Survey Of The Effects Of Human Resources Training And Development In Workers Productivity
Training has become the buzz word in the dynamic competitive market environment. Human capital differentiates a great organization from a good one. Organizations investing in effective training and development for human resource tend to achieve both short and long term benefits. This study presents a literature review on the significant of training and development on employee productivity. Employees tends to become absolute, and therefore making the need to adapt to the continuous learning and updating of the skill and knowledge invaluable, due to the organizational, technological and social dynamics. Thus, in order for organizations to achieve optimum returns from their investment, there is imperative need to effectively manage training and development programmes. However, the most vital asset of every organization under stiff and dynamic competition is its human capital. Training and development is an instrument that aid human capital in exploring their dexterity. Therefore training and development is vital to the productivity of organization’s workforce.
1.1 Background of the Study
Right from ancient time man has been conscious of developing himself within his natural environment. This inventive infinity gave him the impetus to invest certain tools that helped him to live comfortably in his own immediate environment. Subsequently in the effort to maximize the comfort and to perpetuate the skill, inventive skill, the need for training arose.
A verification question may put as to whether our ancestors invented those fulets of the civilization. This question may be of little or no significance. What is more important is that man has the ability to pass on to the others the knowledge and skills gained in mastering circumstances. This was done by deliberate examples, by signs and words. Through these devices, the development process called training was developed and when the message was received by another successfully, we say that learning took place and knowledge or skill was transferred. The ninth century ushered in an era of social legislation and will it, sizeable changes in the concept of the workers organization arose.
Through these changes however, we constantly developed emphasis as we see today quality training of workers. This culminated in the staunch support of the Trade Unions for any legislation that provides wide range of vocational education. One o the objectives of every organization should be to provide opportunities for its employees to optimize their performances in pursuit of organization goals with this end in view, it may be profitable also to help employees feel that the organization cares for them. As people, there is more likehood of their responding willing to satisfy the needs of the organization.
When we consider training therefore, we are seeking by any instructional or experimental means to develop a person’s behavioural pattern in order to achieve a standard level of performance. This is an essential pre-requisite for adequate performance in one’s occupation. Whatever the job maybe.
The importance of human resources to any organization whether public or private has long been identified. Organizational objectives such as profit maximization, share of market and social responsibilities cannot be fulfilled without human beings who co-ordinate the activities of the organization using other factors of production. The realization of the value of “human capital” to any organization has led to a proposal by experts that people should be classified as “assets” to be so recorded in accounting records.
Investment in human capital is a worthy and necessary expenditure. If any organization is to discharge it’s legal, statutory and social responsibilities to its owners, public and society at large.
The indisputable reason why training and development of employees should be a continuous undertaking is because of changes posed every minute, hour, day etc and the world is faced with an era of technological advancements that can make already acquired skill obsolete.
Training therefore should not be reserved for only the new employees or old employees but for both and must even be extended to senior management personnel. Training brightens employees towards the performance of their work. Job performance improves at all levels which facilities the realization of both individual and organizational objectives.
In Nigeria, the government has realized the need to develop human resources since independence in 1960. It was discovered that most top government positions were held by expatriates and that Nigeria had few scientists and engineers. Government had to set up a man power Board. In 1962, following the report of Abby Commission. This was done in order to increase executive. “Capacity”. More Universities and Polytechnics were established and the Universities grew from one (1) in 1959 to thirty one (31) in 1989. enrolment in the universities grew from 2,993 (two thousand, nine hundred and ninety three) in 1962 to 55,249 (fifty-five thousand, two hundred and forty nine) in 1980.
Many Polytechnics were established by Bolt Federal and State government in the 1970’s and 80’s. Cirowit in the number Pf secondary and primary schools and enrolment into them became very high. Several training institutions such as industrial training fund, centre for management Development and Administrative Staff College among others were set up to accelerate human resources development.
The federal education system was also redesigned to give priority to Technical Education through the introduction of 6-3-3-4 programme. The attention was necessitated by the realization that all the country’s development plans have been frustrated due to lack of “executive capacity”.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Several banks established training centres at various locations all over the country today to train their workers. Despite all the efforts towards human resources development made by those banks. One still observes long queues whenever one requires the services of the banks.
Most often, financial institutions send their staff for in service trained aimed at equipping their staff with lectures office competencies, but regrettably most of their staff have not reflected their training in their official calling invent.
Therefore, it has not been known if these training are relevant to their jobs. It has not been known whether the training has impact on the services rendered by those staff sent for in service training. In this project therefore, the individual determines the impact of human resource development on the efficiently and productivities of their employees especially those sent for in-service training.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of the study is to:
- Determine if these banks send their staff for in-service training.
- Determine if those sent for in-service training are happy to embrace the programme.
- Determine who finances such in-service training.
- Determine the extent staff training and development enhance the efficiency and affectivity of employees in Afri Bank Plc and Union Bank Plc.
- Determine areas these banks needed to address in terms of human resources development.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the questions which study seeks to provide answers:
- Does human resource training and development increase workers’ competency?
- Does human resource training and development enhance workers’ productivity?
- Does human resource training and development reduce or increase cost for the organization?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The study developed or formulated the following hypotheses for testing:
- H0: There is no significant relationship between the training and development of workers’ and workers competency.
H1: There is a significant relationship between the training and development of workers’ and workers competency.
- H20: There is no significant relationship between training and development of workers and the organization’s productivity.
H21: There is no significant relationship between training and development of workers and the organization’s productivity.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is expected that the study will inform the Management of UBA and other organizations that to increase productivity, there is the need to have and retain well trained and motivated employees. It is also to help develop and maintain a quality work life, which will provide an opportunity for employees’ job satisfaction and self-actualization. Finally, it is to aid management of UBA to introduce modern schemes for training and development, to be able to meet the challenges of change in the future.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study is limited as it looks at the role and impact that training and development policies and activities have played in organizations with keen interest in UBA. Problems such as the swearing of an oath of secrecy and indifference on the part of interviewees and respondents were limitations to the study as some of the employees felt uncomfortable and other were simply not bothered. The absence or inaccessibility of reliable records and reports on UBA activities within the past ten years also limited the research investigation. The unwillingness of Management to divulge strategic information in the name of confidentiality is a limitation to the study.
1.8 Organization of the Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine the effects of human resource training and development in workers productivity.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given.
In this chapter, certain recommendations are made which in the opinion of the researcher are drawn from the findings of the study.
The study opened with an introduction which served as a background to the study where the statement of the problem, study objectives, study significance as well as the research hypotheses were described. In the second chapter, the study reviewed the relevant and related literatures.
The conceptual, and empirical studies were examined as well as the relationship that exists between news commentaries and radio listeners. The third chapter described the methodology employed in the study to gather data both primary and secondary data. It also described the statistical tool for testing the hypotheses. The fourth chapter analyzed and presented the data using simple percentages and chi-square statistical tool.
Training and development ultimately upgrade not only the productivity of employees but also of the organization. It has rightly been said, employee development is the key to organizational sustainable development. Organizations must have employees who are able to quickly adapt to an ever-changing world market. Companies need to invest in on-going employee training and development in order to both keep employees and be successful. The 21st century will be favorable to those organizations, which are able to learn faster and adapt to changes than their competitors.
Training enhances employees’ initiative and quality of work, thereby assisting them to be more committed to achieving the organizational goals and objectives and in turn enhancing employees’ effectiveness within the organization.
Summarily, training and development impacting on employee productivity has not only improve the wellbeing of organizations, but also aid the prosperity of most countries that has put into consideration the design and delivery of training and development of workforce at national level. As the national policies aim to improve nation’s human capital, this optimally in turn results to the economic growth of the nation. However, it is recommended for management of organizations to give training and development of employees a priority in order to get the best out workforce as well as improving the organization’s productivity. Further research studies is also recommended on the training and development of employees in order to have a broader understanding of its valuable impacts.
The continued cooperation between management and employees. In the light of the foregoing, the organization without the human element is of no consequences. Therefore, the human element therein cannot be self-creative, self-initiative, self-innovative, self-fulfilling, self-growth and development without being empowered physically, mentally and intellectually through training and developmental programmes. Gardner, Musner  and Hertzberg ; gave credence to the afore assertions and argue that an investment to enable workers acquire more knowledge may lead to more efficiency and higher productivity.
In order to reap the full benefits of a training initiative, Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel should ensure that the following are instituted at the work place.
a. Systematic Training:
Identification of training needs should be done more professionally in conjunction with the line manager as well as the individuals involved together with the HR/Training manager. Everyone involved should agree exactly to what the trainees are lacking.
b. Well-Structured Training Calendar:
There is need for a well-structured training calendar which can be used monthly at the Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel to inform/prepare employees ahead about trainings that are likely to hold for the month. The training calendar will also help the Training manager to keep proper track of the training package.
c. Evaluate Training for Effectiveness:
It is vital to evaluate training in order to assess its effectiveness in producing the learning outcomes specified when the training intervention is planned, and to indicate where improvements or changes are required to make the training even more effective. The basis upon which each category of training is to be evaluated should be determined at the planning stage while considering how the information required to evaluate learning events would be obtained and analyze.
d. Provide Specific Information to Employees:
Performance appraisal information system which is used monthly in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel to assess employees‟ performance should provide specific information to employees about their performance problems and ways they can improve their performance. This assessment should provide a clear understanding of the differences between current and expected performance, identifying the causes of the performance discrepancies and develop action plans to improve performance of employees through training and development programs.
e. Enrich Job Experience:
Most employee development occurs through job experiences. Development is most likely to occur when there is a mismatch between the employee’s skills and past experiences, and the skills required for the job. There are several ways that job experiences can be used for employee these include the enlargement of current job, job rotation, and promotion to positions with greater challenge.
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