Students-Teacher Relationship And The Effect It Has On Student’s Performance In Their Exams

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Students-Teacher Relationship And The Effect It Has On Student’s Performance In Their Exams


Abstract


The topic of this study is the effect of teacher-students relationship on academic performance of students exams in Ede-North local government area of Osun state. The study intend to determine the extent to which teachers punish and react towards students in the class whenever their attention is needed by them, the extent to which teachers reinforce the students in the classroom, the extent to which teachers allows students freedom in the class and the extent to which teachers use leisure time to engage the students in a friendly chat. The data used for the study were obtained by the use of structured questionnaire. The study adopted random sampling techniques using a sample size of 200 students from the 4 selected government secondary schools, mean and grand mean was used for data analysis. The population for this study consists of two thousand three hundred and eighty eight (2,388). The sampling technique used in this study was simple random sampling technique. The researcher therefore recommended that mentorship should be encouraged in school so that mentors will know and meets the needs of the students and hence encourage and improve the relationship between the teachers and students, qualified and sound minded teachers should be employed in order to develop, nurture and maintain good relationship between the teachers and students, seminar or workshop should be organized at least once or twice in a year for teachers in order to enlighten them more on how to relate, communication and associate with their students, teachers should try and reinforce their students positively whenever they answer questions correctly or wrongly.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

An ever-changing world seeks advancement in every aspect of life including education. Since it is recognized that the level of education in the developed world is far higher than in the developing countries, it stands to reason that education has an important role to play in the evolution of developing countries. Our present education system indicates that knowledge should be disseminated by the teacher to students. This means that teachers select subject materials, textbooks and references, design the framework of the subject, conceptualize, analyze and synthesize the subject matter and present it face-to-face to students .

Meyer & Turner (2002) discussed their findings illustrating the importance of students’ and teachers’ emotions during instructional interactions. They determined that “through studying student-teacher interactions, our conceptualization of what constitutes motivation to learn increasingly has involved emotions as essential to learning and teaching” (p.107). Their results provide support for further study of the inclusion of interpersonal relationships in the instructional setting and to what degree those relationships affect the students’ learning environment. The quality of the relationship between a student and the teacher will result in a greater degree of learning in the classroom according to Downey (2008). Mohrman, Tenkasi, & Mohrman, (2003) assert “lasting change does not result from plans, blueprints, and events, rather change occurs 3 through interaction of participants” (p. 321). Strong teacher-student relationships may be one of the most important environmental factors in changing a child’s educational path (Baker, 2006)

Both a student and a teacher should be aware that a school is a place to learn when they enter the school building every day. Apart from this, it is the job of the students as well as the teachers to make sure that the relationship the two have is a good one. If a student is constantly giving a teacher a rough time about everything, the student cannot have a good relationship with the teacher. The student-teacher relationship is like a bridge that connects knowledge, experience and efficiency of a teacher to bring out the potentiality of a student with his/her aspirations. The distance between the two should be the distance we cross the bridge. Apart from the syllabus allotted to the students, the teachers should give information about the critical society in which they are living. For this, they should not be confined themselves to the work of completing their allotted portions but they are supposed to introduce the students to a wider knowledge of the world in which they are living.

In any interactive process, the use of a human approach plays a major role in success. Education is one such process, the success of which is influenced by student–teacher relationship. In other words, this relationship is an essential component of the teaching and learning process. The teacher’s success in facilitating learning is directly related to the quality of that relationship (Postman and Weingarten 1969; Tiberius, 1986; Tiberius and Billson, 1991).

According to Birch & Ladd, 1997; Klem & Connell, 2004, it is stated that teachers who experience close relationships with students reported that their students were less likely to avoid school, appeared more selfdirected, more supportive, and more engaged in learning. The communication between the student and the teacher serves a connection between the two and which provides a better atmosphere for a classroom environment. A teacher then needs to understand the value of the students’ senses of belonging which can be of greater value to overall development of the students in all aspects irrespective of the racial confrontations. By making a student like the school, he/she reaps important social advantages such as building friendship, gaining respect for peers and adults and learning social skills.

These side by side help the student get good academic records and performance. The student-teacher relationship is made strong by the teachers’ inspiring the students to interact constructively in the classroom situations. The teacher should behave in such a way that a student should love him/her with respect. As (Montalvo, Mansfield & Miller, 2007) have suggested, adults often assume that children like school due to the opportunities it offers for peer interaction. Although previous studies support that notion, research also indicates that certain teacher traits serve as strong indicators of students’ like or dislike for school. In addition, findings indicate that students attain better grades in classes taught by their teachers they like. The more teachers know about their students, the better the rapport the teacher has with them and the more likely they are to benefit from the teachers’ experience of the world. This teaching is inherently interactive because it depends on interacting with active, growing minds (Tiberius, 1986; Tiberius and Billson, 1991).

The relationship between a student and a teacher, if it is to be maximally productive, must be a sign of certain attitudes and commitments of each to the other. The students must reflect their teacher and hold them in the highest esteem, because this is a necessary pre-requisite to accepting his advice. The student must believe the teacher’s concern. The student must believe that the teacher always has his/her best interests in mind. If the student would sense some ulterior motive, some self-interest, or even carelessness in the teacher’s instruction, he/she would not be able to surrender whole heartedly to the teachers’ advice, and this would make entire relationship meaningless.

The student must commit himself/herself to following the instruction with utmost discipline because only then can the intended effect be realized. Just as a doctor’s orders must be followed precisely, since failure to do so could cause more harm than good, so a teacher’s “prescription” must be obeyed with equal conscientiousness. A teacher also has three levels of responsibility to his students in relation to giving advice. Initially a teacher should fulfil the prerequisite of getting to know his/her students individually to probe the innermost depths of their hearts as well as examining the outer details of their lives.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The poor achievement of primary school pupils in examinations in recent times have become a thing of worry to parents, educators, researchers and the government. This ugly incident of pupils’ poor academic achievement is lingering, despite all the efforts of the government in ensuring that qualitative education is provided at the primary school level, for instance, The minimum qualification for primary school teachers has been upgraded by the government to National Certificate in Education (NCE), school facilities and infrastructure has equally been improved as well as funding, such that free education has been provided to public primary schools through Universal Basic Education (UBE) program. Despite these efforts, pupils’ achievement continues to decline.

Moreover, it has been observed that in recent times, most pupils are having low self-esteem, resulting to learning disability and disciplinary problems. These pupils lack confidence in themselves and in their ability to perform well in the examinations. This could be attributable to the rampant examination malpractices in the country. In the bid to finding possible solution to this issue of pupils’ poor academic achievement and low self-esteem, researchers have embarked on series of studies.

Evidence from some of the literature suggests that one of the essential determinants of success or failure in education is the style of communication which a teacher adopts in the classroom teaching and learning and also the types of mutual relationship that exist between the teacher and the students. Research in western nations like Britain and America seem to be conclusive that teachers’ communication styles influence self-esteem and academic achievement. However, the extent to which such teachers’ communication styles (assertive, passive and aggressive) influence Nigerian pupils’ self-esteem and academic achievement is not very clear. Therefore, the problem of this study posed as a question is: what is the influence of the type of relationship that exist between teacher and students and academic achievement of primary school pupils?


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to find out the influence and effect the relationship that exist between teacher and student has on the student’s academic achievement, the specific objectives to achieve are:

  1. To find out the different types of relationship that exist the teachers and students
  2. To establish the relationship between student-teacher relationship and the academic achievement of the students
  3. To discover how teacher the can create a mutual relationship that will be of great help to improve the student’s academic achievement

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions will support the research and guide the researcher to achieve the specified objectives

  1. What are the different types of relationship that exist between the teacher and students
  2. Is there any significant relationship between the students-teacher relationship and the academic achievement of the student?
  3. What are the measures that can be put in place to help the teacher create a beneficial relationship with the students?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful to the parents, curriculum developers and policy makers, teachers, students and researchers. Findings of this study when published will give curriculum developers and policy makers the insight on the influence of teacher-students communication styles and mutual relationship on pupils’ self-esteem and academic achievement.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This research covers the entire primary school pupils in Ede-North local government area of Osun state.


1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The major problem faced during this research is time, the researcher has limited time to complete the research and also insufficient fund to finance the project also to visit more one local government.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Students:

A person who is studying at a university or other place of higher education

Teacher:

A person who teaches, especially in a school

Relationship:

The way in which two or more people or things are connected,

Effect:

A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause

Self Esteem:

Confidence in one’s own worth or abilities;

Academic Achievement:

The extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion of the Findings

Research Question 1:
To what extent do teachers reinforce the students in the classroom?

This research question seeks to find out to what extent teachers use praises on the student in the classroom during teaching and learning of Biology. This result support the view of Babal (2006) who noted that teachers must plan ahead to set up worthwhile learning situations and also should constantly strive to develop and appropriate climate for learning.

Question 2:
In what ways do teachers punish and react towards students in the classroom whenever their attention is needed?

Table 2 shows how teachers react and punish students in the classroom. The finding shows that teachers punish and react negatively towards the students in the classroom. Akey (2006) who noted that teachers reinforce students positively when ever their academic performance is above average. Garcia- Reid et al (2005) that opined that students’ engagement is positively correlated to teachers support and that students who noted that their teachers were supportive and cared about their success were more likely to be engaged in the classroom and perform well academically.

Question 3:
To what extent do teachers use leisure time to engage the students in a friendly chat?

Table 3 shows that the responses of the students on the extent teachers use leisure time to chat friendly with them. It shows that teachers use leisure time to engage them in friendly chat. This result is compatible with the statement of Fafunwa (2004) who pointed out for a successful academic achievement to occur in the learner, they must try to create free time that will encourage cordial relationship between him and his learners and the learners must be given freedom to participate thereby expressing his/ her views based on what they know.

Question 4:
To what extent do teachers allow students freedom in the classroom?

It is shown that teachers allow students freedom in the classroom. This finding is in line with the view of Okeke (2004) who opined that dominative attitude of the teacher tends to bring about resistance on the side of the students. He advised that teachers should bear in mind that students need to feel secure and they also need an atmosphere in which authority is exercised in a democratic way.

Question 5:
To what extent can we encourage students-teachers relationships in the class?

According to Constructivist Theory of Learning, the theory suggests that teachers should consider the learner’s zone of proximal development and give the learners the help they need in constructing new knowledge and meaning. Second, they should facilitate interaction and cooperation between learners since the social and cultural context of learning is essential in constructivist philosophy. Therefore this theory is inline with this research question.


5.2 Conclusions

It was establish that the teachers have important role in developing, nurturing and maintaining other relationship with their students. Teachers are required to foster positive relationship with their students to create a conducive environment (classroom) for teaching and learning activities and also meet students’ developmental, emotional and academic needs, since student’s who posses position and supportive relationships with positive attitude as well as positive academic “outcomes” such as higher grades. Students with conflict teachers-student relationship tends to hate their teacher which lead to report of the subject (biology) right by the teacher and are at increased risk for academic problems such as poor grades and repeating a grade.

Finally, it is thereof important to consider what the students bring into the classroom and know how to relate with them.

Educational Implication

Based on the result of the findings in this study, the effect of teacher students relationship on academic achievement of senior secondary biology students in Ede-North local Government Area; when a positive relationship exists, among the teachers and students, the students are more motivated to learn, more actively participate in their learning and learning is likely to be more effective.

According to Olumba (2013) the educational aims cannot be actualized if there is a poor relationship between the teachers and their students. Bringing the aims of education to reality cannot be achieved because its good relationship depends on the orientation of the teachers and students in the educational need and committed teachers who will carry the students along with them to achieve the educational goals.

Furthermore, if a teacher is unable to form this relationship the students are less able dispose themselves to learn from that teacher.


5.3 Recommendations

Having identified some of the weakness and problems of the effect of teachers-students relationship on students exams in Osun State, the researcher therefore recommends that:

  1. Mentorship should be encouraged in schools to foster and improve the relationship between the teachers and students.
  2. Qualified and sound minded teachers should be employed, so that the will be able, willing and disposed to develop, nurture and maintain good relationship between them and their students.
  3. Seminar or workshop should be organized at least once or twice in a year for teachers in order to enlighten them more on how to relate, communicate, associate and meets the needs of their students.
  4. Teachers should try and reinforce their students passively whenever the answer questions correctly or wrongly in the class.
  5. School management or school authority should check and monitor the teachers as the teacher in order to found out how they relate, communicate and associate with their students during teaching and learning activities.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Do teacher-student relationships affect student outcomes?

Although much more experimental research on this topic needs to be performed, it is clear that, given the best available evidence, specific strategies and practices currently available to teacher preparations programs, school systems, and teachers will leverage positive teacher-student relationships to maximize student outcomes.

Do teacher effects affect students’ academic performance?

Four of the studies described above found weak relationships between teacher effects on students’ academic performance and effects on other outcome measures.

How does teacher engagement affect student performance?

Students are more motivated to attend classes if they know their teacher cares about them and will help them succeed. And by improving school engagement, these relationships can also improve academic achievement. Even in elementary school, unexcused absences are linked to dropping grades, particularly in math. 

Can we measure teacher-student relationships accurately?

Although it is useful to make comparisons between the strength of the relationships between teacher effects on different measures of students’ attitudes and behaviors, measurement error limits our ability to do so precisely. 

How do teachers affect student achievement?

The authors use data from a four-year experiment in which teachers and students were randomly assigned to classes to estimate teacher effects on student achievement. Teacher effects are estimated as between-teacher (but within-school) variance components of achievement status and residualized achievement gains.

What makes a teacher-student bond successful?

Successful teacher-student bonds are frequently characterized as ones in which the teacher earns the student’s trust and in which the student feels emotionally safe, feels supported by the teacher, and is challenged to excel academically (Cornelius-White, 2007; Gregory & Ripski, 2008).

What are the factors that influence teacher expectations of students?

In a meta-analysis, Harris and Rosenthal (1985) reported an effect size of 0.26 associated with student sex, age, and ethnicity as factors in influencing teacher expectations about how a student would perform academically. 

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