Students Perception Of Practical Agricultural Science In Senior Secondary Schools In Ilorin West L.G.A. Kwara State

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Science Students

Students Perception Of Practical Agricultural Science In Senior Secondary Schools In Ilorin West L.G.A. Kwara State


Abstract


The study investigate students perception of practical agricultural science in senior secondary in Ilorin west LGA, Kwara State

The population for this study is made up of all Agricultural science students. The instrument used for this study was research design questionnaire and responses were elicited for the research, random sampling method was used to sample students offering agricultural science from each of the four schools involved in the study. Four research question and hypotheses were used to guide in the study. Simple percentage was used in answering the research question and chi-square analysis was used to test the null hypotheses at a significant difference of 0.05.

The result of the study reveal that student have a positive perception, positive attitude and interest toward practical agricultural science, furthermore it also showed that there is no significant difference between male and female student in their interest, attitude and perception of agricultural science practical. Finally it was revealed that students perception of practical agricultural science influence their choice of agricultural science as a career

The study recommended among others that agricultural science teachers should continue to sustain students interest in practical agricultural science through motivations and various pedagogical methods, and female students should be given equal opportunity in agricultural sector like their male counter parts since there is no difference in the way students viewed Agricultural science. The study further recommend that student interest in agricultural science practical should be sustained through the provision of agricultural science facilities and learning resources.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • Background to the problem
  • Statements of Problem
    Purpose of the Study
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypotheses
  • Scope of the Study
  • Clarification of Major Terms and Variables
  • Significance of the Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • Concept of Agricultural Education
  • Objectives and Contents of Agricultural Science Curriculum
  • Empirical studies on student attitude towards practical agricultural science
  • Hindrances to Teaching and Learning of Practical Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools
  • Strategies for improving Teaching and Learning of Practical Agricultural science
  • Appraisal of Reviewed Literature

Chapter Three

Methodology

  • Research Design
  • Population of the Study
  • Sampling and Sampling Techniques
  • Research Instrument
  • Validation of Instruments
  • Procedure for Data Collection
  • Data Analysis Techniques

Chapter Four

Data Analysis and Result

  • Data Analysis and Result
  • Summary of Major Findings

Chapter Five

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the problem

Globally, education today is widely known as the most effective investment a country can make ,according to World Bank (2007) Education is one of the critical pathway to promote social and economic development.It can bring about a better life, better world and raises economic development, it can improve the wellbeing of family and ensure better prospect of education for children (Galchukia 1999).

Secondary schools are the intermediary institutions between primary schools and tertiary institutions. In the present 9-3-4 system of education in Nigeria, the last three years of nine year basic education is for upper basic (Junior Secondary) while the three years is for Senior secondary (FRN,2013). Its curriculum contains subjects that are capable of preparing its students to live a useful life within the society and also prepare them for higher education, one of the subjects that can help in attaining these objectives is Agricultural science.

The need for agricultural science education in the Nigeria secondary schools system cannot be over emphasized due to the enormous impact of the agricultural sector on the nation’s economy. Agriculture plays a critical role in job creation & poverty alleviation by successive government in Nigeria through different programmes. The Nigerian agriculture had suffered neglect for decades due to the discovery of oil. However, the sector still contributes significantly to the nation’s gross domestic product. As highlighted by Adegboye (2004), agriculture contributes more than 30 percent of the country’s annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employs about 70 percent of the labour force, accounts for over 90 percent of the nation’s non-oil exports and provides over 80 percent of the country’s food resources. Most African economies are dominated by agriculture, which contributes about 17% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 40% of exports, employment creation and has the potential to reduce poverty. The agricultural sector has been described as the engine for economic growth and improved livelihoods in Africa (World Bank 2006; Diao et al., 2007).

Practical aspect of Agricultural science is so vital to national growth and productivity. According to the National Policy on Education(2004), Agriculture is one of the subjects offered in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools, as a pre-vocational elective and vocational elective respectively (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013).

The teaching and learning of agricultural science in Nigeria secondary schools is far from satisfactory due to student perception and approach used in teaching the subject as pointed out by Sekamu (2009) , that agriculture is taught theoretically an as failed to make an impression on the society.

Perception is derived from the Latin words perceptio or percipio meaning the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment (Wikipedia, 2014).. Perception refers to individuals view of level of understanding of subject matter or things, an individual perception of things will determine the type of attitude that will be put on..According to Mukherjee (1998), the term attitude refers to one’s feelings, thought and predisposition to behave in some popular manner towards some aspect of one’s environment. Attitude is the liking or disliking of an object based on what is known about it (Rameela, 2004). Attitude have a strong influences on people perception of the things around them and help to determine their likes and dislikes. Falaye and Ayoola (2006) pointed out that student attitude toward practical agricultural science is largely determined by their erroneous perception and misconception of the profession as the major livelihood option for the resource poor farmers who have no other meaningful sustenance to earn a living. This myopic view has rather dampened the student moral and attitude without realizing that scientific and technological innovation that can transform farming into a lucrative system business.

Gender refers to the social meanings associated with being a male or a female, including the construction of identities, expectations, behaviors and power relationships that derive from social interactions (Ambe-Uva, Iwuchukwu & Jibrin 2008)). Orji (2002) asserted that in Africa, especially in a traditional Nigerian setting female and male sex roles are seen as mutually exclusive. For instance, some professions like carpentry, engineering, woodwork, metalwork and automobile engineering technologies are still regarded in some quarters as no-go-area for women while nursing and catering profession are seen as exclusive areas for women.

Gender difference in students also dictates their perception and attitude toward learning of science subject including agriculture science and other vocational subject. Female students tend to show a dislike for science subject like agricultural science that usually involve strenuous practical that require physical exertion which is usually associated with fatigue and sometime physical injuries (Adesoji,1999 and Ezewu,1981), Attitude of past Administration in Nigeria towards Agriculture is very bad Although the present administration of president Muhammadu Buhari administration is putting up a positive effort towards agriculture in order to curb the problems of unemployment, food shortage and to use the sector to diversify the economy of the country and also make many Nigerians to be self-reliant (Federal Government of Nigeria ,FGN 2016) which is one of the aim of vocational agriculture.


1.3 Statements of Problem

The role of Agriculture to a nation cannot be underestimate ranging from availability of crops and animals in market to food security among other.Agricultural science is a practical oriented subject,the approach to teaching of agricultural science in most secondary school is taught theoretically and has failed to make an impression on the society (Sekamu,2009). FRN(2009)pointed out that Nigeria schools should teach practical skills, knowledge and value which will help school leavers to solve real life problems. Learners learn better when they hear, see and touch which is the principle of learning by doing, this principle is best achieved by engaging oneself in practical activities (Osinem,2008).. However with modernization in Agriculture ,there is a need to look into the perception and interest of secondary school students in practical agricultural science in order correct their wrong perception to the aspect of agricultural science if they have negative perception of the aspect ,since student perception of things will determine their involvement in what thedo and how well they perform in such things .This study however, tries to investigate the perception of senior secondary school student towards practical agricultural science.


1.4 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of secondary school student towards practical agriculture in senior secondary school in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State

The specific purpose of the study were to;

  1. Identify how students perceive practical agricultural science.
  2. Find out whether gender differences have any significant effect on the attitude of secondary school students toward practical agricultural
  3. To determine whether students, perception of practical agricultural science influenced their choice of agricultural science as a career.
  4. To verify student interest in practical agricultural science.

1.5 Research Questions

Based on the purpose on the study. The following research questions were formulated

This study was intended to find answer to the following questions.

  1. What are the students perception of practical agricultural science
  2. Does gender difference has any significant effect on student attitude toward practical agricultural science
  3. Dose gender perception of practical agricultural science influence their choice of agricultural science as a career
  4. What are the students interest in practical agricultural science

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses(H0) were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance

H01 There is no significant difference between the perception of male and female students toward practical agriculture.

H02 There is no significant differences between student gender on their attitude toward practical agricultural science

H03 There is no significant differences between student perception of practical agricultural science and their choice of agricultural science as a career.

H04 There is no significant differences between the interest of male and female students towards practical agricultural science


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is limited to all secondary schools offering Agricultural science in Ilorin west LGA .All senior secondary schools student offering agricultural science comprise the entire scope of the study

Clarification of Terms and Major Variables

The following terms and variables are clarified operationally as used in this study

Perception:

Is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information .or conscious understanding of something.

Attitude:

Is the disposition or state of mind about something.

Co-education:

This refers to school for both male and female.

Interest:

A great attention and concern given to something

Gender:

Is a social cultural phenomenon of division of people into male and female

School Curriculum:

This is an education programs prepared for formal education programs in the school .It comprises all the subject and extra-curriculum activities of the school.

Vocational Education:

Is the education that prepare people to work in a trade, a craft ,as a technicians or in professional vocation


1.8 Significance of the Study

The outcome of the study would beofutmost important to curriculum planners, school administrators, agricultural science teachers, government, parents and students.

  1. To curriculum planner and developers, it would enable them to possess necessary knowledge and disposition to develop scientific curricular that would encourage practical. Agricultural science.
  2. To the school administrators it would provide information which would make them realize the importance of practical agriculture and would enable them to handle the aspect with care and provide necessary things in term of human and material resource that would make it teaching and learning effective,
  3. To the teachers it would make them to be aware of perception of students towards practical agricultural science which will enable them to use different strategies to motivate student interest in agricultural science.
  4. To the students it will make them to be aware that their perception and interest on of things will greatly determine how well they will perform and engage in such activities
  5. To the parents, it will help in educating those with wrong perception and misconception that subject like agricultural science is meant for male alone, thereby allowing their female children to engage in practical agricultural science
  6. To the government, it will help them to know the level of interest of students in practical agricultural science which will make them to pump more resources in term of human and materials resources into the aspect in order to use the sector to diversify the economy of the nation, thereby reducing over dependence of the country on oil sector .

Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

Introduction

The main focus of this study is to determine the perception of senior secondary school students toward practical agricultural science. Therefore this chapter will focus on the detailed discussion of findings, conclusion drawn from the findings and recommendation based on the major findings from the study


5.1 Discussion

The findings of the study shows that the respondents have a positive perception of practical agricultural science this is in contrast to what several authors (Stabler, 1960; Sheffield et al, 1976) had noted that agriculture had been in low esteem ,there is also an indication that there is no differences in the perception of male and female students towards practical agricultural science this result concur with Kanyi (2007) who found no significant difference in perception towards natural resources management between boys and girls that were involved in farmers of future program me in Kenya secondary schools ,this finding negate Ordoho (2014) findings who reported that some students are of the perception that agricultural science has no future prospects for them and others believe that agricultural science is not as important as mathematics and English language which are viewed as core subject needed to get employment or admission into tertiary institution it is also in contrast to Maccoby and Jacklin (1974). The result reveals that there is no significant difference between male and female students in their attitude towards agricultural science practical. This negates the findings of Aremu, (1999); Grandwell, (2000) Nwosu, 1998, and Adeoye, (2002) that asserted significant difference between attitude of male and female students on science practical.

The results uphold Animasahun (2005) reported that there was no significant difference between male and female students if they are exposed to the same learning opportunities the results of this study are also in consonant with findings of Kidane and Worth (2013) who found a favourable positive attitude of students towards farming and studying Agricultural Science in the secondary school. On the same note, Njoroge & Orodho (2014) assert that Senior High School students have a positive attitude and interest towards the Agriculture Science subject, the findings of this study disagrees with FAO (1997) research that students prefer other subjects to Agricultural Science. Again, the findings of this study are in contrast with studies done by Lone (2007) that students do not want to enrol for agriculture rather they would prefer to enrol for other optional subjects such as computer studies, business studies, art and design and technology.

The findings further showed that there was no difference between male and female students attitude towards practical agricultural science .The attitude might have been as a result of motivation and various pedagogical methods used by agricultural science teachers to stimulate the interest of students toward practical. In respect to student interest towards practical ,It could be concluded that the student had a positive interest towards the aspect of agricultural science, this is in contrast to Maccoby and Jacklin (1974), who while studying attitudinal and value differences between sexes noted that girls have interest, expresses different attitudes and hold different values in regard to learning what is important to them. It also negate the findings of Falaye and Ayoola (2006) that reported the lack of interest of female students towards practical, and Salako (1994) that shows that students hate working on the farms .Based on this findings it shows that student perception of practical agricultural science greatly influenced and determined their choice of agricultural science a career, this was also supported by Okebukola (1996) who reported that students perception will determine his/her disposition to work and how well he/she we use the knowledge acquired.

In the case of interest students have positive interest toward practical agricultural science, the findings of the research showed that there was no significant differences between the interest of male and female students toward practical agricultural science; they both have interest in the practical aspect due to their right perception of the aspect.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following are the major conclusion

  1. Students in the study area have a positive perception towards practical agricultural science and that there was no significant difference between the perception of students toward practical agricultural science. ,
  2. Student positive perception towards practical agricultural science influence there aspiration to study agricultural science or it related field as a career after their secondary school education.
  3. Students have interest in practical agricultural science and this interest is applicable to both male and female student with no significant differences in their interests.
  4. Student have a positive attitude towards practical agricultural science and there was no significant differences in attitude of students based on their gender

It could be concluded that gender differences does not have any effect on student perception and interest in practical agricultural science


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made.

  1. Teacher of agricultural science should continue as much as possible to raise the interest of students on practical agricultural science through motivation and various pedagogical methods to enable the students learn and excel in agriculture to bring about the desired national developments.
  2. Teachers should help in maintaining the positive perception of student by avoiding the use of some aspect of practical agricultural science like cutting of bushes as a direct alternative means for flogging students when they misbehave.
  3. Female students should be given equal opportunity in agricultural sectors like their male counterparts since there is no significant difference in their perception, attitude and interest towards agricultural science.
  4. Students intended future career in agriculture largely depend on their perception towards the subject, in this regard the youths should be advised to take agriculture as a means of employment instead of going into other areas such as factories and ministries to look for job.
  5. Students’ interest in the subject should be sustained through the provision of Agricultural Science facilities and learning resources. The provision of these facilities and resources will create a conducive environment for the continuous development of interest and skills in Agricultural Science.

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