Students Perception Of Female Teachers Leadership Behaviour In Selected Secondary Schools
This study investigated student perception of female teachers leadership behaviour in selected secondary schools in Abeokuta Metropolis. In carrying out the study, five research questions were asked. The participants for the study consisted of 40 senior secondary students randomly selected from 4 randomly selected secondary schools in Abeokuta metropolis of Ogun State. The instrument used for data collection was a self developed questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using t-test statistical method. The results were held significant at 0.05. The results showed that:
- There is no significant difference between students religions affiliations and their perception of female teachers leadership behaviour (t = 1.69; df = 38; P> 0.05).
- There is no significant difference in students perception of female teachers leadership behavior as a result of peer group influence (t = 1.72; df = 38; P> 0.05).
- There is no significant difference in student perception of female teachers leadership behavior as a result of school location (t = 3.15; df = 38; P> 0.05)
- There is no significant difference in students perception of female teachers leadership behaviour as a result of family background (t = 8.36; df = 38; P > 0.05)
- There is no significant difference between male and female teachers leadership behaviour (t = 1.88; df = 38; P> 0.05).
1.1 Background of the Study
The importance of leadership behaviour in school administration cannot be looked given the background that it determines the extent to which a school goal and objectives can be achieved.
Thus, the female school teachers leadership behaviour influences both the students and other teachers through concord leadership style. A female teacher is exposed to three types of leadership style.
- Authomatative leadership style
- Democratic leadership style
- Laissez faire leadership style
Laissez fare adopted by the female school teacher determine the perception which the students will have about her and other female teacher for instance, if a female leads the school as the principal and adopts the authoritarian leadership style, this will invariably influence the perception of the student’s that female principal are autocratic and unforgiving.
Olaleye (2008) contents that leadership behaviour of the school principal, either male or female contributes to a range of perception which the students have about their teachers. Research on leadership behavior of female school teachers has for ling being of interest to educational manager and evaluation experts. To some authorities leadership behaviour is important because it directly affect the school learning culture, others have argues that the female teachers are in a unique position to enhance the teaching learning process.
Adetona (2003): noted that the task of any female school teacher is to produce well educated boys and through effective teaching and learning process. Position leadership behaviour in a class room situation are associated with higher student’s motivating good academic performance and improved altitudes of the students towards their female teachers. Significant challenge for female school teachers toady is to identify the student’s need and the type of leadership to be employed in transforming the students. The leadership model developed by Bass and Avolo (1997) identified three leadership behaviours.
First is the transformational leadership behaviours which includes inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration.
Secondly, the transactional leadership behaviour which can also be identified with exchange of rewards for meeting agreed upon objectives. This leadership behaviour monitors the students to ensure mistakes are not make but allows group work among the students. In this case, the female teachers intervene only when things got wrong.
Thirdly, the non-leadership construct, popularly knows as the laissez faire leadership behaviour often occurs when the female teacher leaves the students to their own devices as well as giving them no education.
Empirical research evidence shows that student’s perception of their female school teachers.
(Adebowale, 2007), it follows that it is not only the leadership behavior of the female school teachers that influence the perception of the student’s but also certain factors which include the societal view of a female teacher; the religions contention of the role of a female; peer perception about girls and even the values a family holds about the girl child.
This research will therefore investigate the nature of student’s perception of their female teachers, how these perceptions held on the student’s academic performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Gender issues among school teachers leadership behaviour has generated a lot of debate among educational administrators, school managers and even among the teachers themselves. Students to have their own views about their female teachers and their male counterparts while some students prefer a male teacher, others live to be taught by a female teacher.
Adeyanju (1995) agreed that not malted him qualified in living a female teacher might be, student assume that then leadership behaviour is based upon emotional highness and takes things personal.
1.3 Purpose of the Research
The purpose of their research work is to:
- Find out the pattern of the general perception of secondary school student their female teachers leadership behaviour.
- Find out if their perception may depend in such factors as peer group, sex, age, family background and religions affixation and school location.
1.4 Research Questions
The research will answer the following question
- Is there any difference between religions affiliation of the students and their perception of female school teachers leadership behavior?
- Is there any difference between peer group influence on the students and their perception of female school teachers leadership behaviour?
- Is their any difference between the school location of the students and their perception of female school teachers leadership behavior?
- Is their any difference between the family background of the students and their perception of female’s school teachers leadership behavior?
- Is their any deference between the sexes of the student and their perception of female school teachers leadership behaviour.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This is study is important because
- It will provide valuable information on students perception of female school teachers leadership behaviour.
- It will serves as resources material for others who want to carry out research in related research areas.
1.6 Scope and Delimitation
This study focuses on student’s perception of female school teachers leadership behavior. It is armed at secondary school in Abeokuta Metropolis., Ogun State but because of time, money and other factors, it will be limited to any for schools (two public schools and two privately armed schools) in Abeokuta, Ogun State.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Perception is a belief on opinion often held by many people and base in appearance.
A female teacher is a legal entity or and individuals who is beamed in a art and science of teaching and has obtained an educational certificate for such purpose.
Leadership entails the set of characteristics that make a good leader.
Behaviour means how a particular person relates or believes in relationship to others.
Leadership behaviour refers to how a leader structures the organisator when he/she leads using the leadership model that works.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Depending on the finding of the study, it is possible to draw the following conclusion.
Throughout the educational system for the last five years (2010-2014) the female‟s involvement in educational leadership positions at secondary schools was negligible it seems to show an increment each year in the last five years, one can safely conclude that the increase is insignificant and not promising.
There are different favors that have been discussed in the study which affect female teachers‟ involvement in educational leadership. Among the factors related to family and home responsibility women‟s responsibility of family child bearing and taking care of home and women are more responsible to home or family related issues than their male counterparts; factors related to educational initiations; educational institutions do not have transparent selection and promotion policies and implements are less committed to apply affirmative action in practice are identified as the major challenges that have slowed down female teachers right of entry to educational leadership positions.
One can conclude that this tendency of female teachers to hold themselves from educational leadership may also be attributed to the following reasons.
For one thing, when they come to positions, there is a felt increment in responsibility and this may pose fear of failure among female teachers as they are also overburdened by home responsibilities than male obviously women‟s home and family responsibility is major cause to their participation. Still the burden of home in school leadership and family chores are on the shoulder of women.
Similarly, since the school society considers females as incompetent to meet educational leadership positions women tend to underestimate their own values, this low self concept may result in de motivating them from aspiring to top positions in general certainly, lack of confidence can significantly affect female‟s participation in educational leadership. And this defect arises not from nature but from historical background that females came up with. As the society does not prepare its daughters for management or leadership but for house hold activities, the children (daughters) do not develop confidence of being a leader.
To see broadly, there is lack of female role models in educational leadership positions that would encourage female teachers to aspire for the posts. Attitude of the school society does not enhance female teachers to become a leader. Because of this, female teachers are not interested to be involved in educational leadership position.
In addition factors lack of transparent selection criteria and implementers are less committed to apply affirmative action has been identified as major factors that hinder women back. In accordance the researcher‟s expectation and female teacher interviewees home and family responsibility and institutional factors become the major causes.
Based on the findings and conclusion reached the following possible solutions and recommended forwarded so as to increase women‟s participation in secondary school leadership.
As evidence by the study the status of female principals in Addis Ababa secondary school needs improvement and this has to start with changing the society‟s mind set and this is mainly the duty of religious persons, mass media and family the way of socializing girls and boys should be changed. In doing so ministry of education (MOE) and Addis Ababa city administration education bureau in collaboration with sub-city education offices needs to create awareness regarding the skills and abilities of female teachers. As they appear to the school leadership in terms of their skill, ability, are also competent as men do. All concerned bodies should empower girls with skills for self. Confidence, assertiveness, speaking out, decision making (by giving different tasks at school level) and negotiation in order for them to overcome gender- based restriction to their participation.
Moreover, raising various factors which could influence their participation is crucial; like creating conducive working condition, setting applicable school rules and regulations to handle students who misbehave badly which could avoid the conviction of masculine leadership. The MoE with education bureau and sub city education office have to revise the policy, strategy and selection criteria used to appoint secondary school principals and serious consideration should be given form giving priority to female teachers to train to develop their self- confidence.
To minimize the notion of masculine; family, school community, and other stake holders (NGOs) must take over their responsibility to participate women equally with their counterparts. This could be attained by using the necessary mass media, meetings, social affair associations.
The society and the female teachers themselves should get awareness through different trainings and workshops about the equality of females and males to alleviate the inequity matter (gender stereo type of sex discrimination) in bringing females to the educational leadership position.
The gender heterogeneity in the secondary school teaching staff should be increased because the more the number of female teachers exists in the staff is the more female competent may exist for educational leadership positions.
The sub city education office has to work jointly with other offices and politicians to bring attitudinal changes in the communities to evade the stereotypic misconception about women. It has to empower and assign female teachers in different levels of educational leadership areas such as principals, education office experts etc.
Finally, the researcher recommends further researches in the area with broader scope and depth including other variables like the perception of male teachers, female teachers and students
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does teacher gender affect perceived teaching behavior?
In line with our expectation, we found that educational level, teaching experience, and teacher gender could explain differences in perceived teaching behavior (hypothesis 2). In contrast to some previous studies.
Is the general level of teaching behavior of secondary school teachers sufficient?
Our findings partially confirmed our first hypothesis showing that the perceived general level of secondary school teachers’ teaching behavior varied from sufficient to good depending on the teaching behavior domains (hypothesis 1). Consistent with previous research.
How can we gather student perceptions of teachers’ behavior?
To gather student perceptions of teachers’ behavior, we used the My Teacher questionnaire developed by Maulana et al. (2015b). The questionnaire was translated and back-translated for use in the Spanish context following the guidelines provided by Hambleton et al. (2005).
How does teacher–student interaction change during the school year?
Opdenakker et al. (2012) found in their study in the Netherlands that teacher behavior (in terms of teacher–student interpersonal relationship: teacher proximity and teacher influence) tended to decrease during the school year.