Taxation As The Significant Tool For Economic Development (The Study Of Internal Revenue Service, Uyo)

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Taxation As The Significant Tool For Economic Development (The Study Of Internal Revenue Service, Uyo)


Abstract


This research work examine as a significant tool for economic development. It concludes that a tax has played an important role in the economic development of a state. Tax policy has not been effective in enhancing social development in terms of distributing social income or encouraging social desirably activities. The relationship between taxation and the economic development is perhaps not as obvious. A case can be made that tax policy has had a positive impact on the development of the state. Data for this study were collected through questionnaire on 45 respondents drawn from internal revenue service, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The researcher questions were raised and the hypothesis was tested through the use of correlation analysis. The result of the research study shows that taxations has a significant contribution on economic development of a state and citizens are liable taxes because there is nothing free.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Historical background of the study
  • 1.3 Statement of the problems
  • 1.4 Objectives of the study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Statement of the hypothesis
  • 1.7 Significance of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Scope of the study
  • 1.10 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 introduction
  • 2.2 the meaning and concept of taxes
  • 2.3 principle of taxation
  • 2.4 taxes are divided into two broad types
  • 2.5 qualities of good tax system
  • 2.6 the effects of taxation
  • 2.7 characteristic of tax system on the economic development
  • 2.8 appraisal of taxation
  • 2.9 factors enhancing smooth collection and payment of tax in Nigeria
  • 2.10 the economic effects of taxation in Nigeria
  • 2.11 the role of taxation as they affects the development of Nigeria’s economy METHODOLOGY
  • 3.1 Introduction

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.2 Area of the study
  • 3.3 population of the study
  • 3.4 sample sixe and sampling techniques
  • 3.5 data collection
  • 3.6 administration of the instrument
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Decision rule

Chapter Four

Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Findings

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 data presentation and analysis
  • 4.3 testing of hypothesis
  • 4.4 discussion of findings

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Taxation is an important tool to meet the needs of the people of resource producing state. It is a major national issue in most countries and is often problematic in its imposition, administration and usages. It’s nature contrast with its obvious benefits to society.

The introduction of taxation could be traced back to ancient days when kings levied their subject to provide for the benefit of the people.

In Nigeria, the imposition of tax is traced right from the colonial government when Lord Fredrick Lugard introduced tax to people in order to generate revenue to run his administration. It is reported that his policy of taxation was not accepted by the citizens and these subsequently led to riot in 1929.

Government, though its agent have come to play the larger role in controlling our national economy. She has to
Consider the aspect in which taxes helps in achieving her economic goals.

Taxation has been introduced to enable the government generate revenue to implement certain function for the citizens of the country. This functions of taxation in Nigeria include wealth redistribution, economic growth, employment generation, price stability and etc.

Taxation in ancient period and in present time has been used to bring improvement in finance of the country. The tax collected has been used as revenue to the government.

Also, taxation has helped to discourage the consumption of certain goods and service. It helped to bring government planning into implementation because it generate revenue, allow for investment in certain areas, like foreign goods and encourage agriculture and industries. Consequently, for some infant industries, there is a period of tax holiday which could last for five years to enable such industries or company nature


1.2 Historical Background Of The Study

Historically, internal revenue service was a department of ministry of Finance before the civil war in 1960. It was called as at then ”Revenue Department”, after the civil war in 1970, the name was changed to South Eastern State Board of Internal Revenue Service, according to South Eastern State Edict No.8 of 1969. The South Eastern State was changed to Cross River state Law Cap. 45. This gave birth to the state Board of Internal Revenue Services, the legal backing to administer personal income tax.

But on creation of Akwa Ibom State but in 1987, the State established its own Board of internal Revenue Service from the Cross River State Cap 45 as applicable here in. this law prevailed until the promulgation of personal income tax decree 104 of 1993 (Now Act 104, 1993). The functions were collection of pay As you Earn Tax (PAYA).
Direct Assessment Tax, collection of Tax example: pool betting, fines, registration and renewed of motor vehicle licenses, driver’s licenses, sales of badges and plate numbers, collection of other taxes and revenue that belongs to the State.

However, internal Revenue Service is the engine room, generating money for the Government of Akwa Ibom State. Its directorate work to make sure that all tax payers defaulters are prosecuted. Gives and stamp duties are general for state.

In the area of manpower, as at year 2008, the total staff strength was 850, which was not still enough, with recent developments in generation of funds for the state government.

Funds is needed because data collection, compilation and regression method of statistical analysis needs more fund to go and obtain for accurate and regular publication in which a standby vehicle is necessary to meet the current demands of taxation.


1.3 Statement Of The Problem

The problem that prompt this research is that some of the tax payers do not know that taxation is a significant tool for economic development, and as such the tax payers tends to be evade and avoid taxes.

And so, this research intends to disclose the significant of paying taxes to answer the question of evasion which will allow for economic development.


1.4 Objectives Of The Study

The objective of this study includes the following:

  1. To determine the significance of taxation in an economy.
  2. To assess the contribution of taxes towards the state economic growth and development.
  3. To identify the problems (if any) associated with tax implementation and
  4. To make recommendations based on research findings.

1.5 Research Questions

The following constitute the research questions for this study:

  1. Does taxations play any significance role in economic development?
  2. To what extent does the Government utilized revenue derived for the development of the economy?
  3. What are the problems associated with tax collection in the country?
  4. What steps has the Government taken to arrest the problems of tax evasion in the country?

1.6 Statement Of The Hypothesis

  • Hi -taxation has significance contribution on economic development of a State.
  • Ho -taxation does not have any significance contribution on economic development of a State.

1.7 Significance Of The Study

This study would be of value in the following ways:

  1. It will be a source of reverence materials to subsequent researcher in this field.
  2. It will enlighten the tax payers of the importance of the paying.
  3. It will broaden the researcher’s scope on the theory of taxation.
  4. The result of this research will help the aggrieved tax payer to know how his/her quota is being used.
  5. The findings and recommendations of this study will assist the Board of Internal Revenue (BIR) in developing and improving upon their tax machineries and policies.

1.8 Limitation Of The Study

In the course of carrying out this research work, there were a lot of factors which acted in opposite directions towards the completion of this research work.

The following setbacks were encountered be the researcher:

  1. Inaccessibility of relevant materials in the school library and other library.
  2. Difficult in collecting Data.
  3. Insufficient time for the research work as the result of short academic calendar.
  4. Lack of sufficient fund in conducting the research process.

1.9 Scope Of The Study

The scope of the study refers to the whole country because of logistics and financial constraint, the researcher therefore restrict her scope to Internal Revenue Service, Uyo, and despite other tools for economic development, for the purpose of this research the scope of this study is restricted to ”TAXATION”.


1.10 Definition Of Terms

There were many terms used in this write up which need to be defined to avoid doubt in the mine of the readers. the following terms are defined as they reflect their application in this study.

Tax:

It is a levy imposed by the Government against the income, profits or wealth of the individuals, partnership and corporate ‘organization. (Tabansi, 2001).

Taxation:

Is the process or machinery by which committees, group of persons of individuals are made to contribute part of their income in some agreed rate and methods for purpose of administration and development of the society. (Okorle Onovo, 2007).

Economic Development:

According to Agu (2000), is the process whereby the level of national production (that is national income) or per capital income increase over a period of time.

Income Tax:

According to Okerie Onovo (2007), it is a tax levied on the income of an individual.

Tax Evasion:

Is a deliberate act of a tax payer to escape tax either by running away from collectors or under-declaring his/her income, omission or misstatement of items from returns. this act is illegal and is punishable if discovered (Tabansi, 2001).

Tax Avoidance:

This is generally considered as a way of identifying the loop-hole in the tax law and then taking advantage of such a loop-hole to reduced the tax payable. (Tabansi, 2001).

Tax Payer:

It refers to employer or labour, Government Ministry and department, parastatals, statutory bodies, institutions and other established organization approved for the operation.

Board:

This refers to the bodies which is authorized and empowered by law for the responsibility of the collection of taxes, they are sub-head quarter offices located at all the Local Government Area in the country.(Wikipedia, 2007).

Tax Administration:

Cater (2000) defines it as the management of human and material resources to bring about efficient, fair and effective tax assessment, collection and accountability so as to achieved other economic socio-political objectives of the Government.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter is devoted to brief summary of work carried out fellow it conclusion and recommendation that would enable the citizen to know the importance of taxation and the internal revenue service, Uyo to improve on tax administration.


5.2 Summary

The summary is for quick understanding of the main point raised in the research project. From the various literature review, it is generally accepted that tax is a compulsory payment imposed by the Government on the people within its territory, it also a contribution to defray the country in terms of provision of goods and social services, such as Hospital, School, public utility services etc.

It is also clear that tax is not levied in return for any specific services rendered by the Government to the tax payers, hence a tax payer cannot claim for something equivalent to the tax paid.

One of the objective of this research work was to determine the significant of taxation in the economy and of course, to identify the problems associated with the administration.

From the research, the researcher observed that the role of taxation has they affect the development of Nigeria’s economy to include revenue generation, production and control of the consumption of certain goods, redistribution of the nation wealth stabilization of the national economy.

Taxes helps Government pays roads construction, environmental protection and control, Health care for people that need it and help pay for many function of the Government that citizen use and need.

Finally, Government should tax money for the most important necessities and not over tax individual because the economy is hurting.


5.3 Conclusion

You might be wondering why we have to pay taxes to the Government, when it has the power to issues as much money has it needs. What are the uses of our taxes for them?

Well, while the Government may seems to have a bottomless reserved of money, it actually need a good and stable financial resources to manage a whole nation. The revenue from the domestic taxes provides this, without it, the services offer to all citizens could not effectively managed.

The Government uses the revenue to public health care, social security, national defense, free elementary education, public housing and may other social services. The taxes we pay fuel our society, supporting all our needs including police protection, fire emergency services, garbage services, etc. Thus, as a responsibility, we should pay our dues to the Government.


5.4 Recommendation

In other for tax to be effective, they should be seriousness on the part of Government in handling tax matters / issues. A lot of people should be educated in terms of taxation.

The Government and the internal revenue service should undertake a comprehensive mass education on the need for tax payment. Tax payer should be made to understand that payment of tax is a civil responsibility.

Apart from mass education on the need for the payment they should be a periodic workshop and seminar to improve staff productivity and there should be some in service training for staff to acquired the specialized skills for the man power needs of the board of internal revenue service.

There should be adequate statutory protection given tax authorities, also the should be empower to arrest defrauders and necessary to expound properties in settlement of tax liabilities.

Finally, social and economic services should be provided to the citizens at the rural areas such as good road network, Electricity, pipe borne water and schools so that they will see the need to pay their taxes. This will give the inhabitant as interest in proper usage of their taxes.


Taxation As The Significant Tool For Economic Development (The Study Of Internal Revenue Service, Uyo)


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