Supervision As An Effective Management For Increased Productivity (A Case Study Of Peterson Zonachus Aba)

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Supervision As An Effective Management For Increased Productivity (A Case Study Of Peterson Zonachus Aba)


Abstract


This study used a survey design to examine supervision as an effective management for increased productivity in Peterson Zonachus Aba. The population includes staffs of Peterson Zonachus Aba. The data gathered and collected was analyzed using frequency tables and percentages. While the hypotheses was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool. The findings of the study indicated that the supervision practices in Peterson Zonachus Aba is very effective. The findings also indicated that the nature of supervision carried in Peterson Zonachus Aba is democratic supervision. The findings of the study indicated that supervision enhances employees’ performance, and facilitates an increase in organizational productivity. With respect to the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that bearing in mind that most of what we call supervision consists of making it difficult for people to get their work done an effective supervisory relationship therefore, requires that the supervisor not only be a content expert, but also accept the enormous responsibility of mentorship. And supervisors should create a safe environment in which the employee can work through the developmental issues or challenges of each level of the job in order to gain the necessary motivation, autonomy and self-awareness to successfully move to the next level of development. To mention only but few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Traditionally, when people talk about “supervision” they are usually referring to the managerial or leadership function of overseeing the efficiency and progress of employees – typically the employees who report directly to the supervisor. Bernard (2005), defines supervision as the ability of superiors to influence the behaviour of subordinates to take a particular course of action. It is the art of influencing people towards achieving organizational goals. He further clarifies that quality of supervision therefore refers to the effectiveness of the superiors in influencing the behaviour of the subordinates in taking a particular course of action. Supervision is a delicate and often misunderstood function that can have a variety of effects on employees‟ efficiency. In some situations, supervision can help improve results, while in others it can be a distraction to the effectiveness of the staff. Appropriate supervisory intervention and a good supervisor/supervisee relationship in the workplace can consistently improve employees‟ productivity. But, as research clearly demonstrates, it is not only in the best interest of the employee, but also the business, to pay close attention to the supervisor/supervisee relationship. This relationship is critical to the success of the employees productivity and ultimately the organization. We need to have well trained supervisors who are prepared to provide the necessary and appropriate guidance, structure, and encouragement to their staff (Linda, 2014). Stemming from their experiences in providing both training and supervision to employees productivity, (Rising Sun’s Consultants) approach to supervision takes a very different perspective; defining supervision more from a coaching and mentoring perspective than from a managerial perspective. They define supervision as a developmental process designed to support and enhance an individual‟s acquisition of the motivation, autonomy, self-awareness, and skills necessary to effectively accomplish the job at hand. Efficiency can be defined as a measure of the productivity of a person, machine, factor, system, etc., in converting inputs into useful output (http://www.businessdictionary.com). Efficiency is computed by dividing average output per period by the total costs incurred or resources (capital, energy, material, personnel) consumed in that period. Efficiency is a critical determinant of cost productivity (Shilpa, 2015). Most, employees are promoted to the role of supervisor because of their strong technical expertise. However, an effective supervisory relationship requires that the supervisor not only be a content expert, but also accept the enormous responsibility of mentorship. Unfortunately, poor supervision has an enormous impact and cost for both the employee, as well as the organization as a whole (Harris, 2007). Providing regular supervision for subordinates increases organizational efficiency and overall performance. It is observed that autocratic, independent and democratic supervision have positive and negative effect on organizational efficiency depending on the type of the organizational structure and supervisor ability to lead effectively (Zivnuska & Shaw, 2007). Supervisors should compare employees’ productivity efficiency against the standards and expectations. Democratic supervision sessions also allow employees to express concerns and ask questions as things come up, rather than having to wait all year to touch base at their annual review. By being available to connect with employees, supervisors monitor efficiency on a more consistent basis. In turn, they detect concerns and resolve issues arising more promptly (Zivnuska & Shaw, 2007). Offering employees feedback on their work is an effective way of monitoring their progress and letting them know how well they performed a particular task or project, which is a form of supervision. Furnishing employees with constructive notes make them feel their work is valued and appreciated, without having to meet in a formal setting (Harris, 2007). This study will take in cognizance the importance of supervision surrogates i.e. (autocratic supervision, independent supervision and democratic supervision and how each of the surrogates influences organizational efficiency).


1.2 Statement of Problem

A critical assessment of the attitude of employee towards work for which they have been employed, make one wonder what the state of supervision in Peterson Zonachus has been. Some people who need the services from Peterson Zonachus offices think that performance of Employee has not been encouraging due to the fact that they have to spend long hours, if not days, before they are able to receive what they need from those employees. Supervision is an effective tool that could be used to promote good results as far as Employee productivity is concerned. It is also acknowledged that there is always a link between supervision and effective productivity, but this will be perfectly true only when the needed resources and commitment are available and are put to judicious use (Wiles., 1996). There is a positive influence of supervision and professionalism on staff performance (Cand, 2017). The supervisor monitors job performance, conveys professional values, knowledge, and skills, and provides emotional support to the supervisee(Harkness, 2002); (Tsui, the rooths of social work supervision; An historical review the clinical supervision, 1997). Despite the efforts by Peterson Zonachus to train employees, organize seminars and increase employee salaries in a bid to improve employee performance, it has continued to record very low employee performance over the years; yet performance of employees forms the basis of organizational productivity. There have been cases of poor supervision from the superiors which contributes on the poor employee increased productivity in the Peterson Zonachus (Human Resource Performance Report, 2016). This, therefore, compelled the researcher to identify the effect of supervision on the employees‟ increased productivity in Peterson Zonachus, by conducting an in depth research Therefore, considering the importance of supervision, as well as lack of evidenced information on employee increased productivity, this research mainly focused on supervision as an effective management for increased productivity. The researcher focused on how supervision concept is internalized in Peterson Zonachus and its effect on employee increased productivity.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine supervision as an effective management for increased productivity in Peterson Zonachus Aba. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Investigate the effectiveness of supervision practices in Peterson Zonachus Aba.
  2. Determine the nature of supervision carried in Peterson Zonachus Aba.
  3. Ascertain whether supervision enhances employees’ performance.
  4. Ascertain whether supervision facilitates an increase in an organizational productivity.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. How effective is the supervision practices in Peterson Zonachus Aba.
  2. What is the nature of supervision carried in Peterson Zonachus Aba?
  3. Does supervision enhance employees’ performance in Peterson Zonachus Aba?
  4. Does supervision facilitate an increase in organizational productivity?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • H01: Supervision does not enhance employees’ performance.
  • H02: Supervision does not facilitate an increase in organizational productivity.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Most literature are focused on challenge and opportunities which face the organization and the employees too, But these study may help management of Peterson Zonachus because they can use the findings to know the importance of supervision and to appreciate the impact that the supervision has on employee performance. The finding and recommendation of this study would help as an input for Peterson Zonachus Share Company to improve its supervisory activities to benefit both employee and the organization as well as to improve employee and supervision (managerial relationships) and to create an enabling work environment. It would also help policy maker to understand problem and possible solution to give research based solutions. Therefore, the main significant of the study are the following The finding will help the company to reveal weakness and strength of current supervision system of the company to enable management rectify weakness and to maintain strength; The study will help also to bring attitudinal change in the part of supervision and manager towards the employee performance of the organization. The study can also serve as an insight for further research on the topic.


1.7 The Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on supervision as an effective management for increased productivity in Peterson Zonachus Aba. The study will further investigate the effectiveness of supervision practices in Peterson Zonachus Aba, determine the nature of supervision carried in Peterson Zonachus Aba, ascertain whether supervision enhances employees’ performance, and ascertain whether supervision facilitates an increase in an organizational productivity.

The respondents for this study will be obtained from Peterson Zonachus Aba.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

There is no gain saying that there are no limitations in research work generally. Any shortcoming that arises in this study is as a result of factors which are beyond the researcher’s control.

Therefore, it will be of more importance to highlight certain militating factors that tend to narrow or limit my scope of study. This project research would have been easier if not for these limitating factors:

  1. Time factor: time was not on the researchers to consult various sectors of the economy to review workers or given out questionnaire to various institutions on the effect of government revenue policies. As we all know, time is never our friend. The time scheduled for the completion of this research thesis was too short. As a result, generating information/data was strenuous as it coincides with final year examination period, which needed attention.
  2. Finance: this is another barrier that limited the researcher’s work.
  3. Available resources: was unavailable for the research work.

1.9 The Definition of Terms

Supervision:

Supervision means: determining what has been done, that evaluates the performance and if necessary apply corrective measures so that the work will correspond with plan (Rulandaris, 2017)

Performance:

Performance is often defined simply in out- put terms the achievement of quantified objectives. But performance is a matter not only of what people achieve but how they achieve it

Employee Performance:

The job related activities expected of a worker and how well those activities were executed. Many business personnel directors assess the employee performance of each staff member on an annual or quarterly basis in order to help them identify suggested areas for improvement.


1.10 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on supervision as an effective management for increased productivity in Peterson Zonachus Aba. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on supervision as an effective management for increased productivity in Peterson Zonachus Aba.The study is was specifically carried out to investigate the effectiveness of supervision practices in Peterson Zonachus Aba,determine the nature of supervision carried in Peterson Zonachus Aba,ascertain whether supervision enhances employees’ performance, and ascertain whether supervision facilitates an increase in an organizational productivity.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of Peterson Zonachus Aba.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The supervision practices in Peterson Zonachus Aba is very effective.
  2. The nature of supervision carried in Peterson Zonachus Aba is democratic supervision.
  3. Supervision enhances employees’ performance.
  4. Supervision facilitates an increase in an organizational productivity.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. The need for organizations (public and private), to have well-trained supervisors who are prepared to provide the necessary and appropriate guidance, structure, and encouragement to their staff.
  2. In order for an individual to develop the knowledge and skills to become an effective supervisor of others, he must first go through the process of effective supervision, particularly in terms of being supervised and mentored in the role of supervision.
  3. Supervisors should create a safe environment in which the employee can work through the developmental issues or challenges of each level of the job in order to gain the necessary motivation, autonomy and self-awareness to successfully move to the next level of development.
  4. Bearing in mind that most of what we call supervision consists of making it difficult for people to get their work done an effective supervisory relationship therefore, requires that the supervisor not only be a content expert, but also accept the enormous responsibility of mentorship.
  5. Proper training and tools should be made available to employees by their respective supervisors to accomplish company tasks since poor training and tools were among the factors identified to have had a detrimental effect on employees’ productivity. It is essential that supervisors understand how to identify skill and tool deficiencies. It is also critical to keep personal skill levels at par with the ever-changing world of job requirements.

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