Study Habit And School Location As A Correlate Of Academic Achievement In Senior Secondary School Chemistry

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Study Habit And School Location As A Correlate Of Academic Achievement In Senior Secondary School Chemistry


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the study habit and school location as a correlate of academic achievement in senior secondary school in chemistry in Ikeja, Lagos State. The study was specifically set to find out whether there is a significant correlation between study habit and students academic achievement, find out the correlation between school location and students academic achievement, ascertain whether study habit has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry, and ascertain whether school location has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of chemistry students of some selected senior secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant correlation between study habit and students academic achievement. Furthermore the study also revealed that there is a correlation between school location and students academic achievement. Therefore it is recommended that the Ministry of Education should organize in-service training for head teachers, teachers, and parents to help them identify the preferred study habits of the students and guide them accordingly To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is the process of developing the capacities and potentials of the individual so as to prepare that individual to be successful in a specific society or culture. From this perspective, education is serving primarily as an individual developmental function. Education begins at birth and continues throughout life. It is constant and ongoing. Schooling generally begins somewhere between the ages of four and six when children are gathered together for the purpose of specific guidance related skills and competencies that society deems important. In the past decades, once the formal primary and secondary schooling was completed the process was finished. However, in today’s information age, adults are quite often learning in informal settings throughout their working lives and even into retirement.

Chemistry is taught in almost all Nigerian secondary schools today and one is expected to obtain a certain grade in SSCE or GCE to pursues his education. In a developing ‘ /’, country like Nigeria the role of science and technology is \ ‘ never in dispute. This has- informed the reason why poor performance of students in chemistry and other natural a sciences in the senior school certificate examinations (SSCE) in the last decade has been a major source of concern to parents, science educators, researches and the general public. Amulu (1991), stated that the inability of students to achieve success in chemistry have been pinned on their study habits. According to her attitudes are fundamental to the dynamics of behaviour and they are the determining factor of what the students learn. If a student has a positive attitude towards chemistry, he will not only enjoy studying it, but would derive satisfaction from the knowledge of chemistry ideas he gain but, it is unfortunate that many students hate chemistry. This apathy towards study of chemistry can be traced among other things to the instructional process and perhaps to the students study habits as it correlates to their achievement in chemistry.

Over the years, the issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all stakeholders involved. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Nigeria at large. Employers of labour no longer believe in the capacity of various educational institutions to provide graduates who are worth their salt or termed “employable”. Various issues have been pointed out as causative factors for this and one germane factor out of all is the issue of study habit and school location.
According to Aristotle, habit is what we repeatedly do. Habits generate other habits. Inspiration is what gets us started, motivation is what keeps us on track, and habit is what makes us automatic. Anything we practice long enough becomes ingrained into our system and becomes a habit. Students are basically having their own individual differences. It all depends upon their ability and capacity. We do observe that some students have the habit of studying daily lessons regularly. Academic performance is defined as excellence in all academic discipline rather than fatalistically accepting it and competing against some standard of excellence (Chamundeswari 2014).
Study habits are defined as those techniques, such as summarizing, note taking, outlining or locating material which learners employ to assist themselves in the efficient learning of the material at hand. The term “Study Habit” implies a sort of more or less permanent method of studying. According to Good’s dictionary of education, “Study habit is the tendency of pupil to study when the opportunities are given, the pupil’s way of studying whether systematic or unsystematic, efficient or inefficient. “Study-habits are the essence of a dynamic personality. A proper study habits enables an individual to reap a good harvest in future.

In terms of the influence of school location on the academic performance of students, there are the socio-metric factors such as the kinds of social activities around the school environment of the students. In a case where the language of the people around the school is pidgin, this could gradually affect the child in learning good English at school. Furthermore, schools located in an environment where there is noisy traffic, noisy sound of machine from ply-wood industry, hotel and bar will negatively affect the academic performance of the students because the noisy environment will disturb them from concentrating while learning.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

A great deal of research provides evidence that study habits and school location are both significant variables, which determine the academic performance of students. Yet, in spite of the perceived importance of study habits and school location to academic performance, it seems that education institution still pay little attention to understanding these factors (Baquiran, 2011).Classroom observations show that under the same conditions, namely same teachers, same subject, same teaching methods, same administration, same enrollment criteria, same time of the day for an specific subject and same education level, some students perform well while others do not. The question arises as to what are the aspects that influence this difference in performance, and what is the best way to arrange the study process of multicultural groups of students, so that all learn and perform accordingly with schools’ expectations.

Hence, it is considered important to know what study habits sudents and have and, their school location, in case of low-performing students, which of those study habits need to be changed and if possible register the child to another school where the school location is favourable in order to achieve high academic performance.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine the study habit and school location as a correlate of academic achievement in senior secondary school in chemistry. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Find out whether there is a significant correlation between study habit and students academic achievement.
  2. Find out the correlation between school location and students academic achievement.
  3. Ascertain whether study habit has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry.
  4. Ascertain whether school location has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

  1. Is there a significant correlation between study habit and students academic achievement?
  2. Is there correlation between school location and students academic achievement?
  3. Does study habit has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry?
  4. Does school location has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho1: There is no significant correlation between study habit and students academic achievement.
  • Ho2: There is a significant correlation between school location and students academic achievement

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research is intended to add to the existing information on the influence of study habits and school location on academic performance of senior secondary school students. The results of this study could be of significance to students, teachers, parents, school counsellors, policy makers and the government in assisting and encouraging students to realize the importance of study habits and school location on their academic performance. Students will benefit more from the findings of this study as they will be offered the necessary assistance as and how to develop good study habits which will help to improve upon their academic performance. Students will also be given information on how study habits and school location affect their academic performances and the results of this study will make them aware of the common study habits among other co-students.

Also this could serve as a guide to teachers and school counsellors who always have the desire to see their students perform well by giving them the right techniques of developing study habits. It will again help teachers in understanding better the diversity of learning in students and as such, develop more effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter for better understanding of students.

Furthermore, parents on the other hand will be accorded the opportunity to play their roles in providing motivation and rewards to their children to encourage the formation and maintenance of good study habits at the family level.

Also, the study will help the government to provide the needed learning materials and facilities to motivate students to enhance the development of good study habits.

Finally, the study will serve as a guide and resource document to policy makers and stakeholders in developing curriculum materials and text books, taking into consideration students’ needs and aspirations as they study to pass their examinations both at the secondary and tertiary levels.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the study habit and school location as a correlate of academic achievement in senior secondary school in chemistry. The study will be delimited to some selected senior secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Academic Performance:

It is the outcome of education the extent to which a student has achieved his/her educational goals.

Study Habit:

An action or pattern of learning that is repeated so often that it becomes typical of somebody


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the study habit and school location as a correlate of academic achievement in senior secondary school in chemistry in Ikeja, Lagos State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the study habit and school location as a correlate of academic achievement in senior secondary school in chemistry in Ikeja, Lagos State. The study was specifically set to find out whether there is a significant correlation between study habit and students academic achievement, find out the correlation between school location and students academic achievement, ascertain whether study habit has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry, and ascertain whether school location has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are chemistry students of some selected senior secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant correlation between study habit and students academic achievement.
  2. There is correlation between school location and students academic achievement.
  3. Study habit has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry.
  4. School location has a significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education should organize in-service training for head teachers, teachers, and parents to help them identify the preferred study habits of the students and guide them accordingly.
  2. That government and Science educators should focus more attention in terms of necessary facilities and pedagogy on the schools located in rural areas for them to have the same opportunity like their counterpart in the urban school location areas, and to enhance student‟s academic achievement in Science subjects irrespective of the geographical school location.
  3. It is recommended that head teachers and teachers adopt measures to strengthen students’ reading and note-taking and time management skills to boost academic performance.
  4. The students should be reoriented to improve study habits in relation to time allocation, concentration, and homework/ assignment since these are crucial aspects of schooling. In line with this, the Colleges of Education and the universities in charge of teacher education should incorporate contents related to students’ study habits into their curricula so that graduates are well grounded to assist students in their study habits for improved academic performance
  5. The students should be properly screened on their level of academic performance and study habit by the teachers/lecturers through the use of standardized study habit inventory, pretest, quiz etc. This will help them to identify students with problem of study habit so as to institute compulsory remedies and academic advising for underachievers in order to improve their study habit and academic performance.
  6. The teachers/lecturers should encourage the students to make use of the library and other facilities in school that will help them develop good study habit and better academic performance. This should be done during orientation/welcoming ceremony of new students and from time to time.

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