# A Study On The Collaborative Methods Of Teaching Mathematics In Secondary Schools in Lagos State

## Abstract

A collaborative (or cooperative) learning approach involves students working together on activities or learning tasks in a group small enough for everyone to participate on a collective task that has been clearly assigned. Students in the group may work on separate tasks contributing to a common overall outcome, or work together on a shared task.The purpose of this study is to examine the collaborative methods of teaching mathematics in secondary schools using ikorodu LGA as a case study. The study employed a quasi- experimental survey design; the population consisted of teachers in the Educational zone, Lagos State. The total populations of 100teachers were used for the sample. The research instruments used in data collection was a questionnaire. The findings of this study revealed that majority of the teachers were aware of the collaborative method of teaching with a rate 70.5%; majority of the mathematics teachers teach their students using the collaborative method of teaching with a rate 65.5%. The findings also reveal that collaborative method of teaching mathematics is highly effective in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA, Lagos state; The factors hindering the effectiveness of collaborative method of teaching mathematics in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA were shown to include lack of positive interdependence, insufficient face-to-face interaction, inadequate individual and group accountability, insufficient group processing, and lack of social skills. Based on the findings from the study, it was recommended that educational stakeholders should intensify their effort to organize seminars/conferences on the implications of collaborative learning technique as effective interventions towards enhancing Mathematics learning achievement among secondary school students. Also, the teacher and students in the school should be encouraged and trained on the effective usage of these interventions (collaborative learning technique). This will make the students to adopt effective attitude towards enhancing the Mathematics learning achievement.

## Table of Content

### Chapter One

#### 1.0 Introduction

- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Research Objectives
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of the Study

### Chapter Two

#### 2.0 Literature Review

- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Concept of Class Size
- 2.3 The Effect of Class-Size on the Teaching of Business Education
- 2.4 Theoretical Framework
- 2.5 Empirical Studies

### Chapter Three

#### 3.0 Research Methodology

- 3.1 Design of the Study
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.5 Validation and Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis

### Chapter Four

#### 4.0 Results and Discussion

- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion

### Chapter Five

#### 5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- References
- Appendix

## Chapter One

### 1.0 Introduction

#### 1.1 Background of the Study

Collaborative method of teaching is a method of teaching in which students are allowed to interact with the teachers and other students on a subject matter during the lesson. It also known as interactive method of teaching or collaborative learning (CL).

Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. In the Collaborative learning environment, the learners are challenged both socially and emotionally as they listen to different perspectives, and are required to articulate and defend their ideas. In so doing, the learners begin to create their own unique conceptual frameworks and not rely solely on an expert’s or a text’s framework. In a Collaborative learning setting, learners have the opportunity to converse with peers, present and defend ideas, exchange diverse beliefs, question other conceptual frameworks, and are actively engaged (Srinivas, H., 2011).

Despite the term of collaborative learning (CL) has been used in a wide variety of ways across different disciplines and fields, there is a lack of consensus upon definition of the term (Jenni, R. & Mauriel, J., 2004). While there is no consensus on what CL is, there are some underlying features that will be identified. Collaboration has become a twenty-first-century trend. The need in society to think and work together on issues of critical concern has increased (Austin, J. E., 2000; Welch, M., 1998) shifting the emphasis from individual efforts to group work, from independence to community (Leonard, P. E. & Leonard, L. J., 2001).

Collaborative learning represents a significant shift away from the typical teacher-centered or lecture-centered milieu in college classrooms. In collaborative classrooms, the lecturing/ listening/note-taking process may not disappear entirely, but it lives alongside other processes that are based in students’ discussion and active work with the course material. Teachers who use Collaborative learning approaches tend to think of themselves less as expert transmitters of knowledge to students, and more as expert designers of intellectual experiences for students-as coaches or midwives of a more emergent learning process (Smith, B. L. & MacGregor, J. T., 1992). Collaborative learning occurs when small groups of students help each other to learn. CL is sometimes misunderstood. It is not having students talk to each other, either face-to-face or in a computer conference, while they do their individual assignments. It is not having them do the task individually and then have those who finish first help those who have not yet finished. And it is certainly not having one or a few students do all the work, while the others append their names to the report (Klemm, W.R., 1994). There is persuasive evidence that cooperative teams achieve at higher levels of thought and retain information longer than learners who work quietly as individuals ( Further evidence comes from Samuel The shared learning gives learners an opportunity to engage in discussion, take responsibility for their own learning, and thus become critical thinkers. Proponents of CL claim that the active exchange of ideas within small groups not only increases interest among the participants but also promotes critical thinking (Gokhale, A.A., 1995).This study is aimed at examining the collaborative or interactive methods of teaching mathematics in secondary schools.

#### 1.2 Statement of Problem

Collaborative method of teaching has been an effective method of teaching mathematics in secondary, however, one of the Major challenges of the collaborative learning is a short time given for each mathematics class in secondary school. Most teachers find it difficult to cover their syllables when they adopt the collaborative method of teaching. The major part of the class would be spent on listening to the opinion of students on the subject topic.

In collaborative method of teaching, students are given questions to tackle and the student who complete their task early are told to assist those struggling with their questions. This approach makes students very lazy and they tend to show a lackadaisical approach towards their tasks since they know others will still assist them.

Another major challenge of this method of teaching is poor response from the student. The method involves an interaction between the teacher and the students, most times students are not always responsive considering the nature and complexity of mathematics. These reasons brought a need to carry out a study on the collaborative methods of teaching mathematics in secondary schools.

#### 1.3 Research Objectives

The main objective of this study is to examine the collaborative methods of teaching mathematics in secondary school, using ikorodu LGA as a case study. The outlines of the objective are:

- To find out if mathematics teachers of secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA know about the collaborative method of teaching.
- To ascertain if mathematics teachers of secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA teach their students using the collaborative method of teaching.
- To know the effectiveness of collaborative method of teaching mathematics in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA.
- To determine the relationship between collaborative method of teaching mathematics and the performances of secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA.
- To ascertain the factors hindering the effectiveness of collaborative method of teaching mathematics in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA.

#### 1.4 Research Questions

The relevant research questions related to this study are:

- Do mathematics teachers of secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA know about the collaborative method of teaching?
- Do mathematics teachers of secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA teach their students using the collaborative method of teaching?
- What is the effectiveness of collaborative method of teaching mathematics in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA?
- What is the relationship between collaborative method of teaching mathematics and the performances of secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA?
- What are the factors hindering the effectiveness of collaborative method of teaching mathematics in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA?

#### 1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study the hypothesis is to be tested at 0.5 alpha levels.

- HO1: There is no significant relationship between collaborative methods of teaching and performance of students in Mathematics in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA
- HA1: There is a relationship between collaborative methods of teaching and performance of students in Mathematics in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA

#### 1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings from this study would help teachers to know the effectiveness of collaborative method of teaching.

This study also educates some teachers who do not know about collaborative method of teaching on the relevance of this method of teaching.

The factors that hinders the effectiveness of collaborative methods of teaching is also addressed in this study. The findings from this study can also act as template for other research work.

#### 1.7 Scope of Study

The scope of this study is restricted to the study on the collaborative method of teaching mathematics in secondary schools. Some selected secondary schools in Ikorodu Local government area used as a case study.

#### 1.8 Limitation of the Study

The limitations encountered during this study are lack of adequate resources on the subject of study; most of the respondents are not ready to be interviewed and also inadequate time

#### 1.9 Definition of Terms

##### Collaborative:

Involving two or more people working together for a special purpose

##### Learning Environment:

Can refer to an educational approach, cultural context, or physical setting in which teaching and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternative to “classroom”

##### Mathematics:

Is the study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols.

##### A Teaching Method:

Comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning.

#### 1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction which contains the background, research problems and objectives. The second chapter is the literature review and the third chapter is the research methodology. In the fourth chapter, the researcher analyses the data and discusses the results. The fifth chapter is the last chapter which presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

## Chapter Five

### 5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

#### 5.1 Summary

The study sought to examine the collaborative methods of teaching mathematics in secondary schools using ikorodu LGA as a case study. The design of this study was quasi- experimental and the sample for this study was 100 teachers drawn from the ten (10) schools randomly selected. The result showed collaborative method of teaching mathematics is highly effective in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA, Lagos state. Also, the result indicated that Worked examples will be enhanced by studying collaboratively compared to studying individually; Collaborative learning enhances completion of complex tasks; Collaborative teaching methods promote better retention; Collaborative learning enhances assimilation and learning outcomes; Collaborative teaching methods promote better performance in tests and examinations. The result gave a grand mean of 2.66 which is within the acceptance range. The factors hindering the effectiveness of collaborative method of teaching mathematics in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA show that insufficient face-to-face interaction can hinder the effectiveness of collaborative method of teaching mathematics in secondary schools in Ikorodu LGA.

#### 5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, it is hoping that with the improvement of collaborative learning technique for teaching, Mathematics performance and learning be changed for the better. The study found that collaborative learning technique have influenced Mathematics learning achievement among secondary school students. By and large, collaborative learning technique have a great influence on Mathematics learning achievement among secondary school students which has been proved in this study.

#### 5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings from the study, the following recommendations are made:

- Educational stakeholders should intensify their effort to organize seminars/conferences on the implications of collaborative learning technique as effective interventions towards enhancing Mathematics learning achievement among secondary school students.
- The researchers and stakeholders in education should not only focus on the students’ achievement alone but also their Mathematics anxiety. This is because Mathematics anxiety of the students has a lot of influence on Mathematics learning achievement among secondary school students.
- Teachers and other stakeholders in the school system are to be trained on how to improve students’ Mathematics learning achievement and collaborative learning technique. This will serve as efforts to assist the students in overcoming the challenges of low Mathematics learning achievement among secondary school students.
- The students in the school should be encouraged and trained on the effective usage of these interventions (collaborative learning technique). This will make the students to adopt effective attitude towards enhancing the Mathematics learning achievement.

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