Supervision Of Instruction And Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Education
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between principals’ supervisory behaviors and teachers’ job satisfaction in secondary schools in Educational District II in Mainland Government Area of Lagos state. More specifically the study determined the principals’ leadership style(s) and its effect on teachers’ motivation in terms of achievement, competency, status, personal worth, and self-realization in private secondary schools. The findings of this study are expected to benefit among others, principals and teachers as well as other stakeholders who will get first-hand information on relationship between principals’ supervisory behaviors and teachers’ job satisfaction.
Additionally, the general public will increase their knowledge and understand the role of effective school supervision on teachers’ job performance and satisfaction. It will also benefit other researchers who would want to carry out research on similar topics. Relevant research questions and hypotheses were answered and tested in the study with appropriate objectives stated. The survey research design was used to conduct the research because it involved the collection of data from a large number of respondents within a limited time. Questionnaire was designed by the researcher and validated by the supervisor, for the collection of data from a total of 100 respondents consisting of 50 male and 50 female teachers selected from the population with the use of simple random sampling method. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and frequency distribution tables, while the hypotheses were tested with chi-square (X2) statistical tool to ascertain their acceptability or otherwise.
The result of the study shows among others that: motivation could lead to increment in teachers’ productivity, and that supervisory behaviours were capable of influencing ways of motivating teachers to enhance their productivity. It also showed that principals’ attitude of not considering teachers’ suggestions in decision making made teachers lose interest in their job. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should seek ways to improve job satisfaction of teachers in the middle of their teaching profession by improving working conditions and giving them more opportunities for training.
Principals should be able to work with others to implant the vision into the structures and processes of the school. They should be able to communicate the vision to the staff of what their schools should become. Necessary recommendations that teachers should be well paid at all levels of the educational system to help them improve upon their productivity levels by giving their best to students were made at the conclusion of the study. However, some likely implications of the study were equally highlighted
1.1 Background to the Study
The issue of quality in any education system cannot be compromised. The quality of educational administrators (principals), teachers and learners (students) in any nation determines the quality of its citizenry.
The changes in the educational sector in Nigeria, especially in education district two (ii) demands that the school principals play a bigger and more important role in educational supervision.
(Grauwe and Carron, 2004) states that principal supervisory roles in schools particularly on its teaching and non teaching staff services is an important concern because it plays an important role in the quality of education that the school provides to its students.
Ajayi (1985) describes school principal’s opinion of school inspectors as that of a feeling of superiority on the part of inspectors whose interest is only in the well-being of students with no consideration for teachers.
Principal’s supervisory role is a critical issue in educational leadership. It involves lots of leadership aspects, identifying, supervision, teacher’s skills, students’ performance, the effectiveness of the types and technical skills.
The National Policy OF Education (2004) under the Ministry of Education revealed how the principal prime role of educational leadership, must be effective. Principals should be efficient and spend most of their time in organizing learning activities in schools. Maintaining an effective school supervision, acting as consultants, adviser and coordinator for teaching and learning activities in schools is one of their important job. They should spend more time in teachers and students’ professional activities, not only working in their rooms issuing memos and directive or circulars. In relation to that,
Yunus (2012) found that educational supervision is a dynamic process in education aiming at improving the quality of teaching and learning.
Nwankwo (2004) opined that supervision can be divided into categories. These are instructed and personnel supervision, instructional supervision has been defined as a set of activities, which are carried out with the purpose of making the teaching and learning purpose better for the learners.
Personnel supervision on the other hand, deals with the set of activities, which are carried out by the supervisor with the basic aim of sensitizing mobilizing and monitoring staff in the school towards performing their duties ultimately in terms of achievement of the stated aims and objectives of the educational system.
Principals are responsible for the administration of admission, health, lunchroom, textbooks, supplies, records and many other auxiliaries in the educational system. Therefore, the role of a school administrator or a principal is to supervise, planning, developed competitive strategies for the school. The principal is this faced with the responsibility of supervising teachers generally to improve their instructional effectiveness, make recommendations and also manage both human and material resources towards achieving the principal as the head of the school as the architect of the quality of activities in the school and the quality of academic achievement of students depends on the quality of instructional performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The ultimate goal of Junior or Senior Secondary Education is to develop the individuals’ mental capacity and character for higher education and useful living within the society (FRN: NPE, 4thedition, 2004). In spite of the societal demand for quality assurance, that is, the process of ensuring effective resource output, control refining the process and raising the standards of output in order to meet the set goal and satisfy public accountability likewise, the need for thorough supervision instead, there is a growing concern about the realization of secondary education objectives due to doubt that many principals give little attention to supervision of instructional activities in secondary schools.
Consequently, there have been steady decline in teachers’ instructional task performance and students’ academic performance which depicts non-realization of quality assurance in secondary schools (Ajayi 2002). It is against this nature, that the study sets out to examine principals supervisory task and academic performance of JSS 3 students in District II. Lagos State.
The identified gaps and challenges include the followings.
- Lack of commitment to supervision by many principals
- Lack of proper monitoring and evaluation of students’ learning outcomes.
- Inadequate training facilities to develop teachers for professional growth and increased productivity.
- Lack of adoption of code of conduct for learners (students).
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the principals supervisory duties at large and the effect to academic performance to JSS 3 students in Lagos State District ii.
Specifically the study sets out to:
- Examine the extent at which principals duties in the school system.
- Find out whether principals’ supervision towards teachers will significantly influence teachers’ productivity.
- Determine if principals’ administrative roles will enhance the teaching and learning in secondary schools.
- Ascertain whether principal’s supervisory will influence teachers commitment to work in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered during the course of this study.
- Will principal’s competency to work influence the learning habit in schools?
- Will principal’s supervision towards teachers significantly influence teachers productivity?
- Will principal’s administrative roles enhance the teaching and learning in secondary schools?
- Will principal’s supervisory influence teachers commitment to work in secondary schools?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho1: There is no significant perception of principals towards the learning habit of the students.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between teachers’ job satisfaction and teachers’ productivity
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between principals administrative roles and teaching and learning in secondary schools.
Ho4: There is no cordial relationship between principal’s supervisory and teachers commitment to work in secondary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is seen to be of benefit to various school administrators, ministries of education and other affiliated government agencies.
It will help various school principals to understand the benefit of effective school supervision as a quality control measure at various levels of education especially, at Junior Secondary Schools in Education District ii.
It will enable school administrators to know the best school supervision techniques to adopt in order to maintain standard academic performance of the students and school effectiveness.
This will also enhance school administrators to understand their position on their job towards effective routine supervision of teachers, non-teaching staff, registration, documentations, information and students’ academic performance.
The ministry of Education will also benefit from this study through proper planning and implementation of supervision policies to various school management.
This will also make the ministries to help in school supervision as a quality control measures through proper inspection and good interrelationship in the administrative duties and positive increase on academic performance of the students.
It will also benefit the government agencies through provision of schools facilities, conducive academic environment and improve standard of education.
The need to strengthen the principal efficient instructional supervision at secondary schools especially at JSS 3 is indispensable because it will aid to improve the students’ performance in Junior West African Certificate Examination.
1.7 Scope of the Study
As a result of several constraints, time limitations, this study emphasizes on the principal’s supervisory duties and academic performance of JSS 3 students in Education District II Lagos State.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms have been defined as they will be used during the course of this study
The Concept of School:
This is an environment where children go to be taught and educated. A typical example is a secondary school. In this study, school is the first factor to considered because it is a place where the principal will exercise his regular duties both on the teacher and the learners.
The Concept of Principal:
Principal refers to the head of a school or other educational institution. Fullen (1992:41) sees the principal as actively engaged as initiator or facilitator of continuous improvement in his school.
In this study, the principal refers to somebody who, as head of the school, plans, initiates, supervises and organizes the teaching and learning activities in the school. To accomplish that he works co-operatively with the educators.
The Concept of Supervision:
This is a leadership role that entails coordinating and managing of the school activities concerned with teaching and learning Daresh (1982:2) sees supervision as a process of overseeing the ability of people to meet the goals of the organization in which they work.
Wills & Bondi’s (1991:8) definition of supervision focuses on administration, curriculum, instruction, human relations, management and leadership. According to this study, supervision aims at the development of the teacher’s knowledge, skills and work environment, to facilitate pupil’s learning to achieve the goals of the organization.
The Concept of Academic performance:
They refer to the quality of education taught in the school system. In the aspect of learning habit of the students, they need to be very serious with their academics in order to obtain good grade at the end of the term.
The Concept of Learning:
Learning means acquiring knowledge, skills and information. Schmeeck (1983) defines learning as acquiring and retention of knowledge or as an interpretative process aimed in understanding of the lessons being taught. In this study, learning means acquiring knowledge on information, processing it and where possible applying it.
The Concept of Teaching:
Teaching means importing knowledge and skills to the learners. According to the Oxford Dictionary teaching means what is taught.
Ubben & Hughes’ (1987:110) definition concurs with the above when they regard teaching as imparting content or information which learners need to improve their skills. In this study teaching means giving out knowledge to learners with a view to help them develop new skills.
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to assess the effect of supervising instruction and its impact on the academic performance of secondary school students in education.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of drug abuse among secondary school students.
This study was undertaken to assess the effect of supervising instruction and its impact on the academic performance of secondary school students in education. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the chi-square statistical tool. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.
Supervision is critical in the development of any educational program in both developed and developing countries including Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, the research revealed that the education system in Lagos state is plagued with multifarious problems notably are students poor performance in SSCE, poor attitude of teachers to work and non-regular instructional supervision of schools as such, the challenges being currently faced by the educational system requires professional approach by experts in the educational field to improve and sustain the education industry.
Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were suggested to improve school administration, develop teachers’ professionalism through robust instructional supervision and improving secondary school student’s academic performance:
- A remedial mechanism should be developed and built into the school system by the Government, teachers, educational planners, policy makers, curriculum planners and parents. If quality education is to be achieved, a functional supervision mechanism involving parents should be built into the school system to ensure quality control and assurance from the system.
- The Inspectorate Unit of the Ministry of Education should be properly staffed with qualified instructional supervision professional that are radical enough to articulate changes within the current supervision dynamics. Retired but strong Head teachers and teachers who have long years of on field experience can play a vital role in ameliorating school instructional challenges in Lagos state academic environment.
- Regular evaluation of the instructional process, school administration procedure and educational outcomes by the supervisors so designatedfrom within and outside the educational institution should be intensified so that conformities can be appreciated and improved upon while non-conformities can be identified, sanctioned and corrected appropriately and timely.
- Government should always be conscious of the implication of its policies and position on schooling and the multiplier effect on academic performance of students and teachers while Instructional Materials and other learning facilities to facilitate all round development of students should be made available and accessible for teachers to carry out their duties perfectly. More so, the free education programmes by the Government should be depoliticized, thoroughly planned and executed by education experts in view of the fact that the programme to some extent affects quality of education.
- School administrators, government and professional bodies in the education sector should promote capacity development of teachers through intensive and regular seminars/workshops based on needs assessment of professional practices of teachers to improve their knowledge, pedagogical skills and competence in various subjects, with a view to enhancing the quality of teaching and learning processes in secondary schools.
- It is hoped that if the above recommendations are thoroughly and effectively considered, students’ performance in schools will improve. Moreover, the problem of quality of the Secondary school products and standards of education would likewise be addressed by employing the best teaching – learning practices.
Supervision Of Instruction And Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Education
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