Students Attitude Towards The Abolition Of Corporal Punishment And Their Academic Achievement In Secondary Schools In Obubra Local Government Area Of Cross River State

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Students Attitude Towards The Abolition Of Corporal Punishment And Their Academic Achievement In Secondary Schools In Obubra Local Government Area Of Cross River State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine students attitude towards the abolition of corporal punishment and their academic achievement in secondary schools in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between corporal punishment and student academic achievement, investigate the effect of abolishing corporal punishment on the learners discipline, find out whether the abolition of corporal punishment has a negative impact student academic achievement, and find out the suitable modes to end indiscipline in schools since the abolishment of corporal punishment. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of some selected secondary school students in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that here is a significant relationship between corporal punishment and student academic achievement. Furthermore the study also revealed that he suitable modes to end indiscipline in schools since the abolishment of corporal punishment includes: counselling, suspension, dialogue, and manual work. Therefore it is recommended that strict measures to be taken by the stakeholders on how and when such punishment should be administered or even look for ways to have alternative ways to handle indiscipline. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In the span of history, discipline has been implemented based on the different cultural values that shape parental opinion and constitute a significant part of cultural or religious belief. Corporal punishment has been condemned by both national and international bodies as an abuse to human right or the child. However, the long term psychosocial and emotional benefits remain a topic for debate by educational stakeholders such as parents, teachers, school administrators and the government. Egwunyenga (1994) sees discipline as the training that enables an individual to develop an orderly conduct and self control as well as direction. According to Abubakar (2000) discipline is the ability and willingness to do what one ought to do without external control. For him, discipline is therefore a product of one’s volition to do whatever one desires which maybe right or wrong. This choice however, is born from an extensive work on discipline to shape the mind and build good morals in the developing being using different methods of which corporal punishment is the main strategy to most parents and teachers.

Gershoff (2008) defines corporal punishment as physical punishment which uses physical force intending to cause bodily pain for the purpose of correcting or punishing a child for their behavior. According to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (2001), corporal punishment is any punishment in which physical force is used and intended to cause some degree of pain or discomfort, however light. Corporal punishment is a punitive act that inflicts pain (Muhammad and Muhammad, 2007). Corporal punishment is one of the methods that have for long been used in homes, schools and even churches to curb bad behaviors and manners and ensure good discipline. For a child or adult to demonstrate proper behavior without external control, huge work must have been done to build the mind towards identifying what is correct or not.

Peterson and O’Connor (2014) say there are three types of corporal punishment: judicial corporal punishment, parental or domestic corporal punishment and school corporal punishment. These three types take place in different settings as their names suggest. Judicial corporal punishment is the type of punishment that takes place in courts ordered by the law, parental or domestic corporal punishment is the type that takes place at home exhibited by parents, older siblings and other relations. School corporal punishment is the type of punishment that takes place at school exhibited by teachers, school prefects and school administrators. Corporal punishment in schools and homes can take the following forms: slapping, hitting, kneeling without carrying a load, kneeling with a load such as a stone on the head, pick a pin, flogging, rebuke, carrying the hands on the head, standing for a duration of time, extensive manual work (cultivation of the school garden while classes are going on, fetching of water from a distant area, sweeping the class for a duration of time) suspension from classes with extensive manual labour which usually lasts between 2 to 8 days, starvation from a meal and reduction of allowances just to name some of these methods.

The United Nations and the European Union have advocated the child’s rights to a non-violent upbringing and encouraged member states to enact legislations banning all forms of corporal punishment (No GC et al, 2013). The European Commission for Human Rights views corporal punishment “as a total lack of respect for the human being, it therefore cannot depend on the age of the human being. The sum total of adverse effects, whether actual or potential, produced by corporal punishment on the mental and moral development of the child is enough to describe it as degrading….” Physical punishment only becomes degrading when it passes a certain degree of severity. Some organizations like the UNICEF and UNESCO have opposed the use of corporal punishment in schools on bases of ethical and moral arguments against this use of force on children, physical and emotional danger to students and modeling aggressive behavior. However, if it is administered justly, it is essential to discipline (Veriava and Power, 2016).

According to Veriava and Power (2016), corporal punishment breeds aggression and hostility and makes learners unhappy which in turn contributes to absenteeism and learners dropping out of school. It perpetuates the acceptance of violent behavior in society. It does not encourage learners to behave appropriately. It has the potential to weaken the relationship between learner and educator, which is crucial for the development of the learner and causes psychological harm. Banning corporal punishment has led to a reduction in the levels of discipline, poor and illmannered learners. (Veriava and Power 2016). Invocavity and Josephine(2014) holds that corporal punishment should be reinstated and continued as a means of disciplining students because students respond more to corporal punishment. African students start experiencing corporal punishment when they are young so without punishing them, they will not act appropriately. In order to work by the law on the abolition of corporal punishment, the state has instituted school counselors who have been deployed to provide counseling services in a majority of state owned schools. It is however observed that most schools especially private and denominational schools do not make use of this disciplinary strategy (counseling) as counselors are hardly noticed on their campuses. The continuous occurrences of deviancy in schools, leaves one to question the efficacy of these counselors.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The educational system in the past especially before the abolition of corporal punishment experienced high levels of morality and discipline as was and is still prescribed by our African culture and belief. The story today is told as belonging to the past because of the opposite happenings in our schools. Standards have fallen; immorality, disrespect and deviancy now define secondary schools. At the time of the ban on corporal punishment, many studies had indicated the negative consequences of corporal punishment which ranged from truancy, school dropouts to deviancy. Although these cases existed, they were however limited in number and occurrence. After the ban of corporal punishment, schools have been continuously plagued with many disciplinary challenges demonstrated by students. Before the ban, discipline in schools was firm and respect for hierarchy, teachers, school administrators and self were top on the disciplinary agenda. With this abolition, schools have experienced deviant behaviors like drugs taking such as marijuana and tramadol and possession of arms like knives and cutlasses by students. This has resulted to deaths and severe handicapping conditions to both teachers and students. Students now welcome teachers to a fist fight and vice versa. Teachers come to school in fear of the unknown because the students can demonstrate their deviancy at any time. Teachers therefore are at risk in the hands of the same children they are to groom to be responsible citizens in future. Lies telling, absenteeism from classes, late coming disrespect of teachers and senior students, high alcoholic consumption, cultism, drug abuse, stealing, vandalism, violence, bullying, dropouts, gangs, promiscuity and insults/assaults, talking out of tone and physical abuse just to name a few, are slowly becoming the order of the day in schools today. It is based on these exigencies that we seek in this work to question the effectiveness of disciplinary reasoning against corporal punishment which has been abolished in its favor and to verify if corporal punishment should be reinstated and continued or not.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to investigate students attitude towards the abolition of corporal punishment and their academic achievement in secondary schools in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State.

Specifically the study intends to;

  1. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between corporal punishment and student academic achievement.
  2. To investigate the effect of abolishing corporal punishment on the learners discipline
  3. Find out whether the abolition of corporal punishment has a negative impact student academic achievement
  4. Find out the suitable modes to end indiscipline in schools since the abolishment of corporal punishment.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. Is there a significant relationship between corporal punishment and student academic achievement?
  2. What is the effect of abolishing corporal punishment on the learners discipline?
  3. Does the abolition of corporal punishment has a negative impact student academic achievement?
  4. What are the suitable modes to end indiscipline in schools since the abolishment of corporal punishment?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between corporal punishment and student academic achievement.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between corporal punishment and student academic achievement.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be useful particularly to policy makers in the bid to formulate policy guidelines for enhancing discipline in schools. The results of the study will also be useful to teacher training colleges and the Faculty of Education in the universities in their to impart skills necessary in enhancing discipline in schools. Head teachers and teachers in public secondary schools will find the study useful in the use of the most appropriate and effective measures to maintain high discipline for good performance in schools.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work will examine students attitude towards the abolition of corporal punishment and their academic achievement in secondary schools in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from some selected secondary school students in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Corporal Punishment:

Refers to a punishment that inflicts some pain on the Culprit especially by canning.

Discipline:

Refers to self-restraint in an individual for the welfare of all. It is control of one’s emotions and action for the development of desirable attitudes according to acceptable standards.

Academic Achievement:

Performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on students attitude towards the abolition of corporal punishment and their academic achievement in secondary schools in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine students attitude towards the abolition of corporal punishment and their academic achievement in secondary schools in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between corporal punishment and student academic achievement, investigate the effect of abolishing corporal punishment on the learners discipline, find out whether the abolition of corporal punishment has a negative impact student academic achievement, and find out the suitable modes to end indiscipline in schools since the abolishment of corporal punishment.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are some selected secondary school students in Obubra Local Government Area of Cross River State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a significant relationship between corporal punishment and student academic achievement.
  2. Abolishment of corporal punishment has a negative effect on the learners discipline
  3. The abolition of corporal punishment has a negative impact student academic achievement
  4. The suitable modes to end indiscipline in schools since the abolishment of corporal punishment includes: counselling, suspension, dialogue, and manual work.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Strict measures to be taken by the stakeholders on how and when such punishment should be administered or even look for ways to have alternative ways to handle indiscipline.
  2. Since government policies on education elicit diverse attitudes from teachers who are key stakeholders in education, the teachers should always be consulted whenever the government intends to change any policy affecting education.
  3. Corporal punishment should be reinstated and its use controlled by the Ministry of education
  4. More teachers be trained in guidance and counselling to handle some discipline problems like drug abuse.
  5. Disciplinary committees should be set up in all schools by the Teachers Service Commission to help control indiscipline.

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