A Study Of Solid Waste Generation Management Practices And Its Impact On The Environment (A Case Study Of University Of Maiduguri)

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

A Study Of Solid Waste Generation Management Practices And Its Impact On The Environment (A Case Study Of University Of Maiduguri)


Abstract


A study focused on the solid waste generation, management practices and its impacts on the environment a case study of the University of Maiduguri Campus. Assessment of solid waste was done by measuring 60cm3 of solid waste sample at each of the dumping site 4 dumping site were used mainly. Sardauna Hall, Ado Bayero Hall, Commercial centers and University staffs. Results from the survey component comprised of 57% of polythene which is the highest followed by plastic, paper, metals, food residue and used cloths. Most residential quarters and hostels had a higher number of occupants resulting in a high rate of solid waste generation. Sorting out of solid waste which is advantageous and the first step towards solid waste management was not practiced. They stated that effects such as breeding sites for disease causing vectors, air, waste and land pollution, blocking of drainage, irrigation, injuries by sharp objects causes cancer, respiratory problem and abortion by emission of toxic gasses, flooding, land degradation, untidy environment and attraction of rodent and scavengers. Another finding of this study is that 48% of students and staff respondents in the university campus showed that lack of dumping sites is the reason for improper disposal of wastes. The study suggested awareness creation enforcement of environment sanitation edicts, frequent cleaning or cleaning of waste, provision of standard dumping site and dustbin, proper burning of solid waste and most important the use of 3R’s which are recycled, reuse reduce as a won by which the generation, management practices of solid waste can be improved in University of Maiduguri campus.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of content
  • List of tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Brief History of University of Maiduguri
  • 1.2 Definition of terms
  • 1.2.1 Definition of waste
  • 1.2.2 Waste concentration
  • 1.2.3 Waste management
  • 1.3 Statement of the problem
  • 1.4 Significant of the study
  • 1.5 Scope and limitation
  • 1.6 Aims and objectives

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Waste management and disposal as a major problem
  • 2.3 Types of wastes
  • 2.3.1 Biodegradable waste (BDW)
  • 2.3.2 Biomedical waste (BMW)
  • 2.3.3 Commercial waste (CW)
  • 2.3.4 Municipal solid waste (MSW)
  • 2.3.5 Hazardous waste
  • 2.4 Waste management
  • 2.4.1 Waste handling, separation, storage and processing
  • 2.4.2 Waste separation, processing and transformation
  • 2.4.3 Transfer and transport
  • 2.4.4 Method of waste disposal
  • 2.5 Problem of solid waste mismanagement in Nigeria
  • 2.6 Effect of solid waste mismanagement
  • 2.6.1 Environmental degradation
  • 2.6.2 Pollution
  • 2.6.3 Health consequences
  • 2.6.4 National resource depletion

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Study area or site
  • 3.2 Method of survey
  • 3.3 Assessment of solid waste samples
  • 3.4 Method of information collection
  • 3.5 Method of data analysis and presentation

Chapter Four

4.0 Results

  • 4.1 Types of solid waste generated on the campus of university of Maiduguri
  • 4.2 Types of solid waste generated in the respective staff quarters, hostels, commercial areas ad university staff quarters
  • 4.3 Shows the different disposal systems at the staff quarters, Hostels, commercial centers and university staff
  • 4.4 Shows the frequency of solid waste disposal at the different staff quarters, hostels, commercial center and university staff
  • 4.5 Method of disposal
  • 4.6 Various effects cited by the respondent
  • 4.7 Reasons for the improper solid waste disposal by respondent
  • 4.8 Recommendation by respondent on the solution of waste disposal problems in the University Campus
  • 4.9 Personal observation o the disposal and management of solid waste at the University Campus

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II
  • References

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Types of solid waste generated on the campus of university
  • Table 2: Types of solid wastes generated in the respective staff quarters, hostels commercial areas and by staff (Academics and non-academics)
  • Table 3: Indicates the different disposal systems at the staff quarters, hostels, commercial centers and university staff
  • Table 4: Shows the frequency of solid waste disposal at the different staff quarters, hostels, commercial center and university staff
  • Table 5: Methods of disposal
  • Table 6: Various effects cited by the respondent
  • Table 7: Reasons for the improper solid waste disposal by respondent

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

This chapter is about ‘A Study of Solid Waste Generation Management Practices and its Impact on the Environment” a case study of University of Maiduguri, has the following subheading to explain.


1.1 Brief History of University of Maiduguri, Borno State

Borno state is located on location longitude 10o – 25o east. It is the largest state in Nigeria in terms of land mass. It is located in the North-eastern zone of Nigeria and occupies greater part of the Chad Basin sharing boarder with the Republic of Niger to the North, Chad to the North East and Cameroon to the East.

The study area is University of Maiduguri which is situated along Bama Road of Maiduguri town in Borno State.


1.2 Definition of Terms

1.2.1 Definition of Waste

Waste is any substance or object which the holders discards or intend or is required to be discard. Waste is an unwanted material generated from both consumption and production cycle in which the processor no longer considers valuable to retain (Doan 1998; UNEP 2002; Zurbrugg 2003).

1.2.2 Waste Generation

Waste generation encompasses activities in which materials are no longer of value and are either thrown out or gathered together for disposal. These wastes may be found in different physical state such as gaseous, liquids or solid. Further, there is a hazardous waste, treatment and solidification process might be available. Some of the most common universal wastes are florescent light buds, some special batteries (e.g lithium or lead containing batteries), cathode ray tubes and mercury containing devices.
Universal wastes are subjected to somewhat less stringent regularly requirements and small quantity of universal wastes may be classified as conditionally exempt small quantity generators (CESQGs) which releases them from some of the regulatory requirement for handling and storage of waste (Zurbrugg, 2003).

1.2.3 Waste Management

Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing or disposal managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activities and it is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetic. Waste management is a district practice from resources. The management of waste treats all materials as a single class, whether solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances and tried to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of each through different methods (Daskalopolous et al 1998; Cointreau, 1982).
Management for non-hazardous waste (Domestic and Institutional waste), Non-hazardous waste (commercial and Industrial waste) is usually the responsibilities of University of Maiduguri Confer Cleaners.


1.3 Statement of Problem

The amount of solid waste produced by students and staff at the University of Maiduguri campus is rapidly increasing due to the growth in the population of students and staffs. Existing collection and disposal facilities are inadequate to effectively take care of solid waste generated on campus. Therefore, emission of bad odor due to rotten vegetables, faucal matter, bleeding of insect such as flies, mosquitoes and cockroaches are the main problems associated with poor solid waste management at the University of Maiduguri campus.


1.4 Significant of the Study

Authors like Berry and Horton (1999) have shown great concern on refuse. Others like Brooks and Brooks (2001) have written intensively on refuse disposal therefore, this study will provide an insight on effective solid waste disposal, generation, management practices and its impact on the environment to enable proper refuse disposal system on the campus.

However, with increase in the amount of refuse generated by students and staff on daily basis, it is very important to carry out this research work at the University of Maiduguri campus where the ill effects attributed to poor sanitation can be pin-pointed.

The information obtained in this study will enhance the need for proper solid waste disposal and management at the University of Maiduguri, to make or educate the cleaners aware of effective methods of refuse disposal so as to take precaution in carrying them out.


1.5 Scope and Limitation of Study

The study is restricted to solid waste generation at University of Maiduguri campus. It includes the collection, disposal and transportation of solid waste generated in the campus.


1.6 Aims and Objectives

  1. To identify and classify solid waste generated on the campus
  2. To identify the system of collection, disposal and transport of solid waste in University of Maiduguri campus.
  3. To evaluate the problems associated with solid waste management and suggest possible solution.

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