Studies On The Role Of Housefly (Musca Domestica) In The Transmission Of Medically Important Parasites Within University Of Agriculture Community Makurdi

Project and Seminar Material for Biology

Studies On The Role Of Housefly (Musca Domestica) In The Transmission Of Medically Important Parasites Within University Of Agriculture Community Makurdi


Abstract


Houseflies are the best known and most widely distributed insects accounting for 90% of all flies in human habitation. A study was undertaken on Parasitic Fauna from the housefly Musca domestica (L) across the University of Agriculture Makurdi Community. A total of 1,309 houseflies were collected using fresh fish as bait and the knockdown method, from three different localities and were examined for Parasitic Faunas using normal saline concentration technique.  The highest fly abundance recorded was 613 (46.81%) from the students village, while the least recorded was 216 (16.50%) houseflies from the staff quarters.

Nine parasites were isolated from the external body surfaces of the flies with the following frequency of infestation in their external surfaces respectively; Ascari slumbricoides 15(23.44%), Entamoeba histolytica 19 (29.69%), Taeniasolium 9(14.06), Taeniasaginata 7 (10.94), Schistosoma mansoni 5(7.81), Enterobius vermicularis 5(7.81), Hymenolepis nana 5(7.81), Schistosoma haematobium 2(3.13) Trichuris trichiura 1(1.56%) and the frequencies from three sampling sites were (16.50%) for the Staff quarters, (36.67%) for the Female hostel and (46.81%) for the Student’s village. Housefly was found to be a potential mechanical carrier of parasitic infections and significantly contribute to the spread of food borne parasitic diseases, since this study detected the presence of nine parasites in flies’ exoskeleton and therefore its role in disease transmission cannot be over emphasized.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Dedication
  • Declaration
  • Certification
  • Acknowledgments
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Information
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Scope of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Aim and Objectives of the Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Natural History
  • 2.2 Classification of the House Fly
  • 2.3 Morphology of the Adult House Fly
  • 2.4 Distribution of the House Fly
  • 2.5 Structures of the Housefly Favoring Disease Transmission
  • 2.6 Habits of the Housefly Favoring Disease Transmission
  • 2.7 Diseases Transmitted By Housefly
  • 2.7.1Mechanical Transmission
  • 2.7.2 Vomit Drop
  • 2.7.3 Defecation
  • 2.8 Life Cycle of Housefly
  • 2.9 Control of Houseflies
  • 2.9.1 Cultural Control or Sanitation
  • 2.9.2 Traps
  • 2.9.3 Biological Control
  • 2.9.4 Integrated Fly Control
  • 2.9.5 Chemical Control

Chapter Three

Materials and Method

  • 3.1 Study Area
  • 3.2 Method / Procedure
  • 3.3 Identification of Parasites
  • 3.4 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results


Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Percentage frequencies of parasites identified on the body surface of M. domestica in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi environment.
  • Table 2: Percentage frequencies and Abundance of Musca domestica in the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi Community
  • Table 3: Abundance and Distribution of Musca domestica with respect to period of collection in the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi.

List of Plates


  • Plate 1: Adult housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus
  • Plate 2: Life Cycle of the housefly Musca domestica
  • Plate 3: Laboratory analysis of samples collected (external washings from M. domestica)

List of Figure


  • Fig 1: Map of University of Agriculture Makurdi showing Study Locality

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Information

The housefly Muscado mestica is a fly of the order Diptera, it is the most common of all domestic flies, accounting for about 91% of family Muscidae and indeed one of the most widely spread insects found all over the world (Jeffrey et al., 2000). It is considered a pest that can carry pathogens responsible for diseases (Scott et al., 2014). Houseflies Muscadomestica L. are ubiquitous (found everywhere) and transmit more than 100 human and animal diseases, including bacterial infections such as salmonellosis, anthrasophthalmia, shigellosis, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, cholera and infantile diarrhea (Jeffrey et al., 2000). It is considered one of the most important pests which cause health problems in the environment as it accompanies human during their daily activity everywhere, on work site or in rest places causing many disturbances to them (Howard, 2011).

Houseflies are of human and veterinary concern, because it acts as a mechanical vector for a range of pathogens (Peter and Chiodui, 1997). An almost invisible dot of feces in the environment may contain the eggs or larvae that can develop further and transmit to nearby humans (Graczyk et al., 2001).

It has been reported by regulatory agencies concerned with sanitation that and public health that housefly are associated with unsanitary condition and involved in dissemination of human enteropathogens that serve as causative agents of gastro-intestinal diseases to humans, based on strong attraction of filth and human food (Otronto and Tarsitano, 2003). The filthy breeding habit, feeding mechanism and indiscriminate travel between filth and food make houseflies as an efficient vector and transmitters of human enteric protozoan and helminth parasites such as cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis and oocyts of Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora spp and Egg or larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuria (Graczyk et al., 2001).

The transmission of these human protozoan and helminth parasites by houseflies is predominantly mechanical, which occurs through mechanical dislodgement from external body, fecal deposition and regurgitation (Graczyk et al., 2005). Since houseflies feed on contaminated substances such as human and animal excreta, sputum, excretion from wound, the flies can carry pathogens from their spongy mouth parts, body and leg hairs, which is directly transmitted to the next visited site e.g. human food (Manzon and Sanchoz, 1997).

Flies also transmit pathogens responsible for eye diseases such as trachoma and epidemic conjunctivitis and infect wounds or skin with diseases such as cutaneous diphtheria, mycoses, yaws and leprosy (Westley et al., 2014).
House flies are always found in association with humans and human activities (Timothy et al., 2014). They are also one of the most serious pests with animal production facilities worldwide (Timothy et al., 2014). Insecticide has been used extensively for controlling house flies for a century and this pest has shown a remarkable ability to rapidly evolve resistance (Timothy et al., 2014).

Despite the awareness of many about the dangers posed by houseflies, the inability to maintain a good sanitation leads to an increase in the population of houseflies, especially in warm tropical countries. In Makurdi, in general and Federal University of Agriculture in particular, poor sanitation is becoming a problem. Indiscriminate refuse dumping, little or no care of toilet facilities and drainage systems coupled with improper handling of food are daily on the increase. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify the Parasitic Fauna found on houseflies Muscadomestica across the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi Benue States’ Community. In order to assess the dominant type of transmissible infectious agents present in the community.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Housefly (Musca domestica) is the best known and most widely distributed insects found all over the world, but it is more adaptable in warm areas (Goulson et al 2005). It is the classical example of synanthropic animal, one that lives in association with humans which account for about 90% of all flies in human habitation (Subejo 2010). It is considered one of the most important pests which cause health problems in the environment as it accompanies human during their daily activity everywhere, on work site or in rest places causing many disturbances to them (Howard2011).

Housefly imposes itself on human and all what is available, food and waste and is considered as very dangerous to public health and causes economic problems to all farm animals (Sevvice 1980). Houseflies are of human and veterinary concern, because it acts as a mechanical vector for a range of pathogens. More than 100 pathogens are associated with housefly which may cause disease in human, such diseases are; Cholera, Typhoid fever, Tuberculosis, Aspergillosis, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis, Ascariasis, Amoebic dysentery (Peter and Chiodui 1997 and Graczyk et al 2001). An almost invisible dot of faeces in the environment may contain the eggs or larvae that can develop further and transmit to nearby humans (Graczyk et al 2001).

Outbreak and cases of food-borne diarrheal diseases in urban and rural areas are closely related to the seasonal increase in the abundance of houseflies’ populations in warm places where unsanitary conditions prevail and are usually scarce (Gehad and Elshirbini 2 scarce (Gehad and Elshirbini 2010). It has been reported by regulatory agencies concerned with sanitation and public health that housefly are associated with unsanitary condition and involved in dissemination of human enteropathogens that serve as causative agents of gastro-intestinal diseases to humans, based on strong attraction of filth and human food (Otronto and Tarsitano 2003)) .

The filthy breeding habit, feeding mechanisms and indiscriminate travel between filth and food make houseflies as an efficient vector and transmitters of human enteric protozoan and helminth parasites such as cysts of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora spp, and Egg or larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Hook warm (Graczyk et al 2001 and Otronto and Tarsitano 2003). The transmission of these human protozoan and helminth parasites by housefly is predominantly mechanical, which occurs via mechanical dislodgement from external body, faecal deposition and regurgitation i.e. Vomit(Grazyk et al 2005]. Since housefly feed on contaminated substances such as human and animal excreta, sputum, excretion from wound, the flies can carry pathogens on their spongy mouthpart, body, and leg hairs, which is directly transmitted to the next visited surface e.g. human food (WHO 1990, Manzon and Sanchoz 1997).

Human intestinal parasites infection is one of the most common infections in human especially in tropical and subtropical countries. More than one billion of the world populations including at least 400 million school aged children are chronically infected with the round worm Ascaris lumbricoides, whip worm Trichuris trichiura, and hook worm Ancylostoma duodenale (1990). Intestinal obstruction, anaemia, Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) are potentially fatal clinical problems which complicates the infection. Houseflies have been incriminated as mechanical and biological vectors of these infections (Manzon and Sanchez 1997). Many authors have indicated the potential of housefly as carrier of parasites (Manzon and Sanchez).

A study was carried out in Egypt on the roles of housefly in mechanical transmission of parasites where Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura were isolated at transmission rate of 11.8% in household and Ascaris lumbricoides at transmission rate of 25.9% in defecation (Gehad and El sherbini 2003).

In south eastern Nigeria, a study was conducted by Ajero (Ajero 2007)on the nematode ova in cyclorrhaphan flies in Owerri town, were he isolated Ascaris lumbricoides ova at highest prevalence rate of 52% (Wanna et al 2008).
Nmorsi working in Ekpoma Nigeria reported the presence of some gastro-intestinal parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm, Cryptosporidium parvum in Housefly (Nmorsi et al 2006). Teshone et al Isolated the presence of many intestinal parasites in the external body and gut content of houseflies, Ascaris lumbricoides (36.9%), T. trichiura (38.8%), Hook worm (13.0%), Hymenolepis nana (0.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (48.1%), and Giardia intestinalis (10.4%) (Teshome and Worku 2009). Several studies have been reported in intestinal parasitic infection. Unfortunately, specific report on the role of housefly as a mechanical vector of gastrointestinal parasites in Maiduguri metropolis was not found, therefore the effort to investigate the roles played by housefly in transmission of pathogenic parasites will provide an information that breakdown the chain between the parasites and the houseflies.

The aim of this study was to detect the presence of parasites’ ova, larvae and cyst from the exterior surface of housefly, to investigate the roles played by housefly in the transmission of protozoan and helminthes parasites and to provide information on the public health importance of the study.


1.3 Scope Of The Study

The Community of Federal University of Agriculture Markudi Benue state Nigeria has been chosen for this study because it is one of the communities with high population of house flies.


1.4 Significance Of The Study

This study on the parasitic fauna from the house fly Musca domestica across the University of Agriculture community Benue state Nigeria will suggest possible control in preventive measures against house flies as vectors of parasitic fauna in the area of study.


1.5 Aim And Objectives Of The Study

The aim of this study was to identify the role of housefly (musca domestica) in the transmission of medically important parasite.

While specific objective included:

  1. To identify the Parasitic Fauna on the housefly across the University of Agriculture Makurdi Community.
  2. To determine the abundance of houseflies in the University Community
  3. To ascertain the potential risk factors associated with the identified houseflies in this Community.
  4. To determine the environmental factors that favour ;
    • The abundance of houseflies in the University Community
    • The breeding of houseflies in the University Community.

Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In conclusion, housefly was found to be a potential mechanical transmitter of parasitic infection and significantly contribute to the spread of food borne parasitic diseases, since this research detected the presence of four gastrointestinal parasites in flies’ exoskeleton and therefore its role in disease transmission should not be under rated. Other microorganisms causing bacterial and viral infection have been reported to be transmitted by housefly. Therefore, it becomes imperative to urgently institute control measures of these flies through mass education on improving the existing standard of environmental sanitary condition.

Also, it is suggested that more work is needed to improve all control methods like cultural, biological and chemical methods to control the negative impact of housefly as a major pest of humans, poultry and livestock. Finally combination of different methods for prevention and controlling infestations of house flies that is integrated housefly control program (IPM – Integrated Pest Management) is recommended.


5.2 Recommendation

The control and eradication of houseflies should be implemented to stop gastrointestinal parasites transmission in addition to drugs administration. In high risk areas health education, personal and environmental hygiene should be emphasized, in areas where open defecation is common food must be strictly protected from housefly. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the presence of parasites in housefly gut and also to determine other pathogenic microorganism (bacteria, viruses and fungi) that are mechanically transmitted by Musca domestica.


Studies On The Role Of Housefly (Musca Domestica) In The Transmission Of Medically Important Parasites Within University Of Agriculture Community Makurdi


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