A Study Of The Impact Of Teenage Girl Child Pregnancy On Academic Performance In Senior Secondary Schools In Oredo LGA, Edo State

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A Study Of The Impact Of Teenage Girl Child Pregnancy On Academic Performance In Senior Secondary Schools In Oredo LGA, Edo State


Abstract


This study was on the impact of teenage girl child pregnancy on academic performance in senior secondary schools in Oredo LGA, Edo State. The objectives of this study was to determine the level of awareness of challenges of pregnancy on academic performance among students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA; to ascertain the types of academic challenges due to pregnancy faced by students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA; and to determine the effects of pregnancy on the academic performance of students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA. A descriptive survey design was used in which 200 respondents were selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data that was analyzed using frequency, percentages and charts. Pilot study was conducted and reliability coefficient of 0.9 was obtained. The study revealed that (80.6%) of the pregnant students are aware of the challenges of pregnancy on academic, the students experience challenges such as physical discomfort in (38.7%), reduced concentration span in (17.7%) and missing of lectures in (85.5%). These affect their academics as they result in (30.6%) absenteeism, (27.4%) low academic performance, (24.2%) difficulty adjusting to motherhood as pregnant students and (17.7%) rewriting of courses. Based on the result of this study, the researcher assert that majority of the pregnant students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA are aware of challenges of pregnancy on academics, the students experience challenges such as; physical discomfort, reduced concentration span and missing some lectures which result in low performance, absenteeism, difficulty adjusting to motherhood as a pregnant student and rewriting of some courses (carry over). There is need for nurses to make more emphasis on family planning and appropriate arrangement for sexuality education. The professional body should set policies that will guide the students in area of pregnancy and studying.


Table of Content


Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis of the study
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition OF Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Effects of pregnancy on the academic performance of the student
  • 2.3 Factors associated with teenage unplanned pregnancies
  • 2.3.1 Family factors
  • 2.3.2 Influence of mass media
  • 2.3.3 Religious belief
  • 2.3.4 Ignorance/ lack of information
  • 2.3.5 Financial/Economic Factors
  • 2.4 Theoretical Review
  • 2.5 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Target population
  • 3.3 Sampling and Sample Size
  • 3.4 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary of the Study
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Education is a lifelong process that enables the continuous development of a person’s capability as an individual and as a member of the society according to Effle (2011). It is central to the development of young people as it prepares them for the world of work and life (Sibeko, 2012). Academic performance is the outcome of education simply meaning the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goal. Most university students today have sexual intercourse, usually with multiple partners according to Philip (2017). Many of those sexually active students use contraception; several do not. Since students are engaging in intercourse and some are failing to use contraceptives properly or not using contraceptives at all, it is not surprising that 12% of college students report either experiencing or being concerned in teenage girl child pregnancy (Elliot & Brantley, 2015).

Elliotet., al (2015) estimate that this number may be closer to 23% of college students. While both studies derived their percentages from different university student populations, both percentages are significant. Little descriptive information concerning the experience of teenage girl child pregnancy for college girls exists. Kanku and Mash (2010) also affirmed that falling pregnant while still at school happen at the wrong time for a girl as it affect very much their education and often ends up ruining their future.

Pregnancy is a condition when a child bearing mother is having a developing fetus or embryo insider her. Mfuh, Umma and Sunday (2013) described this as: “the most rewarding experience of a woman’s life which can also be a tremendous challenge. This is a period a woman undergoes several hormonal changes accomplished by discomfort, distraction and physiological transformation which may interfere with her studies in conjunction with her responsibilities at home as a wife for the married. Recent research in South Africa discovered that more than thirty percent (31.5%) of girl at age 18 have given birth at least once (Karra and lee, 2012). This statistics according to them shows that pregnancy especially that of the teenager is becoming more and more a barrier to girls’ education.

Marteleto, Lam and Ranchord (2013) continued to note that school girls’ pregnancy has been one of the major hindrances to the educational success of women. To which Changach (2012) concluded that this imposes long term consequences on the career development of these young mothers and hence is likely to lead to transmission of poverty from generation to generation.

According to Lynch and Ghosh (2013), “cultural norms prescribes different role for mothers (pregnant or nursing women) in all societies irrespective of their age, so as to be able to perform their varied care taking role in the family. With these responsibilities and the need to meet up the expectations from the academic field so as to fulfill ones career and destiny, Mngoma (2010) said that most pregnant students drop out of school or had to repeat grades several times. They may also not be socially and personally mature enough to assume the new role of parenthood (Boltin in Sibeko, 2012) together with being a student at same time. Also the emotional impact of the crisis of pregnancy which may in some instance end in the termination of the pregnancy could also result in the student experiencing post- abortion stress symptoms. These might have a detrimental effect on the student’s bio-psychosocial well-being, relationships and ultimately affect her academic performance.

Teenage girl child pregnancy is the highest cause for female students dropping out from school and poses serious health, social, and economic problems for students. Similarly, they reported that adolescent pregnancy is a major cause of interrupted and discontinue education. In Nigeria universities the increase rate of students involving in prenatal sex has predisposed the student to unwanted pregnancies either by their fiancé or boyfriend as is rampant in the various institutions. Pandyet., al (2013) opined that as young people spend longer periods in education, as part of the natural course of development, sexual experimentation and maturity is increasingly coinciding with them. More so, the number of years spent by the student in the institution seems to trigger the inability to control their urges for marriage until after graduating as registered nurses (RN). As the pregnant student are also expected to meet a minimum rate of academic progress which means passing 50% of the credit units for the subjects enrolled over the duration of the course, this paper therefore, proposes to explore how teenage girl child pregnancy affects the academic performance of student in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA.


1.2 Statement of Problem

US department of education (2013) reported that pregnancy is consistently the most common reason given by female student for dropping out of school. Data collected by the National centrefor education statistics in (2014), showed that 27.8% of the female students in 2002 and subsequently dropped out due to pregnancy. Similarly, a 2006 report found that, of 467 survey respondents age 16 through 25 who dropped out of public high schools in 25 different locations across the country, 26% of young men and young women combined, one-third of young women said that becoming a parent was a major factor in their decision to leave school to which they reported doing reasonably well in school before getting pregnant.

Being a student nurse requires high academic effort with utmost attention to meet with the high expectation of the student. This is time consuming and life exhausting in itself talk more combining it with the demand of pregnancy. Before now, every student nurse is restricted from furthering her course at least for one session after her 6months puerperium to enable her take care of her baby, recover fully and set properly to face her academic squarely, meaning that the student misses one whole year and join the junior class. The knowledge of family planning exposed through the course offered within the institution, the fact that information about sexuality issues and contraceptive methods are widely available provides all that every married or single female student nurse can apply to hold pregnancy from occurring until when ready.

The threat and trauma of stepping down starring the students on the face each session should be enough to scare every student away from any form of distraction to total devotion to academic work, yet the increase in pregnancy among the students of Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA keeps alarming. The above observations and considerations have given the researcher concern being a student of the same institution; she deemed it worthy to investigate on the influence of teenage girl child pregnancy on academic performance among students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA to answer the following research questions.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of teenage girl child pregnancy on academic performance in senior secondary schools in Oredo LGA, Edo State. In line with this, the following specific objectives will be addressed;

  1. To determine the level of awareness of challenges of pregnancy on academic performance among students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA.
  2. To ascertain the types of academic challenges due to pregnancy faced by students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA.
  3. To determine the effects of pregnancy on the academic performance of students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA.

1.4 Research Questions

The key questions drafted by the research to be answered in this study are;

  1. What is the level of awareness of challenges of pregnancy among the pregnant students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA?
  2. What are the types of academic challenges due to pregnancy faced by the students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA?
  3. What are the effects of pregnancy on the academic performance of students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA?

1.5 Hypothesis of the study

  • H01: There is no level of awareness of challenges of pregnancy on academic performance among students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA.
  • H02: There are no types of academic challenges due to pregnancy faced by students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA.
  • H03: There is no effect of pregnancy on the academic performance of students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will reveal the impact pregnancy have on the academic performance among the selected pregnant students. This result obtained will be useful in helping the other female students in choice of marriage and prevention of pregnancies while in school to avoid disruption or distraction in academic progression.

This study will also help the nursing profession and administration to see the need for a counselor and offering of counseling services to the students and the need for more emphasis on how to avoid pregnancy and family planning. This study will help reduce the frustration of students and families experiencing emotional stress and academic struggles as a result of unwanted pregnancy among student mothers.

The finding will help the nursing profession in reducing of occurrences of student pregnancy which will invariably promote a complete devotion to academic requirement and production of responsible graduate nurses who will represent the profession anywhere in the world. This finding also, will add to existing sparse literature surrounding the academic performance of pregnant students.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is all female students of nursing science in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA who are pregnant or have been pregnant during the course of their study. The study is also delimited to their academic performance and how it is affected by pregnancy. Variables covered include level of awareness of challenges of pregnancy on academic performance among students, types of academic challenges due to pregnancy faced by students, and effects of pregnancy on the academic performance of students.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The paucity of literature in this area of study was compensated by some relevant literatures from related studies. The researcher encountered some limitations among the respondents. Some of the respondents were reluctant to fill the questionnaire because they claim they did not have time for it. The researcher also incurred huge financial expenses in carrying out this research. Lastly, the study was limited in scope in the terms of the location of the study. This study was limited to students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Academic Performance:

This is how student deal with their studies and how they cope or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teacher.

Impact:

The way an action or a condition makes impact in one’s life either positive or negative.

Pregnancy:

This is a condition when a woman is carrying a child in her womb.

Teenage Girl Child Pregnancy:

Unplanned pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unintended or unwanted at the time of conception. Unintended pregnancies may also result from rape or incest. Vaginal sexual activity without the use of contraception through choice or coercion is the predominant cause of unintended pregnancy.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of the Study

The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of teenage girl child pregnancy on academic performance in senior secondary schools in Oredo LGA, Edo State. A descriptive survey research design and 200 students were used. A self-structured questionnaire was developed according to the objectives of the study to guide in the generation of information. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and the research question were analyzed using simple frequency and percentage, while hypothesis was tested using the t-test. Results revealed (80.6%) recognized that pregnancy has effect on their academic while (19.4%) did not. Among those who recognized these challenges, (38.7%) saw the effect in the area of studying for test or examination, (25.8%) in the area of lecture attendance, (20.6%) in hospital/ward procedure, while a smaller number (42.5%) in meeting up with assignment. Also, most of the respondents (67.7%) who were very often in meeting up with lecture before pregnancy decreased to (11.3%) when pregnant. While (4.8%) who were not often meeting up with class before pregnancy increased to (50%) when pregnant. (85.5%) agreed that they sometimes misses lectures due to antenatal visits or other pregnancy demand. From the above, it could be inferred that majority of the respondents recognizes that pregnancy has challenges on academics which is seen mostly in area of preparing for a test or examination and reduction in meeting up with lecture as the need for antenatal and other pregnancy demand arises. There is need for nurses to make more emphasis on family planning and appropriate arrangement for sexuality education. The professional body should set policies that will guide the students in area of pregnancy and studying.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the result of this study, the researcher assert that majority of the pregnant students in Senior Secondary Schools in Oredo LGA are aware of challenges of pregnancy on academics, the students experience challenges such as; physical discomfort, reduced concentration span and missing some lectures which result in low performance, absenteeism, difficulty adjusting to motherhood as a pregnant student and rewriting of some courses (carry over).


5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study;

  1. The nursing college administration should further establish an office for proper counseling and support for both non and pregnant students in their academic performance and in choice making.
  2. Nurses should be encouraged to conduct more studies on the effect of pregnancy and child rearing on the academic performance of students. The finding will serve as a contribution to the existing body of knowledge in this area of study and useful as reference for future researchers in nursing profession.
  3. Nurses should make more emphasis on family planning and appropriate arrangement for sexuality education. The professional body should set policies that will guide the students in area of pregnancy and studying.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the impact of teenage pregnancy on academic performance?

The impact of teenage pregnancy on academic performance included poor academic performance after the pregnancy, increase dropout because of pregnancy related issues and negative feeling on schooling. Keywords: Teenage Pregnancy, Zambezi Region, Grade 7 Learners, Academic Performance

How does teenage pregnancy affect psychosocial life of female child?

This implies that women in Offa LGA of Kwara state perceived that teenage pregnancy can affect psychosocial life of female child by disrupting her education, drop out from school and disturb her educational attainment in life.

Does pregnancy and early motherhood affect educational achievement among university students?

An important finding of our study is that it demonstrates that pregnancy and early motherhood can contribute to poor educational achievement among university students, a nding that has previously only been reported among high school learners.

How does teenage motherhood affect girls’ education?

The study found out that education prepares girls for jobs, livelihoods, and raises their self-esteem and that teenage motherhood leads to low educational attainment. The study recommended that by supporting teenage mothers would help them achieve their goals in education. 

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