A Study To Determine The Relationship Between The Availability And Use Of Instructional Materials
This research work was designed to determine the use of instructional materials and its availability and students performance in computer science in Oredo Local Government Area. The study was carried out in six schools selected.
In this work, six research questions were formulated and were critically analyzed and recommendations was also pout forward to remedy the problem. Some of the recommendations is that government should provide teaching aids, qualified and experience teachers should be employed and computer laboratory and adequate textbook should be provided by the school management and the government etc.
In the part, there has been a great set back between the developing nations of the world in general and Nigeria in particular regarding the need for industrialization. Therefore much emphasis has been laid on the teaching of computer science from primary school level which is seen as a basic necessity of the dreams of industrialization are ever to come true. In Nigeria, the adoption of 60% to 40% ratio policy in admission of students into the secondary schools in a step considered imperative if the country must develop technologically. However, computer science as a field of study has existed unknowingly among us many years before the introduction formal education in Nigeria but only popularized just in the recent past with the arrival of western educationist.
Our fore-father never saw the four walls of the classrooms nor attended any schools, they were actually making use of tools in their daily activities. The situation is not different from what we have today expect with little modification for example, our fore-father were able to produce cutlasses, holes and knives which were used to cut grasses, make ridges and other things, like the use of stones and their hands to count money and also brain to solve calculations like addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Computer science has a lot of abstraction and also has strong base in our culture. If it is properly taught and adopted, its application will become part and parcel of our every day life activities.
1.1 Background of the Study
Computer science plays an important role in the life of every mankind. The government desire to create a scientifically literate citizenry as well as the need to effectively make her industries with the much needed man power, required the need for total reevaluation and improvement of the method used in teaching computer science.
This will enhance the comprehension and to some extent stimulate interest in the natural and physical sciences which forms the basis for much technological transfer. The use of integrated computer science resource materials will appeal to their senses and feelings and consequently, aids learning. Resources materials provide effective means of learning especially when the teacher skillfully integrate them during teaching processes, they serve as aids meaningful instructions.
As teachers we need to understand the students who receive educational instructions from us, we need to study all the factors affecting the pupils before we can properly assess the performance level of students in any subject. Research findings have shown that students’ performance in computer science and integrated science or any other subject is generally poor over the years. (Fakuade, 1976 and Egbede 1993). This may not be due to a number of courses, it may be due to lack of equipments and facilities in the schools. Lack of qualifies and experience teacher, Unfavourable atmosphere, lack of space, frequent change of schools by children etc. it may be pertinent to note that majority of the students, primary and secondary school have different level of performance in computer science.
According to T. S. Bajah 1970 and Farnant J. A. 1964, these educationist prove that education is child centred and that the aim of education is to develop the child in all areas of human endeavour of which computer science is all. The importance of the child and computer science in modern educational system is very relevant. Nigeria today is referred to as developing country because of its low level of technology advancement. It is therefore a well-known fact that Nigeria requires solid foundations in computer science subjects in order to develop her technologies. The manufacturing of hardware and sophisticated materials which make many countries developed and industrialized were only possible through a proper acquisition of the basic knowledge of computer science.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The best place to establish computer science culture is the formative years of primary school. Meaningful teaching and learning in this state requires concrete examples, which are likely to be absent in most schools. It is in this regard that researcher intend to find out the relationship between availability and the use of instructional materials and the students performance in computer science in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State and then suggest ways of encouraging children, teachers, and administrators to pay more attention to the use of instructional materials in order to improve the performance level in computer science in primary schools. Consequently, this study will consider the following areas:
- Lack of sufficiency in the number of manpower specifically trained to teach computer science in these primary schools.
- Availability and use of improvised materials in the teaching of computer science in the primary school.
- The level of state and local government commitment to the acquisition of basic primary school computer science equipment requisite for the effective teaching of computer science in these schools.
- Lack of interest on the part of the teachers.
- The interest of the student in computer science.
1.3 Purpose of Study
This study is to determine the relationship between availability and the use of instructional materials and students’ performance in the teaching and learning of computer science and also suggest ways to improve the students’ performance
1.4 Research Questions
Having identified the problem of the study, in order to give directives to this work, some research questions were formulated. They are stated as follows:
- What are the effect of non availability of instructional materials?
- Is there an instructional material? How is it used? It is poorly use.
- Does the use of instructional materials enhance effective teaching and learning of computer science?
- Is there computer science equipment and laboratory?
- Does pupils’ background affect the use of resource materials in the schools?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Some of the benefits that will be derived from this study are highlighted as follows:
- The study will aid teachers in the use of instructional materials to facilitate the teaching and learning of com0uter science.
- To determine students attitude towards computer science subject.
- To crate awareness of the importance of instructional materials.
- To ascertain the level of students performance in computer science.
- The study will draw the attention of government, voluntary agencies, PTA and community to improving better use of instructional materials to sustain the teaching of the subject.
- The analysis and results to these problems will enable curriculum planner of computer science to improve or draw up a better curriculum to suit the need of the pupils.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study examines the use of instructional materials and its availability and students performance in computer science. Thus this study is delimited to Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
An electronic device used to process data and information.
The study of structure and behaviour of physical and natural world and society.
Parents Teachers Associations
To develop industry
The act of knowing
The scientific study and use of applied science.
To become advance or more organized.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings into the determine the relationship between availability and the use of instructional materials and students’ performance in the teaching and learning of computer science using selected schools in Oredo Local Government of Edo State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to determine the relationship between availability and the use of instructional materials and students’ performance in the teaching and learning of computer science using selected schools in Oredo Local Governement of Edo State as case study.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers and students of the 2 selected schools in Oredo Local Governement of Edo State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- Non-availability of instructional materials leads to failure of pupils, poor performance of pupils, Lack of understanding of the subject, and it makes teaching uneasy for teachers.
- Instructional materials are not effectively used in the study area.
- The use of instructional materials enhances effective teaching and learning of computer science.
- Pupils’ background do affect the use of resource materials in the schools.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendation;
- Teachers/Students should improvise locally made instructional materials using resource from the school environment or raw materials from outside the school environment to be used in teaching of social studies.
- The State Ministry of Education, Education Board and Local Education Authorities should employ competent teachers who can handle the subjects very well, because most of the teachers teaching the subject are not qualified.
- Parents should be encouraged to donate money through parent teachers association (PTA) for the provision of instructional materials for teaching and learning in the schools, government alone cannot shoulder all the responsibilities in the schools, there is need for the parents to help in running the schools. The money donated by the parents should be used for the purchasing of teaching aids.
- The production of low cost instructional materials should be intensified by the board. The production of these materials can be of the Resource Centres, local raw materials can be effectively utilized in the production of the needed instructional media. This will reduce the cost of importing materials and equipment which have foreign background and may not serve the need of Nigerians. Any materials and equipment produced locally will be such that have the users needs as the focal point. Materials and equipment which could be used in the rural areas where there is no electricity would be produced locally at the resource centres, Thus, the constraints imposed by lack of electricity will be remove.
- A miniature resource centre should be established in every secondary schools by the Ministry of Education and Local Education Authority, such a resource centre should serve the secondary schools in which it is established. Instructionalmaterials should be produced, stored, maintained and others should go there to loan any materials or equipment which they need in teaching and return such a materials or equipment immediately after use.
- Parents should help in the repairs of the damaged instructional materials in the various secondary schools in the state.
- The State Ministry of Education, Education Board should release fund to the various Zonal Education Offices and Local Education Authorities and the principals specifically for maintaining and repairing damaged equipment. This method will remove the protocol of applying, filling forms and awaiting for approval before money is released for the repair of every minor damage done to an equipment.
- Seminars, conferences and workshops on the relevance, production and improvisation of instructional materials should be organised during vocations by the State Ministry of Education and Education Board. These should be organized on Zonal Levels and Local Government basis to attract so many teachers as possible, because some teachers cannot operate some of the available instructional materials while some teachers do not know the functions of some instructional media.
- The available social studies text-books in use in secondary schools in the state were not recommended for teaching-learning by the Ministry of Education. So recommended text-books should be purchased and supply to the secondary schools.
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