Study On The Availability And Utilization Of ICT Facilities In Public Library (A Case Study Of Imo State Public Library Unuahia)
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This project is dedicated to God Almighty who gave me wisdom and understanding in carrying out this work. I also dedicate this research work to my beloved and wonderful parents Mr / Mrs Emmanuel Bassey Ebong who contributed in one way or the other to make this work a success.
My profound gratitude goes to the Almighty God for His mercies, protection and goodness all through my academic struggle.
I won’t fail to acknowledge my parents Mr. & Mrs. Emmanuel Bassey Ebong for their financial support, their advice, encouragement and their prayers, I pray may God keep them alive to reap the good fruit of their labour.
I’m also grateful to my siblings, Luvdien, Ekemini and Abasi-akan and also to my friends and love ones, Ukeme-obong, Udofia, Umoh Sunday, Uboho Isonguyo and others to mention but a few. I am forever indebted to you all, may God in His infinite mercies see you all through your endeavours in life.
I also acknowledge all the authors whose works were consulted, my HOD, Mr. Anyanwu Emmanuel, my supervisor Mr. OGB Nnadimele and all the lecturers in the Department of Library and Information Science who have assisted me in one way or the other to make this work a reality, what more can I say to these important fellows. May God reward you all, Amen.
This study is on the availability and utilization of information and communication technology facilities in public libraries (A case study of Imo state public library, Unuahia). The population comprises of all the staff of Imo state public library.
The sample was a total number of 50 staffs and 50 copies of the questionnaire in all were distributed to the staff under study and to test the validity of the assumption. Data generated were analyzed using frequency tables and mean. It was found among others that ICT availability and utilization in Imo state public library is necessary.
It was also recommended among other that training on internet search skill should be given to the managements and for staffs, a course concerning ICT usage and practical make adequate sue of the ICT facilities.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Background of study 5
- 1.2 Statement of the problem 11
- 1.3 Objectives of the study 11
- 1.4 Research questions 12
- 1.5 Scope of the study 13
- 1.6 Significance of the study 13
- 1.7 Historical background 13
- 1.8 Definition of operation basic concept 17
- 2.0 Literature review 20
- 2.1 Introduction 20
- 2.2 Availability of ICT facilities by Imo state public library 20
- 2.3 Kinds of ICT facilities available to the staff 25
- 2.4 The rational of using ICT facilities in learning and research30
- 2.5 Challenges associated with ICT utilization by library staff 31
- 2.6 Proffer solutions to these challenges 33
- 2.7 The students usage of library and information communication Technology for research 34
- 2.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of the information communication Technology 38
- 2.9 The danger of information communication technology 40
- 2.10 Factors militating against the effective students usage of library and information communication technology for research facilities in education research 42
- 2.11 The role of Information communication technology in teaching and learning 44
- 3.0 Research methodology 47
- 3.1 Introduction 47
- 3.2 Research design 47
- 3.3 Population of the study 48
- 3.4 Sample size and sampling technique 48
- 3.5 Instrument for data collection 48
- 3.6 Validation of the instrument 48
- 3.7 The questionnaire 49
- 3.8 Procedure for data collection 49
- 3.9 Method of data analysis 49
- 4.0 Data presentation and analysis 50
- 4.1 Introduction 50
- 5.0 Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations 55
- 5.1 Introduction 55
- 5.2 Summary of findings 55
- 5.3 Conclusion 56
- 5.4 Recommendations 57
- References 59
- Bibliography 59
- Appendix 61
- Questionnaire 62
The term “information and communication technologies” (ICT) is defined as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and create, disseminate, store and manage information (Blurton 1999:46). It is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing:radio, television, cellular phones, computer and internet hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.
The key purpose of any library is to provide a quality service:access to relevant information (Buckland, 1992) to computers, information networks and software applications. These technologies are making it possible for libraries to provide a variety of library and information services to clientele. All the functions and services that academic librarians used to provide manually can be provide now through the use of ICTs which can do things better and faster. To mention some of the opportunities presented by ICTs to the librarians according to Haliso (2007) and Chisenga (2006) are:
- Organization of information for use
- Capacity building
- Management information system
- Digital libraries
- Resource sharing / document delivery
Academic libraries are libraries in institutions of higher learning which are devoted to academic activities of their parent institutions. They support teaching, learning and research, they include university, polytechnic and college libraries. Their mission is providing quality information services and knowledge products (print and electronic) to resident community of scholars in other to function and provide timely information at a faster speed to lecturers, researchers and students, it would appear that administrators of academic libraries realized the important role information and communication technologies (ICTs) play in the job performance and so made information and communication technologies (ICTs) available to their work force.
From the global point of view, it appears that there is tacit consent that a relationship exists between use of information and communication technology and job enhancement of libraries (Ajayi, 2001). Stephen (1995) submits that the use of information technology provide significant benefits in work measurement, cost reduction, productivity improvement and better services to customers and clients. Actually it is availability which make use possible and it is sue that make performance attainable. So, the combined effect of availability of information and communication technologies can enhance the job performance of the library staff through the application of the ICTs by the librarians (Rosenberg 2005; Mphidi 2004; Chitene, 2000; Lancaster and Sandore, 1997; Siddique, 1997). This cannot be achieved unless academic libraries realize the tremendous role information and communication technologies could play to enhance effective services. Rosenberg (2005) submitted that libraries need to develop a strategic information and communication plan that would enhance the deployment of ICts in their libraries. The ICT deployment and application is done by academic librarians who are trained to man specific sectors of the library (Tenant, 1995).
In Canada, the use of ICTs and job performance of librarians is recorded. A report prepared by the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) revealed that in the year 2000/2001, academic libraries subscribed to 436, 731 electronic journals. The same report also states that librarians are leaders in using technology to transform traditional library resources and services to meet the challenge of the 21st century.
In Singapore, Chia, Lee and Yeo (1998) report that a committee was set up by the government and mandated to design an information technology plan for the nation. The National library of Singapore on its part took an initiative in ensuring all libraries especially academic libraries are ICT based. In Saudi Arabia, Siddique (1997) carried out a study on the sue of ICT in academic libraries and the finding reveals that out of the six universities surveyed majority of the libraries had internet, one kind of library software or the other, CD-ROM facility, OPAC services, FAX and E-mail services. It is eight years since Siddique carried out this study and if the same study were to be carried out today; the findings would be totally different.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Since the information communication technology is available to wide sectors of the world’s population, many educational establishment have seized on its educational potentials, it is assumed that the development today is measured by the penetration of the information communication technology from the available trend, the mobile information communication technology is a strong innovation in the unfolding world of mobile facilities.
With the advent of the information communication technology, education has benefited in more ways than can be mention. Although it will not take over the traditional methods of education, it can be said that, up till now the information communication technology has continued to play a major role in the educational sectors.
Information communication technology browsing came into Delta state polytechnic (DSPO) Agborain the year 2005 with establishment of Afribank, powered by Zinox computer over 100 computer systems were installed in the ICT centre and students have access to the information communication technology browsing facilities on campus. Students that don’t have the ideal of information communication technology browsing were taught through the arrangement made by the school management in collaboration with Afribank LLC and this helped many students to solve their problems online independently especially in handling assignments and research works.
Although the use of the information and communication technology as an educational tools has many advantages, there are also some draw backs because the information communication technology can be unfriendly environment for first time users but with frequent usage, one can become familiar pretty quick.
Irrespective of the fact that students have access to the information communication technology for unlimited researches, there are mixed appraisal on the extend of availability and utilization of information and communication technology in public library Delta state polytechnic Agbora.
In polytechnic system, there are facilities that facilitate teaching, learning and research, apart from the classroom, teaching materials, chairs and desks. One of this is ICT.
ICT facilities in the words of Ebijuwa (2005) is described as tools for collection, processing, storage, transmission and dissemination of information. To Anyakoha (2005) ICT is the electronic means of capturing, processing, storing and disseminating information.
Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipments to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data.
However, there are kinds of ICT facilities. They include mobile phones, television, computers, radio conferencing outfit, the internet and expert systems to name but a few.
Indeed ICT has been beneficial to both staffs and managements. Mobile phones ahs made communication easy. According to (Okoye and Nwegbu 2008) mobile telephony has increased people’s sense of security and fundamentally altered the volumes, practices and overall culture of communication. Text messaging provide means of creating and strengthening social bonds particularly among staffs.
Television are not left out, as another kind of ICT facilities, with the help of satellites, television broadcasts can be viewed with across continents. In addition to educational, informational as well as relaxation and entertainment programmes which television provide, picture from television broadcast convey horrors of war, disasters and famine all this educated both the staffs and management in other hand also sue the computer to types and carryout research.
For teaching and research, the managements prepare for lectures and carryout research through the aids of the internet has made, most times in writing their textbooks and handout.
It is said that everything that has advantage also has a disadvantage. ICT has its own problems. Most staffs are not aware of ICT facilities and its uses. Some are ignorant of the computer illiterate. They do not know how to make use of the computer to retrieve information from it. Staffs spend more time on the television learning more on things that has its threats to the society. For example, foreign television stations are fond of shooting criminal films such as kidnapping, armed robbery, drug abuse and drug trafficking, prostitution and unbridled use of short guns by the undergo this has a way of contributing negatively to the academic sector and the society at large.
To provide solutions to the above problems, schools are to encourage computer education by introducing a course that will expose the staffs on the educational use of computer and also the importance of computer knowledge and internet. Management should also be sent for computer training course often to increase their educational skills which will aids them in teaching and research. Staffs should be warned against danger and implication of internet fraud, hacking and all other social vices caused by ICT.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Information communication technology (ICT) have been portrayed as double-edged saws. They have been acclaimed as very useful tools which have changed the work processes endowed both staffs and managements with skills and have advanced developments especially in developing countries in the academic and employment sector yet, they have been implicated in the skilling some staffs in renderings some categories of staffs facilities. The problem of this study is to therefore identify the extent of availability and utilization of ICT facilities by library staff from learning and research.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The objectives of the study include the following:
- To identify the extent of availability of ICT facilities by Imo state public library.
- To identify the kinds of ICT facilities available to these staffs.
- To identify the rationale of using ICT facilities in learning and research.
- To identify the challenges associated with ICT utilization by library staff of the Imo state public library.
- To proper solutions to these challenges.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will find answers to the following questions.
- What is the extent of availability of ICT facilities by Imo state public library.
- What kind of ICT facilities available to these staffs?
- What are the rationale of using ICT facilities in learning and research?
- What are the challenges associating with the ICT utilization by the library staff of Imo state public library.
- What are the proper solutions to these challenges?
1.5 Scope Of The Study
The study was limited to staffs of Imo state public library Owerri. The research will cover virtually the availability and utilization of ICT facilities.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The result will show the need for ICT availability and utilization. It will also benefit the staffs, as it will awaken them on the frequent use of ICT facilities in public library which they will all appreciate.
1.7 Historical Background
Historical background of Imo state public library, Unuahia Imo state library from the year 1976-2011. Imo state library board came out from eastern regional library board. It was later part of eastern central library. On 3rd February 1976, more states were created in Nigeria and Imo state was one of those states. It was carried out of the former eastern central state.
As a result of this creation, the east central library board broke into Anambra and Imo state library board.
However, it was only in September 1976, that the indigenous Imo state staff in Enugu transferred to Owerri to establish the administrative headquarters of Imo state library board. The mobility was in part because printing binding and reprography staff was the last to move by the end of September, 1976 prior to the movement, the assets and liabilities of the former east central state library board were shared. The Anambra state library board retained the buildings and fixed asset whole fiscal cash and information resources were shared consequently, Owerri divisional library which was under completion was hurriedly finished and sued as the headquarter.
The new library was opened to the public on the 12th of November, 1976 by the military governor commander Godwin Ndubuisis Kanu. The building is also designed to house on the ground floor the children’s library, the acquisition and cataloguing departments, the information consultancy unit, the staff reading room and the reprographic unit as well as the auditoria housing. There is also the handicap section which was opened by the military governor of Imo state commander Amadi Ibekweghe on 1st November, 1989 and the exhibition which was taken over by the NTA.
The first floor contains one references, circulation and adult lending section. The library began its operation with a financial provision of N564,837-66 for the financial year 1976/1977.
The sum was made up of N246,832 66 being financial inheritance from the east central state library board and N360,000 as financial addition, a sum of 500,000 was to cover its capital expenditure for the year 1877.
The library started its operation with a total of 150 staffs and a stock of 1,350 volumes. At present the total staff is 108 December 2006 and June 2007, the staff strength is 112.
The history will be incomplete without mentioning the carving out of Abia state from Imo state in September 1991. The resultant effect of this emergence of Abia state library board. This led to the sharing of assets and liabilities between the new Imo state library board and Abia state library board. This sharing was completed in November 1991. It is worthy of note that most of the divisional libraries and branch libraries want Abia state out of 17 divisional and branch libraries, Imo state library board inherited only 7.
The library materials and utilization provided by the library under this study is as follows:
- Orientation of new users
- Inter-library loan of the library materials
- Bindery and reprographic library material
- Readers advisory library material
- Holding of library exhibition including display of new addition of the library etc.
1.8 Definition Of Operation Basic Concept
The following are defined to make the indepth understanding of the study:
Information Communication Technology
Knowledge gained through one’s own perceptions or by means of information, enlightenment.
The act of using
The act, process or experience of gaining knowledge or skill
Scholarly or scientific investigation or inquiry
Is concerned with what energizes human behavior is maintained or sustained to achieve organizational goals improved staff production and low turnover (Onwubiko, 2004)
Is a staff or employees of an organization (Nwachukwu, 2005)
The materials of the evidence of something which has caused to exist or surviving from a paragraph.
There are man-made objects that provide evidence of an ancient culture, a work of art, it stressing, its character as a product or making a structure.
the process of keeping something in it original state or in a good condition.
The prevention of loss, waste, damage, or the case and management of materials for effective use and to last long.
Public records or historical document kept in a recognized repository of document which formed part of official references; these include document specially made for and those included in an official transaction.
A document which is expected to be kept permanent as near as possible in its original form, for the evidence which might attend both itself and in its context.
A person whose job is to develop and manage an archive.
Records – Centre:
A record also called limbo is an intermediate record depository which receives, stores services, process and provides security for records that are sufficiently active to be retained in office space but are not fresh to be returned.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
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You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.