A Study Of Incorporating Entrepreneurship Development Skills For Self-Employment Into Otm Programme Curriculum

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management (OTM)

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management (OTM)


This research was set out to investigate incorporating entrepreneurship development skills to self employment into OTM programme curriculum. The major purpose of this study was to find out the entrepreneurship skills necessary for secretaries who wish to run a self-owned business.

The area of study was Aba. The population for this study consisted of 40 self employed secretaries and 60 business educators within Aba metropolis. The sample was made up of 20 secretaries and 40 business educators, four research question were answered.

The questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection, which was analyzed using mean count, the findings showed that entrepreneurship development skills for self employment are necessary in OTM programme curriculum as this will help boost the secretaries chances of running self owned business hereby escape the range unemployment, which has extent deep in the country. Secretaries should be equipped with skills especially in the area of the new technologies.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication i
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Research question
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Delimitation of study
  • 1.8 Definition of term

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 The implication of entrepreneurship
  • 2.2 Summary of review of related literature

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Area of study
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample of the data study
  • 3.5 Instrument for the data collection
  • 3.6 Validation of the study
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation of Data and Analysis

  • 4.1 Analysis of Research question
  • 4.2 Summary of the findings
  • 4.3 Discussion on findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Restatement of the problem
  • 5.2 Summary of the procedure used in the study
  • 5.3 Implication of the study
  • 5.4 Conclusions
  • 5.5 Recommendations
  • 5.6 Suggestion for further research
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

The dominant socio-economic problem of the present decade in Nigeria is unemployment. It is wide spreading notion that without some special programmes which are indispensable the economy cannot make use of the labour force of her people of her people

This disturbing fear arises from rapid advancement in technology and wide spread application in offices, factories and firms. Many people now leave their own business. The movement has been response to changing job market and chance in value. Employment opportunities have become the only most important factor that influences the choice of educational programmes.

The changing value system in the society and the new life style are affecting career expectation and behavioural patterns of people. Individual must be flexibly trained to be adoptable to job opportunities. The central advancement in education is to help individuals become more mature, would their critical facilities, develop sensitivity of human value and maintain some personal independence.

Secretary-ship is necessary in the direction of management adjustment to live and not to career disgrace. Skill acquired in business education must be such that prepares the individuals to fit into any form of business of their choice thereby run away from the pangs of unemployment, this high rate of incidence of occupation mobility among secretaries curtailed.

The entry of secretaries into the field of self employment is what arises to the secretarial training, which has achieved the objectives of education thus help individual to become more equipped and mature maintain a personal level of independence.

Obosanya, (1990) maintain that those entrepreneurship programmes of secretaries should not cover only skill in use of various office machine and appliances. These skills should be backed with approrite demand for good social behaviour among people at all time.

Entrepreneurship occurs when an individual develop a new venture, a new approach to an old business or idea a unique way of giving the market to place a product or service by using resources in a new way under condition of risk.

An entrepreneur is define as a person who has the ability to identify and evaluate business opportunities and initiate appropriate action to ensure success.

To quality as an entrepreneur, it is not sufficient to be a business man just managing enterprises rather the entrepreneur has to be an originator of profitable business ideas, willing to risk personal energy and financial recourses to achieve unpredictable result. The entrepreneur is a catalyst of changeable to carry out new contribution instrumental in discovering new opportunities which is the uniqueness of entrepreneurial functions.

An entrepreneur is primary an innovator whose dynamic environmental makes him central to promotion of material growth. He is a person who undertakes the risk of stating a new business venture, he takes decision of what to produce. And formulate strategies to achieving the targeted objectives.

The decisions of the entrepreneur lead to innovation that stimulate pervasive economic change and progress. He alone directs the human and material resources in his business objective; he must be determined to risk his personal energy and he inspire confidence and loyalty among employees and associates. He assumes complete responsibilities for the operation and success of his enterprise, he should perceive order and arrange fundamental issues reacting promptly and accurately when decision are required.
Functions performed by an entrepreneur:

  1. Searches for and discover new information
  2. Translate new information into new markets, techniques and goods.
  3. Marshals the financial resources necessary for the enterprise.
  4. Provides leadership for the work group.

So this programme is aimed at producing not only job creators in the secretarial field who will be ready to employ others in their profession business concerns.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

It is widely known that the rate of unemployment in Nigeria is over whelming and that without special programme which can encourage entrepreneurship development in Nigeria the economy cannot make use of the labour force of its people.

In view of the increasing changes in technology and environment today’s business organization secretaries cannot function on their own without the knowledge of the competencies which act as equipping machinery for their self reliance.

Many cannot operate office machines communicate efficiently with good grammer, relate effectively with people, manage record information effectively and maintain attitudinal competenices, while the leakage of vital record appears to be rule rather than the exception

In view of this situation the problem of the study is therefore to determine the human relation skills, machine skills, communication skills, record / information management, managerial skills required of secretaries to operate private business.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The major purpose of this study is to find out the entrepreneurial skill necessary for secretaries for self- reliance.
This study specifically sought to identify the following:

  1. The human relations skills required of secretaries for self- reliance
  2. The office machine skills required of secretaries for self- reliance
  3. The business knowledge / managerial skills required of secretaries for self – reliance.
  4. The attitudinal competencies required secretaries for self-reliance.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the human relation skills required of secretaries for self – reliance?
  2. What are the office machines skills required of secretaries for self – reliance?
  3. What are the business knowledge / managerial skills required of secretaries for self – reliance?
  4. What are the attitudinal competencies required secretaries for self – reliance?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The study is going to be immense benefit to the individuals who have involved themselves in the field of office technology and management (OTM). It will serve as equipping machinery for them.

  1. The study will help to reveal the inadequacies of some office technology and management training institutions of public, whom the secretary have decided to serve. They will also take cognizance of the changes in offices operation.
  2. The study will help reduce the strain of unemployment on members of the secretarial body thus, help them in even offering management.
  3. The study will help the citizens at large to have in their possession, good number of well-trained secretaries in all nooks and crannies of the city.
  4. Finally, the study will help reveal the human relations skills, office machine skills, attitudinal competencies, business knowledge / management skills required of secretaries for self – employment.

1.6 Delimitation Of The Study

Although this is a topic of general concern, which suppose to comprise the contribution of many people. It is limited in scope only to human relations skill, attitudinal competencies also required of secretaries for self- reliance.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

Who Is A Secretary:

a secretary is an assistant to an executive, possessing mastery of the office skills and ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision. Who displays initiative, exercises judgment and make decisions with the scope of his / her authority.

Who Is Entrepreneur:

A person who has the ability to identify and evaluate business opportunities in the environment and initiative appropriate action to ensure success.

Who is an Educator:

A person whose job is to teach or educates people.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

In this chapter, the summary, conclusions and recommendations for further research are presented under the following headings: restatement of the problem, summary of the procedure used in the study, summary of the findings, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further research.

5.1 Restatement Of The Problem

It is widely known that the rate of unemployment in Nigeria is overwhelming and that without special programmes which can encourage entrepreneurial development in Nigeria, the economy cannot make use of the labour of its people, and increasing change in technology. In view of the above situation, the major problem of this study is to encourage the incorporation of entrepreneurship development skills into OTM programme curriculum. This will help secretaries obtain entrepreneurial skill so as to escape the pangs of unemployment. Some of these skills include; human relations skills, office machine skills, business knowledge/ managerial skills and attitudinal competences.

5.2 Summary Of The Procedure Used In The Study

A survey research design method was adopted for the study. Available literature related to the theme of this study was reviewed in order to get adequate background of information in this regard.

A survey of 40 business educator and 20 self employed secretaries within Aba metropolis was made to identify the basic entrepreneurial skills to be acquired by secretaries for self employment. There was vigorous literature reviewed and discussions with some experienced authors.

The subheadings under –went face validation by the project supervisor. Four research questions were formulated for the study. Data was analyzed using mean count and table. The grand mean was 2.5 on which decision was made. The researcher designed 24 questions validated by the project supervisor. Responses collected from the respondents were made up of 60 persons – 40 business educators and 20 self- employed secretaries. Questionnaire items were analyzed using response categories of strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree.

5.3 Implication Of The Study

From the findings so far, if entrepreneurship development skills are not incorparted into OTM programme curriculum, secretaries would be faced with the following:

  1. Lack of technological enlightenment
  2. Remain in their traditional status of those days
  3. Have little or no regard by the society
  4. Finally suffer unemployment

5.4 Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study the following conclusions were made:

  1. It is necessary that office based equipments are made available in institutions where secretaries are trained because most of the skills are basically acquired in schools.
  2. It is necessary that qualified entrepreneurs are employed so as to equip the secretaries with the needed entrepreneurial skills.
  3. If the opinion of business educators and self-employed secretaries regarding human relations skills and the office skills required of secretaries for self reliance are adopted, there will be effective entrepreneurship development.
  4. Since the major challenges facing our nation are unemployment and poverty. It has become necessary to diversify our profession to cater for the employment needs of our youths.
  5. Entrepreneurship education has to be made a compulsory course for all vocational and technical education students in institutions of higher learning.

5.5 Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusion of the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. More sophisticated modern machines should be made available in schools for adequate training on office machine skills some of such machines include computer with updated versions and installation, photocopier machines, fax machines etc.
  2. More business educators should be employed in schools for adequate training on entrepreneurial skills.
  3. The opinions of business educators and self employed secretaries regarding human relations skills and the office skills required of secretaries for self reliance should be adopted.
  4. Students should be taught entrepreneurial skills so that they can acquire life coping skills to enable them survive in the competitive economy.
  5. Government should fund education by helping to put in place the infrastructure and workshop equipment needed to train the students especially those in secretarial profession.

5.6 Suggestion For Further Research

This research work is not an end in itself, but is a stepping stone for further research. Further investigation should be carried out on this study in other to effectively ascertain the opinions of people in other states regarding the entrepreneurial skills required of secretaries for self-reliance.

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