A Study Of The Physico-Chemical Parameters And Heavy Metal Concentration In Water And Sediment

Project and Seminar Material for Fishery and Aquaculture

A Study Of The Physico-Chemical Parameters And Heavy Metal Concentration In Water And Sediment


A study of the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals contamination in water and sediments of Ogbe-Ijoh waterside of Warri river, Delta state, Nigeria was carried out between February and July 2013. All samples were taken from three different points along the river. The physico-chemical parameters of the water samples were measured both in-situ and in the laboratory. The parameters measured included air and water temperature, pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), dissolved oxygen (DO1), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), transparency, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, ammonium-nitrogen (NH3-N), chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

The range values of the measured parameters were compared with World Health Organisation (WHO) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) standards. The findings showed that all the physico-chemical parameters measured were within the tolerable value ranges except pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and phosphates (PO43-). The pH of the water was found to be between 5.49 to 7.98; showing a moderately acidic to neutral condition in the study area as opposed to WHO (7.0 – 8.5) and FEPA (6.00 – 9.00) limits. COD exceeded WHO and FEPA limits (10mg/l) with the range values of 7.60-71.92mg/l while phosphates with range values between 0.18 – 0.90mg/l exceeded WHO (0.26mg/l) and FEPA (0.50mg/l) limits.

The results from the heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb and Hg) assessed for both water and sediments showed that Cd, Ni, Mn and Cr were not detected in the water but were detected in the sediments; however, Hg was detected in neither water nor sediment. The mean concentration of metals in water were 0.25±0.38mg/l (Cr) and 0.13±0.06mg/l (Pb), and mean concentration of metals in sediment were 4.13±2.06mg/kg (Cd), 107.90±16.08mg/kg (Mn), 2.08±0.63mg/kg (Ni), 1.61±0.52mg/kg (Cr) and 72.03±11.2mg/kg (Pb). These values exceeded WHO and FEPA limits thus suggesting thatthe water is unfit for consumption, therefore, frequent monitoring of physico-chemical parameters of Ogbe-Ijoh waterside of Warri river is imperative.

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Water is a finite resource that is very essential for the human existence, agriculture and industry thus, inadequate quantity and quality of water have serious impact on sustainable development. In developing countries such as Nigeria, people have little or no option but to accept water sources of doubtful quality, due to lack of better alternative sources or due to economic and technological constraints to treat the available water adequately before use (Calamari and Naeve, 1994; Aina and Adedipe, 1996). The scarcity of clean water and pollution of fresh water has therefore led to a situation in which one-fifth of the urban dwellers in developing countries and three-quarter of their rural dwelling population do not have access to reasonably safe water supplies (Lloyd and Helmer, 1992).

Water quality characteristics of aquatic environment arise from a multitude of physical, chemical and biological interactions. A regular monitoring of water bodies with required number of parameters in relation to water quality prevents the outbreak of diseases and occurrence of hazards. According to Wotton (1992), material pollution of rivers is caused by toxic pollutants (heavy metals, phenols and insecticides, among others) that have direct adverse effect on aquatic biota and by-pollutants (human and animal waste) that indirectly affect aquatic biota, which are not toxic but due to bacterial action on them, dissolved oxygen is used up which harms aquatic biota. Assessment of water is not only for suitability for human consumption but also in relation to its agricultural, industrial, recreational, commercial uses and for its ability to sustain aquatic life. Water quality monitoring is therefore a fundamental tool in the management of freshwater resources.

The biotic component of the aquatic ecosystem, which consists of fauna and flora, are indispensable economic resources. Major components of aquatic fauna are the finfish and shellfish (shrimps, prawns, crabs, lobsters, clams, scallops, periwinkles and oysters among others). Rural artisans who depend on fisheries as a means of livelihood concentrate on shallow water bodies like rivers, creeks, lakes and lagoons for their fishing expedition; this is due to their inability to explore larger water bodies because of limited capital. In Nigeria, the artisanal fisheries sector produces bulk of fish consumed by the populace; in addition, this fisheries sector provides income, employment, raw materials and foreign exchange to the Nigerian populace and the nation (Kumolu-Johnson, 2004).

However, in recent times, Nigeria inland water bodies have been subjected to various forms of degradation due to pollution arising from domestic wastes, industrial effluent, agricultural run-offs, oil spillage, mine effluents and obnoxious fishing practices (Ndimele, 2008). The result is that the associated fishery, the biota and the ecosystem upon which fishers depend for a living are destroyed and consumption of fish caught from such polluted water bodies poses severe danger to the consumers (Kumolu-Johnson et al., 2005). One of such pollutants is heavy metals.
The term “heavy metals” refers to any metallic element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous even at low concentration (Lenntech, 2004). “Heavy metals” is a general collective term, which applies to the group of metals and metalloids with atomic density greater than 4 g/cm3 or 5 times or more, greater than water (Garbarino et al., 1995; Hawkes, 1997). Heavy metals are pollutants that have been a source of concern for aquatic ecologists because most of them are non-biodegradable; once they enter the system of a biota, they persist there and bio-accumulate along the food chain (Ndimele et al., 2009). The presence of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems is the result of two main sources of contamination; natural processes or natural occurring deposits and anthropogenic activities.

In the fresh water environment, toxic metals are potentially accumulated in water, sediments and aquatic organisms and are subsequently transferred to man through the consumption of these aquatic organisms and from consumption of water from these aquatic bodies. Studies on heavy metals in rivers, lakes, fish and sediments have been a major environmental focus especially during the last decade (Fernandes et al., 2008; Pote et al., 2008; Praveena et al., 2008). Sediments have been reported to form the major repository of heavy metals in the aquatic ecosystem while both allochthonous and autochthonous influences could make a concentration of heavy metals in the water high enough to be of biological significance (Oyewo and Don-Pedro, 2003). Water is commonly employed as a pollution indicator by heavy metals and sediments can provide a deeper insight into the long-term pollution state of the water body (Ikem et al., 2003). Heavy metal content in rivers may vary between the water column and the bed sediments. However, variation in concentration of parameters depends on concentration from processes operating within the catchments. Some heavy metals found in water and sediments include Lead, Mercury, Chromium, Manganese, Nickel, Cadmium, Copper, Cobalt, Iron and Selenium, amongst others.

This study is geared towards determining the physico-chemical parameters and concentration of heavy metals in the water and bottom sediments of Warri river, located in Warri, Delta state, Nigeria, with a view to establishing a basic data on the current pollution status of the river. The results obtained from this study would also provide information on current levels of metals in the water and sediments of the river, contributing to the effective monitoring of both environmental quality and health of the organisms inhabiting the river.

1.2 Justification

Water is important, directly or indirectly, to human and animal life and thus, requires that proper attention be given to its quality, consisting of the physical and chemical characteristics, which motivated this study. The many human activities in the last decade have increased the metal mobility in the environment, and heavy metals happen to be one of the main pollutants in aquatic systems as some metals are persistent thus becoming potentially dangerous to biota.

Over the years, some work has been done on the physico-chemical parameters of some creeks along Warri River (Peretiemo-Clarke et al., 2009; Ogunlaja and Ogunlaja, 2007), but there has been limited study on the physico-chemical parameters as well as heavy metal contaminants of the Ogbe-Ijoh waterside of the Warri river, hence the need for this study. The study will also provide baseline data for future work on the river.

1.3 Aims and Objectives

The main aim of this study is to investigate and determine the physico-chemical parameters and concentration of some selected heavy metals in the water and sediment of Ogbe-Ijoh waterside. This would be achieved by:

  1. Determining the physico-chemical parameters of the water
  2. Determining the heavy metal concentration in water and sediments of Ogbe-Ijoh waterside
  3. Inferring if the water from the river is safe for consumption and for the sustenance of the aquatic organisms inhabiting the biota when compared against set standards by Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) and World Health Organisation (WHO).

Project Material Download

3,000 Naira

The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…

Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank Plc Account No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card


Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | 08143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • A Study Of The Physico-Chemical Parameters And Heavy Metal Concentration In Water And Sediment

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | Terms and Conditions Apply

You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search

Follow us on Facebook                       Contact Our Help Desk

Follow us on Facebook

 Contact Our Help Desk

Want a discount?
Become a partner and you can always buy at a lower price


You can leverage this opportunity and maximize your profit:

  1. If you are a student that needs a side income.
  2. If you own a business center near school (top notch)
  3. If you are a final year student
  4. If you are a course representative in your school
  5. If you assist students in getting research materials (top notch)

Click Here for More Details

A Study Of The Physico-Chemical Parameters And Heavy Metal Concentration In Water And Sediment


This research material “A Study Of The Physico-Chemical Parameters And Heavy Metal Concentration In Water And Sediment” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “A Study Of The Physico-Chemical Parameters And Heavy Metal Concentration In Water And Sediment” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

How to defend your research work

This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “A Study Of The Physico-Chemical Parameters And Heavy Metal Concentration In Water And Sediment“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “A Study Of The Physico-Chemical Parameters And Heavy Metal Concentration In Water And Sediment” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resources Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.