Taxation As A Major Source To Government Funding

Project and Seminar Topics with material for Banking and Finance

Taxation As A Major Source To Government Funding


Abstract


Taxation as a major source to Government funding has been chosen as a topic for this research work because of the incessant an inevitable reduction in the growth of the economy which has it’s resources and finance from tax.
Like the individual make money to solve their unlimited needs, the Government too generated revenue for the executive of her project and provision of essential infrastructures that maker life worth living, like building of roads, schools, bridges, provision of sound education, provision of pipe borne water, defence and others.

This not withstanding there are still some degenerating problems encountered in the assessment and collection of tax in Enugu State. This is a result of inefficient tax administrative machinery, which had led to poor compliance by the taxable citizens of the State.

Based on this development, faster steps had to be taken to keep the flag of tax collection in Enugu State flying as tax is the life and brain wire of every economy.

Now that taxation is the surest and most viable source of fund its therefore necessary to re-associate all the available tax sources. This study touches all those strategic points and radial solutions so as to collect more tax for the state to maintain the ego of a major source of fund for the government.


Preface


This research work of Tax as a major sources of Government Funding /Case study of Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue is carefully prepared to highlight and to review some strategic points towards creating more strength into the assessment and collection of Tax in Enugu State.

Tax is the oldest form of revenue and a major source of revenue for the Government. As a result of this, radical decisions and recommendation has also be given in this study to solve some inherent problems encountered in tax collection, like training of staff, providing adequate working material for tax assessment and collection. Incentives to workers disciplinary measures for tax evaders and organizing seminars and workshop on tax collection.

After going through this work one can easily ascertain comparable figures from other revenues and from tax as to prove authenticity of the project topic Tax as a major source to government funding.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Taxation is a major instrument for the conduct of public policy. This is true for both developed and developing countries. Taxation is known to accomplish a number of objectives revenue generation for government, economic stabilization and income re-distribution. Taxation as an instrument of public policy is essentially concerned with the manipulation of financial operations of both the government anti private sectors with a view of furthering certain economic objectives.

In Nigeria these economic objectives includes the attainment of appreciable level of full employment, avoidance of excessive inflation, achievement of satisfactory balance of payment position. Appreciable increase in the national income and a reduction of extreme inequality among the citizens, provision of other essential necessities of life like water, school building of bridges roads and others.

The question now arises, How does the finding of these activities come about? The government can only discharge these duties by generating enough revenue to provide enough finance for the accomplishment of these tasks ahead and the Board of Internal Revenue is by law charged with the responsibility for assessing, collection and accounting of all taxes in Enugu State.

The government to the individual and payable to the economic and social responsibilities define taxation as a compulsory levy. In Simon’s income tax (1852) Lord Maccnaghten quoted “ Income tax is a on income. Its not meant to be tax on anything else”. Dalton (1954:23) defined tax as a compulsory contribution imposed by a public authority irrespective of service rendered in return. Income tax law and practice by Njokamma. CA. Defined income tax as a creative of statute. In interpreting its provisions. “ No equity, no intendment” or anything else should be implied. The clean terms of the law should be applied but no necessarily restricted against the revenue.
Nevertheless tax is not the only sources of government revenue other sources include.

  • Fines and fees
  • Motor licensing fees
  • Rent on government quotas
  • Interest and depayments
  • Dividends and Royalties on government
  • Share holdings
  • Miscellaneous

State share of federal government disbursement.

  • Loans and grants
  • School fees
  • Hospital fees

Revenue from government parastatals likes the water co- operation department.

The private sector is not left out in the fund generation do their own fund comes inform of borrowing private savings etc

The absence of well-organized and locally controlled money markets for borrowing has faced private sectors in most developing countries especially Nigeria to rely primarily on fiscal measures to mobilize domestic monetary resources for fund generation. For instance if profits of taxation, the marginal efficiency of investment will decline and consequently a fall in investment is observed. On the other hand if profit of investment are increased through low tax rate the marginal efficiency of investment will in investment is observed.

However Duke Man (1962 P .462) said that for an effective tax system that encourages investment, has to some extent be based on high rates, a fact peculiar with the paradox of investment stimulating taxation, and as well discrimination, so long as it is significantly qualitative and psychologically substantial. This suggestion may not augur well for investment activity where retained profits and savings form the buck of capital formation.
Realizing the importance to finance as the train wires of economic growth the government initiates financial policies through annual budgets and tax laws to fund and provide necessary extension services for these business enterprises and also through several government financial policy, ensures adequate financing of small scale enterprise.

We are now convinced that of all these source of revenue by government that tax contributes the largest proportion. With charges in these considerations above attention have been focused on the fiscal policy best suited to the economic development of the country. As part of the search for desirable fiscal policies high consideration is placed on the value of goods and services payable by the final consumers. The collections of this tax are accountable to the federal government by the federal wand Revenue, while a reasonable percentage is given to the state where VAT is collected from.

Nevertheless the implementation of various government measures the their effects are most times, at variance with the objectives of government. Some of the revenue collection agencies are either ill equipped to carry out their functions effectively or equipped with personal of dubious character who trust laudable objectives of the government. Most tax papers don’t pay willingly, some take laws into their hands to either evade or avoid tax wile others collide with some tax official as well as employ the services of tax experts to explore the tax loophole. As a result of such ill activities towards taxation there is always a short fall in the government-projected revenue.
In view of the importance to taxation as a principle source to government funding as well as a powerful instrument in the conduct of public policies. This study is aimed at exploring all avenues of tax collection in Enugu State and the performance of the Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue to keep the flag flying in support of the topic to the study that taxation is a major source of government funding.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Tax constitutes the greater percentage of internally generated revenue in Enugu State and as well the major source of fund for the government financing its activities,. Tax however has its fundamental problems in the area of Administration and management.

There is deficit in planning, control and Adequate information flow of Tax collection generally. Since the government financial policy and objectives is to ensure adequate fund and conducive environment for the people’s satisfaction through progressive taxation and other fiscal measures designed to end the rapid growth and development of the society for the benefit of the citizenry.

It is therefore necessary that these avenues of fund are solidified. But on the other way round the implementation of the government taxation policy and the realization of the taxation goal most a times run at variance with the policy outlined in the annual budget as well as the tax laws provisions. Many individuals as well as organization see taxation policy as being harsh and unfavourable. They argue that while few enterprises especially large company continues to benefit from the government support through grants, Subsidies and other tax incentives. Others find the policies unbearable as a result any little opportunity by such people to evade or avoid tax is highly utilized.

The results of all these tax evasion and avoidance are that less revenue that envisage is collected through tax by the government and thereby less social amentias than proposed are carried out.

These problem will be solved as soon as an efficient machinery is set in motion for effective administration and review of state tax laws if made or amended.


1.3 Purpose / Objectives of the Study.

The objectives of the study is finding way of making the tax system effective and putting up measure that will help the government realize adequate fund for its developmental activities.

Other objectives are

  1. To discuss and analyze the taxes being administered and Eungu state.
  2. To ascertain the total value of taxes collected during the period year by year.
  3. To determine other sources from which the Enugu State Government can generate more tax revenue.
  4. To ascertain other sources of the government revenue improve on them.
  5. To make suggestions on ways of increasing the total revenue of the state government both tax and other sources of revenue to the Government.

To really achieve these objectives efforts will be made to:

  1. Identify all the problems militating against effective tax assessment activities.
  2. Analyze the problems and execute the suggested solutions
  3. Suggest implementation strategies with a view to assisting the management in carrying out government policies and programmes.
  4. Bring the problem to the focal eyes of the department and government.
  5. Sensitizes the government and create the awareness on the people with abysmal attitude towards tax payment and its consequence on the economic and social development of the state.

1.4 Research Hypothesis

  1. H0: Tax is not the major source of Government funding
    H1: Tax is the major source of government funding
  2. H0: There is no significant relationship between tax revenue generated by the state.
    H1: There is significant relationship between tax revenue and total revenue generated by the state.
  3. H0: Tax Administration system in Enugu state is not efficient and there is mismanagement.
    H1: Tax Administration system in Enugu State is efficient and there is proper management.
  4. H0: Nigeria government does not adequately accomplishes her taxation problems.
    H1: Nigerian government adequately accomplishes her taxation problems.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will help to evaluate the tax revenue generated and assess the tax collection machinery set in motion in Enugu State. It will also help to evaluate the tax and the government is exploiting other revenue source available to the state and how these source.

This study if properly utilized will enable the Board of Internal Revenue and the State Government to know the problems effecting tax assessment and collection in the state.

The study will also reveal how far the tax policies in Enugu State are being implemented furthermore strategies on improving on the revenues generation has mapped out for the provision of infrastructure. As a result of this, there will be high standard of living for the tax papers of the state.

Finally it is meant to enlighten the citizen of the state to know the objectives of tax and thereby reducing tax evasion and avoidance.


1.6 Limitation of the Study

Some circumstance beyond human control has brought some distraction research work, some of these inevitable circumstance are:

a. Education System:

Abnormalities surrounding the educational system in Nigeria in which Enugu State is not an exception.

b. Limitation of Time:

The limited number of months given for this research to done is less than 3 three months and normally this is to be done more than this time. The research work is combined with other academic activities in school. All these limiting factors had not allowed a thorough research work to be carried on effectively.

c. Financial Problem:

Another problem the researcher faced was financial constraints and this limited the work. The high expenses incurred in gathering these materials, photocopying of essential material, typing of document etc. visitation where applicable.

d. Lack of Cooperation:

Finally, is lack of cooperation with the researcher encountered by the Board not being very active in he release of adequate information. while some staffs were not willing to give out necessary data (Figures) either by ignorance or fear of exposure of such vital information.


1.7 Delimitation of the Study

This research work is supposed to have covered the tax administration and its revenue generation system and the comparison with other sources of government revenue in Nigeria. Some tax administrated by the Federal Government like Company income tax, petroleum profit tax, capital gain tax, capital transfer tax could have been involved in this research.

Due to the limit time constraint, shortage of information supply and financial constraints, the study cannot be extended to these major parts and has therefore been limited to the administration of tax as applicable in Enugu State Government.


1.8 Historical Background of Board of Internal Revenue Enugu State.

The present day Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue would like most government agencies traced its orgin to when the colonialist established their government in Nigeria. The needs for government to generate revenue to enable her execute her programmes brought about the Division of the Ministry the Independence in 1060. And because of the expending responsibility, that the Board of Internal Revenue was established as an autonomous government agency, charged with the sole responsibility of the tax assessment and collection within their jurisdiction in the then Eastern State of Nigeria. Therefore the present day Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue has metamorphosed through various governments such as Eastern Nigeria, East Central State of Nigeria, Anambra State Board of Internal Revenue now the most prominent and the highest revenue generator of all the extra ministerial departments in Enugu State.

The government of any nation, State or local government formulated and implements policies for the welfare of the populace. The government at any level has various organs through which it executes these policies so formulated for the interest of the Board of internal Revenue and of which the government has charged with assessing collecting and accounting for all taxes collected within this state.

The present day Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue has only (2) two zones as against (3) three zones before the creation of Ebony state. These tow zones are 1. Enugu Zone comprising of eighteen Tax offices and (18) motor licensing offices (2) Nsukka Zone comprises of (12) twelve Tax offices and motor license offices.

All these tax and motor licensing office has their protem headquarters at the quarters in Enugu State. The two zones has their zonal tax authorities charged with collection and coordinating all tax activities in such zones. At the end to the every month these zones are duty bound to render their monthly return to tax collection for the month.

At the end of every month or on a quarter month basis the statistic department called the planning. Research and statistics section with collect, summarize and analyze these return of collected and come out with a wide chart that will bear all the monthly tax collection and t4h total figure for the year ended 19… This chart will be carefully prepared that at a glance one will see the total amount of tax collection for every fiscal year.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Some of the terms used during this research, which have special application to study, are defined:

Revenue:

This is the gross receipt or receivable of a governmental unit derived from taxes, custom and other main sources of government revenue but excluding appropriation and allotment from the consolidated Revenue fund (CRF).

Tax:

The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current English DEFINES tax as “(sum of money purchase etc) to the government for public purpose”.

Tax can also be defined as a compulsory levy by natural or cooperate, payable to the government for the benefit of the citizenry.

Tax Assessment:

The calculation the tax due to the paid by an individual.

Tax Collection:

Staff of the Board charged with collection of taxes from the public.

Zonal Tax Authorities:

These are senior tax officer charged with assessing and collecting of tax within their zone.

Tax Law:

These are laws made by the government prone to review as well giving the guidelines and draft on how and paid. These laws are standard guiding all the tax offices in the federation. Examples are ITMA 1961 Income Tax management Act 1991 etc.

Income management Act (ITMA):

These are laws committee guiding the collection and payment of tax in Nigeria.

This was promulgated in 1961 but since been amended.


Chapter Five


Findings, Recommendation and Conclusions

The previous chapters have provided an overview of the research topic, Relevant literature relating to the topic has also been reviewed and analysis of data collection has been presented.

This chapter will attempt to summarize the result of the major finding in the course of this research and present suggestions on how the problems will be solved and further improvement on the system to be made.


5.1 Findings

In the course of this research work, collected data obtained, shows that Government is not exhausting all revenue avenue. Also the total budgeted revenue and the actual revenue collected is at variance: – This could be as a result of:

Tax Evasion:

This implies a willful act failure on the part of the taxable person to disclose his taxable income for the purpose of tax assessment and there by escaping completely from tax liabilities. Tax evasion involved a fraudulent or deceitful effort by a taxpayer to escape a legal tax obligation. This is a direct violation of the tax law.

Tax Avoidance:

The taxpayer through the service of professional experts arranges his tax matters that he now pay lower than what he or she is supposed to pay ordinarily. This is done also by over stating his trade expenses and claiming unexisting allowances.

Lack of Incentives to Workers

Because of government attitude to work, not giving incentives, late payment of salaries as a result of the above workers not willing to work in god faith. Non-challant attitude to tax collection may be exhibited.

Lack of Protection for Tax Officials

There is absolutely no protection on the side of the tax officials especially during tax drive. Despite the harzdous nature of the job the Government can not protect the interest of tax officials against any such attack.

Lack of Public Awareness

Due to Government attitude most people feel that tax paid are shared among tax collectors because people are not aware of their civil functions as regards promptly payment of tax.

Now Provision of Necessary Life Amenities

At times movement fails to provide these basic necessities of life to the people especially in rural area. They now assume that further payment of tax is of no use and even go the extent of discouraging others from paying tax.
All these problems are the delimitating factors against the project topic, taxation as a major source of government funding.


5.2 Recommendation and Conclusion

For the attainment of the objectives of the state in increasing the tax revenue generating from the state the following suggestions are made.

Evasion and Avoidance

Tax evasion and avoidance reduces the tax revenue generation of the state and therefore the state should seek the support and co-operation of the people. Using public of the enlightenment programmens, which will appeal to the conscience the taxpayers. High tax rate should not be employed as that can do this cause tax avoidance and complete evasion.

  1. The law against tax evasion should be made strong so that anyone who evades tax should be severely punished
  2. The whole of section 20(A) of the Income Tax Management Act (ITMA) 1961 with allowances and relief to which an individual is entitles to deduct in arriving at taxable Income should be review.
  3. In order to gain the confidence of tax payers its very important that the state must be seen as spending the available resources judiciously and in a bid to providing citizen with these basic life essentials.
  4. There should be a maximum protection to all tax officers on duty if their legal right to collect generated revenue for the state. Suing tax defaulters and others is tempered they would live in feat and cannot perform very well as the public continue threatening the tax officers.
  5. The state government should establish revenue counts or open up more customary in areas recommended by the Board of Internal Revenue Tax office should be established at strategic areas for easy access to taxpayers.
  6. Special allowances and incentives should be provided to staff of Board of Internal Revenue staff like hazard allowance or any such allowance.
Reorganization of Board of Internal Revenue and Other Revenue Department.

The quality of tax administration is reflected in the calibre of manpower responsible for carrying out duties.

The following adjustments are suggested.

  1. Adequate staffing of the state Board of Internal Revenue officers and tax agent’s allowance should be promptly paid.
  2. Adequate training for staff of the Board should be provided votes for the financial involvement of these training seminars, workshops should be organized.
  3. A statutory provision with penalty should be made requiring good accounting records in the Board. There should be adequate internal control system through the establishment of both Internal and external audit departments.
  4. There should be good and functional facilities for the staff of the Board of Internal Revenue to use during official hours. Tax offices should be renovated and vehicles should be put in order.
  5. Further segmentation of the state for easy assessment purposes is necessary. This will help assessment authorities and tax collectors to be sure of the defined areas of jurisdiction they are bound to cover.
Improvement of Non Tax Revenue

Non tax revenue sources should also be improved on too. If the states owned companies, which have not been functioning, are made to start off once again. In this manner, revenue accruing to the state will be recovered and revenue will also increase.

Some villagers do not have good road and bridges linking them with urban towns where they can be fully involved in different business and trade. If the worn roads and bridges are constructed or repaired there will be linkage hence increasing tax revenue.

Government should commercialize and privatize some of their establishment especially these that are not being managed well for appropriate management and re-structure the distressed revenue-yielding establishment so as to raise more revenue.


5.3 Summary

Having looked at the objective of this research study and how data collected are carefully analyzed it can be concluded that if fast and necessary steps are taken to correct the mal- administration of tax revenue sources. There would be improvement on the people’s response to pay tax and there will be a radical increase in total tax revenue of the state as to confirm that tax is the major source of government funding.


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