Study On Challenges Of Security And Book Theft In The Utilization Of Information Resources By Students In Michael Okpara University Of Agriculture Library, Umudike
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This study surveyed the challenges of security and book theft in the utilization of information resources by students of Michael Okpara Federal University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia as a case study. The research design adopted was the survey method using questionnaire and interview for data collection.
The population of the study consisted of 57 staff officers who are in a position to answer to causes of book theft and other security challenges for the University library. The result also showed that the rate of book theft in the library is at 0-10%. The study identified some of the causes of book theft in the library which includes: Financial constraints, students need materials for the intellectual pursuit, poor library building, student short of time to finish amongst others. The study also took into some of the methods adopted by the library to prevent library materials from theft as the highest percent stood at 49% mounting CCTV and security personnel and personnel moving around in the library.
The study also explores some types of security gadgets installed in the library such as CCTV (electronic surveillance camera) and 3m electronic security. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher observed that the major challenges militating against security and book theft in the library are inadequate security personnel and inadequate supervision and monitoring of readers. Some security measuring was also explored such as tightening security at library entrance and exits and periodic searching of students’ hostels and staff.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background to the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Scope of the study
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Historical background Of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Library, Umudike Umuahia
- 1.8 Definition of operational basic concepts
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Causes of book theft in the utilization of information resources by students
- 2.3 Methods library adopt to prevent its information resources from the theft
- 2.4 Types of security gadgets installed in the library
- 2.5 Challenges militating against security and book theft in the library
- 2.6 Strategic security measures to curb theft of library materials
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Population of study
- 3.4 Sample size and sampling techniques
- 3.5 Instrument for data collection
- 3.6 Validation of the instrument
- 3.7 Procedure for data collection
- 3.8 Methods of data analysis
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of data and analysis
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
1.1 Background To The Study
The threat to intellectual property through theft, mutilation, vandalism, and other forms of abuse has been posed tremendous challenges in the utilization of information resources by students. According to Jackson (2001) “incidents of theft, non-return of materials and other form of security challenges are on the increase.
These unwanted acts need a serious tackle in University libraries in order to secure library resources. Anunobi and Okoye (2008) contributed that “University libraries are faced with crossbreed challenges for effective utilization of resources acquired.
One challenge is the challenge of security for prevention of theft of information resources in the University libraries. There is a need for university libraries to ensure accessibility and effective utilization of materials to make an effective program of collection security necessary.
Libraries all over the world are not safe and secure as violence and crimes do occur most in university libraries.
These challenges include book theft and mutilation of library materials as well as harassment of library staff.
Today, university libraries in particular strives to provide information resources in both print and non-print to support the educational services of the university community and its utilization by students (sim mends, 2001).
From documented evidences, everyday there are reports of loss, theft, embezzlement and vandalism. These offences as noted by Bello (2008)who stated that these may affect proper utilization of information resources by students. The acquisition of library information resources is no less important than their utilization and protection.
The art of theft, utilization and vandalizing library and information resources are no doubt spreading among students. And these destructive acts do not only trust rate effort of the students in screeching for information resources they want to read but also results in the loss of confidence in the effective use of the library.
Looking at the challenges of security and book theft in the libraries, Nnadozie (2007) itemized the following: Inadequate security personnel, inadequate supervision and monitoring of readers, inadequate orientation of library users, absence of lending services, absence of reprographic services etc.
However, today, library resources appeared to be finding their ways into students lockers and the fact is that this phenomenon is spreading nation wide, crime, theft, mutilation, vanalalism and inadequate security are increasing in a spectacular and frightening rate in university libraries. Defacement, arson, verbal and physical abuse, harassment and other criminal activities are some of the challenges encountered by university staff.
On the side of the need for utilization of information resources by students, Elatuati (1993) maintained that students utilize information resources for a variety of needs such as class assignment, for examination, personal upgradation, and for pleasure. On the other hand, Rajendren and Rathinasabapathy (2007) outlined the following types of security gadgets installed in the university libraries.
They include protection systems, the close circuit television (CCTV), security monitoring, perimeter alarm system, a special alarming system that blares at the least sign of theft; others include photographic devices where by one is photographed at the instance of being detected for theft. On the measures to safe guard library and information resources, Anderson (2005) said that theft in libraries can be controlled through administrative policies and security controls. He pointed out that availability of information materials is of prime important in the discussion for theft prevention.
He further reveal that many theft results in the initial difficulty involved in obtaining a book in a competitive atmosphere concerning its use by eliminating these difficulties, the number of theft will obviously be reduced.
According to him, libraries can employ these measures of installing security system and issuing library security policies.
In view of the above, Nnadozie (2007) provided the following measure: one door should be used for entry into and exit from the library; adequate number of personnel should be employed to patrol the reading halls and monitor movement into and out of the library; security gadgets (e.g wire gauze, close circuit television (CCTV), electronic monitor/ camera, automatic detector, etc.) should be installed to monitor and prevent users from pilfering library possessions.
For proper utilization of information resources by students, university library managers must identify the security challenges and book theft as they relate to their libraries.On the challenges of security and book theft in the utilization of information resources by students; it is necessary to also define university library. Udensi and Sadiku (2005) define university libraries as “Library to and in universities of higher institution function to provide information resources to the users”.
According to the author, this library acquire large quantities of resources to meet the demands of the numerous students, faculty officers, lectures; therefore, there is the need to protect the materials in the library from factors such as theft mutilation, deterioration, and other form of abuse in the library.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Library materials are daily stolen, mutilated and vandalized in the face of other anti-social activities by delinquent users; information materials acquired are utilized by students for a variety of purposes such as assignment purpose, examination purpose and other need to which they are used by the library to render effective services to users. These information resources should be secured to prevent theft from delinquent users and other form of crime that may deny the use of such information by another user.
It is obviously clear that if these materials are not secured its use will be frustrated. Thus, loss of information resources is a recurring challenge of libraries all over the world but it seems to be more serious in university libraries. Many students have been known to leave the library frustrated. This is as a result of unavailability of materials needed; due to these materials have been stolen, mutilated and vandalized.
These has constituted challenges to university libraries. Lack of adequate security measure have resulted in the loss of many valuable library materials. Therefore, this study is concerned to look into the challenges of security and book theft in the utilization of information resources by students in Michael Okpara university library, Umudike Umuahia.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The specific objectives of the study are as follows:
- To Find out if there is challenges of security in the utilization of information resources by students.
- To determine the extent of book theft in the utilization of information resources by students.
- To identify the causes of book theft in the utilization of information resources by students
- To identity the methods library adopt to prevent its information resources from theft.
- To ascertain the types of security gadgets installed in the library.
- To investigate the challenges militating against security and book theft in the utilization of information resources by students.
- To discover strategic security measures for the protection and utilization of information resources by students.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions:
- Is there challenges of security in the utilization of information resources?
- To what rate of book theft in the utilization of information resources by students?
- What are the causes of book theft in the utilization of information resources by students?
- What method does the library adopted to prevent its information resources from the theft?
- What are the challenges militating against security and book theft in the utilization of information resources by students?
- What are the strategic security measures for the protection and utilization of information resources by students?
1.5 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this study is centered on: challenges of security and book theft in the utilization of information resources by students in MICHAEL OKPARA university of Agriculture library, Umudike.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
Conducting this study will be of great significant in many ways; firstly, it will contribute to an existing literature in the field of librarianship. Also, some interested researchers will find the findings from this study more interesting as it will enable them to identify and fill any existing gap.
Secondly, the study will be of great significant as it will provide some strategic security measure ,for the protection and utilization of information resources.
Thirdly, the findings from this study will provide useful advice to the management of libraries on the causes of book theft in the utilization of information resources by students.
Finally, the study will review some of the challenges militating against security and book theft so that the managers of libraries will take precaution on how to tackle the challenges.
1.7 Historical Background Of Michael Okpara University Of Agriculture Library, Umudike, Umuahia.
The national root crops institute (NURCRI) Umudike is one of the 17 Agricultural research institutes in Nigeria. The institute started as a provincial experiment farm under the Nigerian department of Agriculture with headquarters at moor plantation Ibadan in January 1, 1923. In 1955, the training arm- school of agriculture was established and the two establishment came under the director of Agriculture with headquarters at Enugu following the regionalization of the country and was known as the Eastern Nigerian Agricultural research station. The institution was merged with the school of agriculture and became agricultural research training station, (ARTS) in 1956.
It assumed a federal status to becomes federal agricultural research and training station (FARTS) in April, 1972. By April, 1976 it becomes known as national root crops research institute by the agricultural research decree of 1973, and its enabling acts of 1975 and came under the agricultural research council of Nigeria. (ARCN) Asumugha, G.N etal (2006)
The library information and documentation division in national root crops research institution Umudike, have chief K.F Okocha, as director information and documentation, the division provides scientific and technical information essential for basic and adaptive research on root tuber crops. It also packages development information on economic empowerment, rural development and food security.
It prepares the institute’s gazetteer containing all appointment, promotions, transfers and retirements. It assists in the production of institute newsletter.
The holding in volumes of the national root crops research institutes, library Umudike is books 3, 113, Journals 22, 277, Annual / Technical reports 215, Technical pamphlets 1, 251, scientific reprints 635, Higher degree thesis 201. The library has recently digitized some aspect of its services using the following in house databases, serial index, catalogue, holdings, yam research abstracts from 1990 – 2002, cassava production processing and marketing: annotated bibliography 1980 – 2005, NRCRI inventory of publications 1995 – 2008. These databases have been successfully configured into e – formats through the application of UNESCO CDS – /S/S software.
1.8 Definition Of Operational Basic Concepts
The act of protecting library materials from being stolen. It also involved the protection of library materials against being exposed to danger, damage, to avoid something bad that might contribute to poor collection of the library.
The crime of steating library materials.
To use library materials, especially for a particular purpose.
These are library materials that contain detailed information available in the library used by students for whatever purpose.
A person who is studying at a university, polytechnics, colleges of education, or any higher institution.
A difficult tasks that hinders or tests somebody’s ability and skill.
To damage library materials, especially by cutting or tearing off part of it.
Libraries attracted to institution of higher learning for the purpose of providing resources to its students.
Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations
This chapter is solely concerned with summary of the findings, the conclusion and recommendations given, based on the findings of the study.
5.2 Summary Of Findings
The following findings were made based on the data generated for the study.
The major causes of book theft in the utilization of information resources by students are financial constraints and students want an readily materials required for their intellectual pursuit.
That the major type of security gadgets installed in the library under study are electronic surveillance camera (CCTV).
That the best methods adopted to prevent library materials are to mount CCTV and security personnel and personnel should be moving around the library.
The major challenges militating against security and book theft in the library are inadequate security personnel and inadequate supervision and monitoring of readers.
Hence the best security measures possible for curbing theft of materials in the library are tightening at library entrance and exits, periodic searching of students’ hostels and staff; provision of multiple copies of heavily used materials.
The importance of information resources cannot on over emphasized. Man depends on library resources for knowledge and new ideas are projected through the use of library resources. The data collected in this study research revealed the various security lapses and ways library losses its materials through theft.
It was discovered that security system applied in university libraries have not been really effective, there is much to be done in ensuring a well secured library and an opportunity for the future generation to share in the knowledge of today. It was further discovered that other contributing factors observed include limited number of copies of library materials, high cost of books and non-book materials and absence of photocopy machine in the libraries. High gradually deplets information resources and reduces the librarians effectiveness.
Therefore, there is need to preserve and maintain library information resources at all costs.
- Provision of photocopying service in the library to enable library users make quick photocopies for their need of library resources.
- The university library should provide adequate library resources to meet the information needs of students.
- The library should provide stable and uninterrupted power supply in order to maintain the electronic security network and other ICT equipments.
- Stiff penalties should be well spelt out for dishonest users associated with theft, illegal removal of library resources.
- Orientation on how to effectively use library services should be organized regularly for all library users.
- Using electronics, books in the library, especially for high demand, latest edition texts:
- Book theft will be reduced by transferring a high risk, physical item into an electronic version that cannot be illegally removed from the premises.
- The library security personnel should be placed in a strategic position in the library so that strict compliance to the library rules and regulations would be ensured among the student users.
- Male and female security personnel should be employed to ensure that a thorough search takes place for both male and female students at the exist of the library.
- Departmental libraries should be established in the university to reduce the pressure on the main library’s more books will be made available for the users in the process.
- More closed circle television (CCTV) system should be increased so as to minimize the menace of book theft in the library.
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