Sustainable Building Materials And Effective Project Delivery In Kwara State Construction Company
The control of materials on construction sites is handled carelessly by planning and purchasing departments, site supervisors and engineers as well as contractor’s organization and this have been posing various problems to contractors in realizing reasonable profit margin. The research centered on the assessment of sustainable building materials on building projects in Kwara-State Nigeria. This study assessed the current practices of managing materials on building projects, the problems associated with sustainable building materials and measures for managing materials in building projects in Kwara state. The study was carried out through the administration of questionnaire to professionals in both consulting and contracting firms and data collected were analyzed using percentile and mean item score. The study reveals that purchasing of materials, material planning method and transportation of materials are the most common practices of sustainable building materials. The most severe problem militating against sustainable building materials was lack of proper work planning and scheduling while other problems include inadequate cash flow to contractors due to delayed payments, burglary, theft and vandalism. The study recommends that management should improve their supervision on site, materials should be adequately handled when delivered, care should be given to materials handling process and more awareness should be given to the knowledge of sustainable building materials on building projects most especially on construction sites.
1.1 Background to the Study
The Nigerian building and construction industry continues to occupy an important position in the nation’s economy even though it contributes less than the manufacturing or other service industries, (Aibinu and Jagboro, 2002). The contribution of the building and construction industry to national economic growth necessitates improved efficiency in the industry by means of cost effectiveness and timeliness, and would certainly contribute to cost savings for the country as a whole. It is also common knowledge that the implementation of the construction project in the industry is usually accompanied with poor quality delivery and delivery time delay and cost increase as well as owner dissatisfaction (Hafez, 2001). Thus, the efficient use and management of material have an importance influence on a company’s profit and can delay project construction (Abdul¬ Rahman and Alidrisyi, 1993). The researchers will examine the impact of sustainable building materials on project delivery in Nigeria.
sustainable building materials is a planned procedure that include, the purchasing, delivery, handling and minimization of waste with the aim of ensuring that requirement are met (Illingworth and Thain, 1998). According to Culvert (1998), a detailed material schedule and co-ordination of the requisition and order of material are important in assuring material availability. Efficient material planning is a key to high productivity on site. Material planning embraces quantifying, ordering and scheduling-. Productivity will suffer if the material planning process is not executed properly (Kaming, Olomolaiye, Holt and Harris, 1997).
Kwik (1994) stated that another issue (which is sometime beyond management control) is material shortages, for example yearly cement shortages have long been a topic of debate within the construction industry. Bell and Stukhart (1987) investigated a total concept for a sustainable building materials System (MMS), which combined and integrated the take-off, vendor evaluation, purchasing expediting, and warehousing and distribution functions of material. The system resulted in improved labour productivity, reduced material surplus, reduced sustainable building materials, manpower and cost saving. A1-Jibouri (2002) described a computer simulation model, which helps to solve the problem of order and deliveries of materials in real life by keeping a predetermined list of order and delivery time of all the materials on site. The delivery of each kind of material then takes place automatically at the specified time.
Ineffective materials management for projects can result in significant cost blow-outs and delays in project completion. Such cost inefficiencies will negatively impact global competitiveness, and owner operators and engineering, procurement, and construction companies are trying to streamline work processes for their projects. Inaccurate materials information, such as incorrect bills of materials, inaccurate cycle counts, shipping errors, receiving errors and so on, will also affect the overall project life cycle and increase project costs. Having to deal with subcontractors outside of the materials management process impacts the overall project supply chain as there is an increased risk of data inconsistencies.
Sustainable building materials is the system for planning and controlling to ensure that the right quality and quantity of materials and equipment are specified in a timely manner. Materials should be obtained at a reasonable cost, and be available for use when needed. The cost of materials represents a large proportion of the cost. A good management system for materials management will lead to benefits for construction. Cash flow has become crucial for the survival of any business, if materials are purchased early, capital may be tied up and interest charges incurred on the excess inventory of material. Material may deteriorate during storage or be stolen; also delays and extra expense may be incurred if materials required for particular activities are not available.
Despite the importance of the materials, very little research has been directed towards understanding the management of materials from order to production; most research is focused upon the management of the design and procurement process and on labour site productivity. Materials management, which includes procurement, shop fabrication, logistics, supply chain management, production on site, and field servicing, requires special attention to achieve cost reduction. The supply chain is a convenient term used to describe a complex web of activities. The use of new equipment and innovative methods of materials handling has influenced changes in construction technologies in recent years.
Modern methods of sustainable building materials have been embraced by the manufacturers across a wide range of industry sectors outside of construction.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Ogunlana and Proukumtong (1996) studied construction delays in a fast growing economy: comparing Thailand with Nigeria and some of the construction delays were attributed to sustainable building materials: the study blames material shortage on site on unreliable supply from material suppliers occasioned by the general shortage in the industry, although there were specific instances in which poor communication between sites and head office purchasing, planning and co-ordination could be cited. However, much research has not be done on sustainable building materials and project delivery in Nigeria considering the economic situation of Nigeria and the market full of substandard products. This study will therefore examine the impact of sustainable building materials of project delivery in Nigeria in terms of quality and time.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of sustainable building materials and effective project delivery in kwara state construction company.
The following are the specific objectives of this study:
- To examine the impact of sustainable building materials on project delivery time in Nigeria.
- To examine the impact of sustainable building materials on project quality upon delivery in Nigeria.
- To determine the advantages and disadvantages of sustainable building materials in project construction.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the impact of sustainable building materials on project delivery time in Nigeria?
- What is the impact of sustainable building materials on project quality upon delivery in Nigeria?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of sustainable building materials in project construction in Nigeria?
- HO: sustainable building materials does not affect project delivery in Nigeria
- HA: sustainable building materials does affect project delivery in Nigeria
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of importance to building professionals and the general public because it would not only clarify but also create awareness of the extent to which inadequacies in sustainable building materials can adversely affect project delivery. The study will also help contractors, clients, consultants and all parties involved in construction projects about ways of improving their current method of sustainable building materials. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study on impact of sustainable building materials on project delivery in Nigeria will cover all the project construction in Kwara state, Nigeria looking at their level of adoption of sustainable building materials approach considering their successes with respect to project delivery quality and time.
1.8 Limitation of Study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 Definition of Terms
A building or edifice is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of no building structures.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings.
In contemporary business and science, a project is an individual or collaborative enterprise, possibly involving research or design, that is carefully planned, usually by the project assigned team, to achieve a particular aim One can also define a project as a set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees or volunteers to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term “management” may also refer to the people who manage an organization
Is the acquisition of goods, services or works from an external source
A person or firm originally from that country that has been awarded a contract for the construction and completion of a building.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter summarizes the findings on the sustainable building materials and effective project delivery in kwara state construction company, Kwara State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the sustainable building materials and effective project delivery in kwara state construction company, Kwara State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the impact of sustainable building materials on project delivery time in Nigeria, examining the impact of sustainable building materials on project quality upon delivery in Nigeria and determining the advantages and disadvantages of sustainable building materials in project construction.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are consulting and contracting Quantity surveyors, Engineers, Architects and Builders in Kawara State.
With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
Based on the findings from the question raised in this research, the following conclusions are drawn. The study shows that effective material management brings positive result in achieving early building project completion. The study agree with (Madhavi et al, 2013), that suggested the need for improving purchasing, transportation and introduction of new possibilities, like, purchase requisition slip, and transportation order respectively. The study also shows the importance of manage all materials from the design stage to the completion stage because poor management of construction materials affects the overall performance of construction projects in terms of time, cost, quality and productivity.
The study also revealed that, the most prevalent practices of materials management are purchasing of materials, material planning method, transportation of materials while the prevalent challenges are lack of proper work planning and scheduling, cash flow problems to contractors due to delayed payments and burglary, theft and vandalism are problems associated with materials management. This gives light to the fact that pre-planning is important in controlling the total project cost and effective material management (Gulghane, 2015).
For effective materials management, measures shown by the study include adequate management and supervision; it shows that administration of sites was the best in respect to conditions for achieving good materials management.
Based on the results of this study, the following recommendations are made to foster effective materials management practice of construction projects in Nigeria:
- The contractors should ensure effective control of materials from design to construction stage so as to adequately reduce processes that can lead to wastages in construction.
- Construction firms need to evolve better means and facilities in which building materials could be well-stored with pallets at the base or as may be applicable to prevent undue damage which may lead to wastages.
- The designer should co-ordinate dimensions between materials specified during design and those procured for use at sites so as to guide site personnel on how to prevent avoidable waste in the use of various types of materials during execution of construction projects.
- The construction firms should create a functioning section that would see to the appraisal of the plan and compliance with its provisions through capacity building and manpower development.
- Material management should be practiced on all sites and by all categories of building construction firms, whether large, medium or small.
- There should be a proper planning of material management right from the inception of project execution and strict compliance with the project bill of quantities, schedule of materials, construction programme, specification, proper stock accounting and security systems is essential so as to ensure timely project execution and standard work delivery within reasonable cost, time and quality.
- The use of incompetent hands (e.g. skilled and unskilled labour) as store officer or stock controller on construction sites should be discouraged. Competent and experienced personnel with basic managerial skill in material stock control or material management should be engaged in order to enhance material stock control practice.
- The provision for materials storage in the preliminaries
- The extent of work, nature of work to be done, and materials to be used should be defined in order to prepare a work study.
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