures which significant influences teachers performance in public secondary schools and asses the factors affecting effective quality assurance practices in public secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students and teachers of some selected public secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that quality assurance plays a significant role in enhancing teachers performance in public secondary schools. Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the factors affecting effective quality assurance practices in public secondary schools includes: principal’s incompetence, lack of teachers corporation, unavailability of school facilities, hostility & violence. Therefore, it is recommended that principals should ensure quality assurance mechanisms in schools to support staff readiness in administering academic instructions. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
In a school system, the teacher performs a wide range of roles which relate to teaching and administration. Teachers are the largest professional body in a school, they have the most contact with students for most of the school hours and influence the environment of the school greatly. The teacher is also the most important personage in the school who can help in modifying the children’s personalities and help in the development of individual pupil’s talent. Sharma (2009) found out that the emotionally stable teachers exercise a beneficial effect upon their pupils, thus the teacher is the most powerful source of stimulation for the child. Olayiwola (2011) also agreed to this when he mentioned that teachers are the very vital group of professionals for our nation’s future. The teachers’work, to a very great extent determines the degree of success or otherwise in achieving institution’s goal. The teacher is noted for the means through which the subject matter is presented to the students.
Performance can be regarded as any behaviour directed toward the task or goal accomplishment. In the opinion of Okunola (1990), performance is an act of accomplishing specific task. It could also be explained as the capability to combine skillfully the right behaviour towards the attainment of organizational goals and objectives (Olaniyan, 1999). Job performance refers to the extent to which each personnel executes the expected roles with reference to identified standards set by the organization (Nayyar, 1994). In the same light, Adeyemi (2008) also opined that job performance is ascertained by the worker’s level of contribution in the day to day administration of the organization. Akinyemi (1993) and Okeniyi (1995) describe teacher’s job performance as the ability of teaching personnel to combine appropriate inputs for the improvement of teaching and learning processes.
The school heads have the power to influence teachers’ morale in their schools by actions or daily practices they exhibit (Filak& Sheldon (2003). Often teachers felt they are not treated as professionals, not appreciated or overworked(large classes to teach and administrative work) thus causing low teacher morale and low job performance. Teachers low emolument (when compared to other public workers), irregular promotion, public impression of the teaching job, principal leadership strategies, insufficient teaching-learning facilities and supervision, lack of infrastructure, among others, depressed the morale of teachers. Therefore, lack of motivation of teachers, the level of job satisfaction and commitment may become low, the parental care expected of teachers to discharge on the students is no longer discharged and the goals and objectives of the school may not be accomplished (Fadipe, 2003).
Quality assurance in education is an issue that has received considerable attention as indicated in the works of scholars such as Bogler (2001), Cohen (2006), and Cooper (2003). Quality is a means of determing what is needed to change in order to make sure that the needs of the service users are adequately met. The need to improve performance, productivity and minimize wastage eventually has led to a modern but broader organization-wide approach to quality, quite different from the old view of quality control to quality assurance. Quality assurance is a set of procedures that every organization should undertakes to guarantee that standards are defined and attained consistently for a particular product or service. It is a concept covering a host of academic activities, such as school’s instructional supervision, discipline, availability and utilization of instructional materials, infrastructure, and finance which are meant to improve the quality of resource input, process and output of the school system. For example, the quality of outputs can be determined by how well the graduates are being processed to serve the public and for meeting the emerging challenges facing the world of work. It has been noted by education stakeholders in Nigeria that the education industry from primary to tertiary levels is riddled with myriad of problems, these include poor academic achievement of students, examination malpractices and poor attitude of teaching personnel to work.
This study intends to assess the influence of four of these activities namely principal leadership style, instruction supervision, instructional materials and school climate on the job performance of teachers in secondary schools. Educational facilities are the indispensable resources which must be available so that the goals of school can be achieved. That is, the availability of these resources determines the quality of classroom instruction and job performance of both teachers and school pupils. Olagboye (1998) refers to school physical facilities as school plant which includes buildings, equipment, machinery, vehicles, electrical and water supply. Fadipe (1998) also agrees “that school plant are the non- consumable materials in the school for the promotion of teachinglearning activities”. From the definitions given, it is very clear that school facilities cover all infrastructural facilities required for the survival of the school system and which ultimately results in successful teaching-learning outcomes. Sadly, these facilities are neither quantitatively nor evenly distributed among secondary schools in developing countries like Nigeria and this has led to variations in the academic performance of students in examinations. Olagboye (1998) revealed that many secondary schools in the country (Nigeria) were yet to install their introductory technology equipments and machines almost a decade after they were supplied by the Federal Government due to lack of electricity supply. Edem (1982) while commenting on the importance of facilities like school libraries, emphasized that the contribution of a school library to effective teaching and learning is an inseparable part of instruction; it serves as a reading centre as well as a repository of information for both teachers and students. He further states that “inadequacy in the provision of these facilities may constitute a source of frustration and disillusionment among teachers which may result in poor teaching, poor learning and poor achievement in school”.
A well- planned school plant will not only enhance good teaching practices but will also facilitate effective learning, while badly planned physical plant will hinder good teachingpractices. Mgbodile (1986) also remarks that these facilities are of great functional value in teaching. Studies have shown that school climate that is safe, supportive, engaging and helpfully challenging schools are connected with desirable youth development, more effective risk prevention/health promotion efforts, increased academic achievement, fewer disciplinary incidents, lower dropout rates, enhances teachers’ retention and subsequently increases teachers job performance. (LFA, 2001; Cohen et al., 2009; Fessy, 2002; Cohen, 2006). If a school climate is conducive, people are likely to feel socially, emotionally and physically safe; students, educators and the public work together to contribute to the operations of the school system. If school climate is otherwise, i.e., unhealthy and unsafe, there is likelihood of increase in indiscipline incidences of violence, high dropout rate, low academic achievement, low teacher morale and high teacher attrition rate and many more negative effects on the school. Educational supervision according to Ogunjide (2002) is a process of assisting and over-seeing the educational system for the improvement of teaching-learning processes. It is also a way of advising, guiding, encouraging and improving people with the aim of getting their cooperation towards successful learning outcomes. For anything to be regarded as qualitative in schools so that standard of education in secondary schools is improved, school or instructional supervision must be given high priority. Through supervision classroom instruction is improved because teachers are made more competent and efficient, the students are motivated to work harder, the required standard is achieved and the goal of education is achieved (Tuoyo, 2000).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is a growing concern of the society about the realization of secondary education objectives due to doubt that there have been steady decline in teachers’ instructional task performance and students’ academic performance which depicts non-realization of quality assurance in secondary schools. The Anambra State Government through seminars has designed methods of assessing quality of instructions by taking entry behavior and achievement examination of students most especially JSS1 and SS1. The entry behavior examination is conducted late in November, firstterm in all schools while the achievement examination is conducted in the month of July the following year. This is done to assess students’ comprehension and mastery of the skills acquired thus; the new quality assurance process required the principals, vice-principals and teachers to accept some responsibilities for the qualities of education provided. This will also be achieved by developing the notion of the whole school supervision and inspection where self-evaluation processes and school development planning play integral part in quality assurance scheme. Therefore, without quality assurance measures and sustenance in secondary education, none of these groups can work effectively towards the achievement of the goals. Thus, quality assurance is of the utmost importance for the realization of quality education and attainment of education objectives.
In an ideal situation, teachers are expected to discharge their duties with a high level of effectiveness in order to facilitate the accomplishment of school goals and objectives. The primary duty of every secondary school teacher is to modify learners’ behavior so that they can become useful to themselves and society in general. Unfortunately, it seems that many teachers have been found to be ineffectual in their job performance as displayed in their poor attitude to work, poor record keeping habit, not punctual to school, irregular attendance in classes, giving off notes to students, not marking the attendance register regularly and several other unacceptable behaviors which cannot contribute to the achievement of set goals and objectives of the school system. These have been an issue of concern with the government and all relevant stakeholders making efforts to cushion this problem. The Government, in an effort to address this situation, has intensified supervision of secondary schools, increase teachers’ salary and improved teachers’ training in recent times through capacity building in Anambra State. Despite all these measures applied by the government, public secondary school teachers, especially in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State, seem to perform below anticipation in their instructional roles. Students generally still seem to perform poorly in the classroom and standardized examinations such as WAEC, NECO, GCE, JAMB etc. and there are cases of indiscipline among students in the area. This means that teachers seem not to perform their jobs creditably because it is believed that when teachers performed well, students do better and vice versa. However, teachers may perform their jobs effectively in the school system if appropriate measures are put in place to improve their performance and direct their actions. Given the significance of quality assurance measures to the effective performance of teachers in a school system, it has become necessary to raise the question: What impact does quality assurance measures have on teachers’ job performance in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State? This therefore prompted the researchers to examine the influence of quality assurance measures on teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the impact of quality assurance measures on teachers’ job performance in secondary school. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Ascertain whether quality assurance plays a significant role in enhancing teachers performance in public secondary schools.
- Find out the extent quality assurance measures are carried out in public secondary schools.
- Ascertain the quality assurance measures which significant influences teachers performance in public secondary schools.
- Asses the factors affecting effective quality assurance practices in public secondary schools.
1.4 Research Question
- Does quality assurance play a significant role in enhancing teachers performance in public secondary schools?
- What extent are quality assurance measures carried out in public secondary schools?
- What are the quality assurance measures which significant influences teachers performance in public secondary schools?
- What are the factors affecting effective quality assurance practices in public secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between quality assurance and teachers performance in public secondary schools.
- Ha: There is no significant relationship between quality assurance and teachers performance in public secondary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this research is that it may help to identify quality assurance and teacher job performance in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State. This study may help to improve the teacher’s performance by motivational factors in order to enhance the educational system.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is structured to generally examine the impact of quality assurance measures on teachers’ job performance in secondary school. Thus, the study will be delimited to some selected public secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Is the worth or tone of a school as determined by the inputs, processes and outputs related to the corporate goals.
Is the means by which educational institutions as private secondary schools can guarantee with confidence and certainty that the standards and quality of its educational provisions or services they offer are being maintained and enhanced to meet the accepted quality standards.
Teacher Job Performance:
Performance refers to an act of accomplishing or executing a given task developed the theory of job performance in his ‘X’ and ‘Y’ theories.
1.10 Organizations of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of the impact of quality assurance measures on teachers’ job performance in secondary school using some selected public secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was the assessment of the impact of quality assurance measures on teachers’ job performance in secondary school using some selected public secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State as a case study. The study was specifically set toascertain whether quality assurance plays a significant role in enhancing teachers performance in public secondary schools, find out the extent quality assurance measures are carried out in public secondary schools, ascertain the quality assurance measures which significant influences teachers performance in public secondary schools and asses the factors affecting effective quality assurance practices in public secondary schools.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent arestudents and teachers of some selected public secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- Quality assurance plays a significant role in enhancing teachers performance in public secondary schools.
- The extent of quality assurance measures carried out in public secondary schools is high.
- The quality assurance measures which significant influences teachers performance in public secondary schools includes: efficient management, monitoring, supervision, assessment and quality control.
- The factors affecting effective quality assurance practices in public secondary schools includes: principal’s incompetence, lack of teachers corporation, unavailability of school facilities, hostility & violence.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Principals should ensure quality assurance mechanisms in schools to support staff readiness in administering academic instructions.
- Principals should ensure a regulatory mechanism on accountability and improvement in the education industry for staff and students’ productivity
- Principals should ensure functional guidance and counseling units in schools to help staff and students do what is right in the school system.
- Principals should maintain high standards of discipline among staff to promote academic growth in students
- Secondary school principals should endeavour to motivate teaching staff with outstanding performances monetarily or non-monetarily. This would help to increase their momentum on administrative and academic functions.
- There is every need for school principals to be involved in organizing in-house workshops for teaching staff frequently to improve their functional performance.
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