The Suitable Industrial Application Of Kaolin From The Kpankorogi And The Ijero-Ekiti Kaolin Deposits

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

The Suitable Industrial Application Of Kaolin From The Kpankorogi And The Ijero-Ekiti Kaolin Deposits


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Kaolin is a clay rock and part of the group of industrial mineral with the chemical composition (Al2Si205 (OH)4.
It is a layered silicate mineral with one tetrahedral sheet linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet alumina i.e. structurally composed of silicate sheet (Si2O¬5) bonded to aluminum oxide/hydroxide layer Al2 (OH)4 called gibbsite layers and repeating layer of the mineral are hydrogen bonded together. (Rost, 1992; Bish, 1993; Klein and Kuribut, 1993; Slivka, 2002).

Kaolin is a plastic raw material, particular consisting of clay mineral kaolinite. In systematic mineralogy, Kaolin ranks among phyllosilicates, which are stratified clay minerals formed by a net of tetrahedral and octahedral layers. Phyllosillicates are classified into the main groups according to the type of layers, inter-layer contents, charge of the layers and chemical formulae. Besides kaolinite groups, serpentine, halloysite, pyrofylite, mica and montmorillonite groups also rank among phylllosillicates. Group of kaolinites includes di-octahedral mineral with two layers and one silica (SiO4) tetrahedral layer and one aluminum (Al2(OH)4) octahedral layer. The layers are bondecd together by sharing oxygen anion between Al and Si together, these two layers are called platelets (Pauk,et al.,1962; Stejskal, 1971., Duda et al., and Hurlbut, 1993).

Kaolinite share the same chemistry as the mineral halloysite, dickeite and necrite. The four minerals are polymorphs as they have the same chemistry but different structures. All the minerals were derived from chemical alteration of aluminum rich silicate minerals, such as feldspars. However, they could be found as sedimentary deposits as well as hydrothermal alteration product of rocks containing a high of alumino-silicate minerals.
Kaolin is formed under acidic conditions through weathering or hydrothermal change of feldspars, and to a lower extent also other weathered kaolin deposits, kaolin clay or may be a compound of kaolinite, sandstones and olitic ironstones, and less frequently also of pegmatite and hydrothermal deposit. The most significant kaolin deposits were formed through intensive weathering of rock rich in feldspars (granite, arkoses, certain types of ortho-gneisses and migmatites).

Millions of years ago, original material was decomposed by weathering, giving rise to kaolin and silica combined with higher or lower amounts of admixtures.(Bernard, el al; 1992).


1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study

Aim of this study is to determine the suitable industrial application of kaolin from location investigated.

To achieve the above stated aim, the following objective will be carried out:

  1. Determination of mineralogical composition of the kaolin deposits
  2. Determination of the chemical/oxide composition of the deposits
  3. Determination of the physical and engineering properties of the kaolin deposits.

1.3 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The purpose of this project covers two deposits, the Kpankorogi and the Ijero-Ekiti kaolin deposits. Samples were collected from each of the deposits for oxide analysis, mineralogical composition as well as the determination of the engineering and physical properties. The numbers of samples are limited due to cost constraint. Samples are collected from each of the deposits for both the oxides and mineralogical analyses. This particular study does not include reserve estimation, but this is recommended for future workers.


1.4 Research Justification

Since Kaolin is a widely used industrial material, determination of chemical composition, mineralogical composition and engineering properties is very important. It will enable the suitable industrial and economic applications of Kaolin.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Compositional features and industrial applications of Kpankorogi and ijero Ekiti kaolin clay were analysed based on mineralogy, Chemical composition and physical characteristics of the deposits. This is with the view to determining its suitability as industrial raw material. From the study, it is Obtained that kpankorogi kaolin clay deposit is predominantly Quartz but with high SiO2 and Al2O3 contents, while ijero Ekiti kaolin clay deposit is predominantly orthoclase with high SiO2 and Al2O3 contents.

We can therefore, conclude that both the kpankorogi and Ijero- Ekiti kaolin deposits can only be used in industrially if beneficiated, because they do not completely meet all the required specifications in their industrial form.


5.2 Recommendation

In other to have the best quality products and become one of the nations with high quality products, chemical, mineralogical and reliable geotechnical data on every mineral resource should be made available. This will go a long way to reduce importation and increase the standard of our indigenous or local industrial products in view of this the following recommendations are made:

  1. Further work should be carried out on the engineering properties while the reserve estimation of these deposits should be done to ascertain the commercial potential of the deposits.
  2. Government of Nigeria should sensitize various industries on the numerous industrial applications of kaolin through their agencies Such as Raw Material Research and Development Council and others, so as to encourage mining and the use of kaolin.
  3. Fund should also be made available for extensive research work on kaolin.
  4. Favorable environment should be provided for local and foreign investors in raw materials (kaolin inclusive) development.

The Suitable Industrial Application Of Kaolin From The Kpankorogi And The Ijero-Ekiti Kaolin Deposits


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The Suitable Industrial Application Of Kaolin From The Kpankorogi And The Ijero-Ekiti Kaolin Deposits


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