A Study Of Impact Of Improvisation Of Instructional Materials In Teaching And Learning Chemistry In Osun State Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

A Study Of Impact Of Improvisation Of Instructional Materials In Teaching And Learning Chemistry In Osun State Secondary Schools


Abstract


The aim of this research work is to find out the study of impact of improvisation of instructional materials in teaching and learning chemistry in Osun state secondary schools as a case study. A total of 100 students were used on this study. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaires which were administered personally by the researcher The method used for data analysis was normal data simple percentage was used to examine the role of importance of improvisation in teaching and learning chemistry in Osun state secondary schools.Findings of the study are as follows;

  1. To the extends at which importance of improvisation facilitate learning is recommendable.
  2. Despite the high cost of getting instructional materials, teachers in secondary schools take it as a task to improvise for instructional materials.
  3. Pupils easily remember topics taught with the use of importance of improvisation than those taught without the use of instructional materials.
  4. Pupils in secondary schools find it easily to put into practice those topics and lessons taught with the use of instructional materials.
  5. Importance of improvisation when properly used during teaching enhance and lead to better performances of pupils during given assignment, test and examinations.

Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Improvisation are those things that enables students to have mental picture of what has been taught and to retain the message in their memory for a very long time e.g. Radio, Television, Charts, Micro-Projectors, Still Pictures, Specimen e.t.c. It can be referred to as those things that the classroom teacher uses to impact knowledge to pupils in the classroom in order to achieve his objectives.

According to Ogunmola, (2002) cited that improvisation are those visual or audio visual materials which facilitate the assimilation of organization. Infact, for effective teaching and learning to take place, importance of improvisation are can exist without adequate use of Chemistry education programme can exist with adequate use of integrated equipments examples of such equipment are integrated, monitor, keyboard, typewriter, mouse, scanner, printer, duplicating machine e.t.c these science equipments are indispensable to a good Chemistry teaching and training and learning.

It is no gain saying that interest in learning Chemistrys increasing in Nigeria. Each local government area is trying t o improve on the production of technology. This is justify for Chemistry has totally assured great importance interest role of national power and productivity. According to the new trend of Chemistry, teaching has as shown a radical departure of traditional expository mode, in favour of practical and inquiry method to the inclusion of problems solving and active involvement of people in the open minded fielding practical exercise.

In view of this, it can therefore be assumed that unique facilities and equipment are available in secondary schools. For practical works pupils will not derive much from the attempt to learn Chemistry. It has been stressed by Howard (2003) when he said what we learn is what we do” doing what we learn in Chemistry requires the use of practical work. We also have the bear in mind that at least some of the pupils would or may need to become professionally integrated list. Such pupils need the equipment to be able to develop necessary practical skills. Beside, the basic sources of Chemistry experience is of course of direct contact which objects and events it’s in nature outside the classroom

Specifically some specific educational reasons to have equipment for teaching was summarized by Balogun (2000) as follows

  1. It enables the learners to develop functional and manipulating skills
  2. It enables the learner to develop problem solving skill and scientific attitude

The acquisition of these skills is the contribution of Chemistry education in the general preparation of the youth with emphasis on activities based on child centered learning coupled with pupils enrolment into school in the face of corresponding decline economy. It is against the background that we can appreciate the significance of the question “the important role of Chemistry equipment in secondary schools


1.2 Statement of Problems

There are many problems and obstacles which hinder the effective teaching of Chemistry in our secondary schools. Despite the importance attached to the subject there is no secondary schools of Ogun state where the range of resources available for the teaching of Chemistry can be described as being in anyway adequate. This arises as a result of inability of these materials especially now, due to foreign exchange restriction and large populations of secondary schools pupils. The aspects of this problems will be dealt with in this study which has the survey of material resources required by the teaching of Chemistry. In secondary schools of Ogun state.

The following specific questions can be asked does teachers in secondary schools improvised or substitute for importance of improvisation which are not easily obtained.

  • Are there enough materials resources for integrated teaching in secondary schools?
  • What are the materials that can be improved?

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main purpose of the study is an analysis the Impact of improvisation of instructional materials in teaching and learning chemistry in osun state secondary schools.

The study will examine

  1. The availability of improvised facilities in our schools
  2. Whatever and how Chemistry teacher in secondary schools improvise for materials which are not easily obtainable
  3. The type of materials that can be improvised
  4. The impact of improvisation of instructional materials in teaching and learning chemistry in osun state secondary schools

1.4 Research Question

  1. To what extent is the importance of improvisation in the teaching and learning chemistry in Osun state secondary schools
  2. Do teachers in secondary schools improvise for importance materials which are not easily obtained.
  3. Do students in secondary schools easily remember topic taught with improvised materials than those topics taught without improvised materials?
  4. Do students in secondary schools find it easy to put into practice what they are taught with the use of improvised material?
  5. Does the importance of improvisation led to better performance of students in secondary schools.

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The following hypothesis was was formulated and tested for the study

  • Ho: improvisation of instructional materials has no impact on teaching and learning chemistry in Osun state secondary schools
  • H1: improvisation of instructional materials have an impact on teaching and learning chemistry in Osun state secondary schools

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hope that the findings of this study will be beneficial to educational agencies in Ogun state.It should be of great important to educational administrates in the distribution of resources to schools. Further more, the result of the finding will be of great benefit to the Chemistry teachers in other impact the required Chemistry skills to the pupils


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study will cover many materials resources available for the searching of Chemistry and the type of materials that can be substituted or improvised.This study is therefore intended to show through the use of questionnaires. The availability of standard and improved Chemistry equipment or facilities in ten (10) randomly selected secondary schools in Ogun state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Terms that are related to the study are defined below in order to remove somatic ambiguity in their usage.

1. Focus.

To give attention, effort e.t.c. to one particular person or subject.

2. Improvised.

To make or do something using whether is available, usually because you do not have what you really want.

3. Indispensable.

Essential, too important to do without.

4. Science.

Knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world.

5. Integrated.

An electronic or machine that can store, organized and find information do calculate and control other machines.

6. Instructional.

That teaches people something.

7. Materials.

Things that are needed to do a particular thing.

8. Radical.

Concerning the most basic and important parts of something.

10 Technologies.

Scientific knowledge used in practical way.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Four


Summary, Conclusion and Conclusion

This chapter deals with the summary of findings conclusion and recommendation of an analysis of impact of improvisation of instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning chemistry in Osun state secondary schools of Ogun state.


5.1 Summary

This study was primarily undertaken to investigate the role of importance of improvisation in the teaching of Chemistry. In order to ascertain this objective, the following research questions were asked to guide the study.

  1. What extend is the role of importance of improvisation in the teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools
  2. Do teachers in secondary schools improvise for importance of improvisation which is not easily obtained?
  3. Does student s in secondary schools easily remember topics taught with importance of improvisation than those taught without instructional materials?
  4. Do students in secondary schools find it easy to put into practice what they are taught with instructional materials
  5. Does an instructional material lead to better performance of student in secondary schools?

The instrument for data collection was the questionnaires which were administered to sample (100) students from the population the question was administered, collected and analyzed using frequency counts and sample percentage.

Based on the analysis of the data, a number of findings were made the following were the findings of the study

Findings
  1. To the extend at which importance of improvisation facilitate learning remediable
  2. Despite the high cost of instructional materials, teachers, in secondary schools take it as a task to improvise for importance of improvisation
  3. Pupils easily remember topics taught with use of instructional material that taught without instructional materials
  4. Pupils in secondary schools finds it easy to put into practicalization those topics and lesson taught with the use of importance of improvisation
  5. Importance of improvisation when properly used during teaching enhances and led to better performance of student during assignment, test and examination as a result of the use of the questionnaires in eliciting response from the pupils and respondents on the research question posed, statistics method that was used in data analysis is the normal data.

Therefore, simple percentage and frequency counts was use to examine the issue of the importance of improvisation in the teaching of the Chemistry in secondary schools


5.2 Conclusion

Understanding the fact that importance of improvisation plays important role in the teaching learning process and also facilitate the teaching of Chemistry. In secondary schools. It expected that schools should try to make proper provision for them and also were parents, teachers should make proper use of them in carrying out their responsibility or professional skills

Again schools, teacher, parents and voluntary organization should provide assistance to the government by making provisions for importance of improvisation to schools for the proper and effective teaching and learning chemistry in Osun state secondary schools.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the result of the findings of the study the following recommendation and presented.

Since importance of improvisation plays a vital and a very significant role in the teaching and learning chemistry in Osun state secondary schools should bear on themselves the responsibility to provide Chemistry equipment. Equipment such as integrated materials, integrated laboratory were teachers and students can have easy access to them and also expose themselves to them qualified teachers should be employed by schools to help manage to equipment effectively

Employed teachers should be constantly sent on services and training to gain more knowledge and also have the ability to exposes to new technology developments. The employed teachers and integrated managers also should try as much as possible to event new teaching and during presentation of integrated lessons

The teaching service board should employ teachers who can effectively and efficiently use the available importance of improvisation to influence effective communication in the class government should also provide importance of improvisation to schools for effective teaching. Teaching seminars for teachers from time to time should also be encourage to help develop their teaching skills for proper presentation of their integrated lessons


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