Student Perception On Osun State Broadcasting Corporation Radio On Current Affairs Program (A Study Of Mass Communication Student Of Osun State University)
This study examined the Student Perception On Osun State Broadcasting Corporation Radio On Current Affairs Program (a Study Of Mass Communication Student Of Osun State University). The objective of this paper are to determine the extent to which members of the audience participate in interactive programmes, as well as how they perceive the programmes they participate in. Survey research method was employed, with the questionnaire as the major data generating instrument. A sample of 248 respondents were used for the study based on simple random sampling selection procedure. The 244 questionnaires were retrieved validated and used for the analysis using SPSS 21.0. The study found that while, that the programme has sufficiently provided the opportunity for meaningful discourse, the participants are yet to leverage on the opportunity created for audience in the current affairs programme. The findings also revealed, the timing of programming was found to be convenient for the audience. Majority of the respondents also perceive the programme as apolitical in concept and content, considering the station’s status as campus/community radio. The paper however, recommended that there should be more audience enlightenment for better participation.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Significance of the study
- 1.6 Scope of the study
- 1.7 Limitation of the study
- 1.8 Definition of terms
- 1.9 Organizations of the study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the study
- 3.3 Sample size determination
- 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of data collection
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the study
- 3.9 Reliability of the study
- 3.10 Ethical consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Interpretation of Result
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
The importance of Communication in any society cannot be overemphasized; it is a veritable tool in the realization of individual, corporate and societal objective or goal. Goldfrab (2006) posit that information is a valuable resource required in any society; thus acquiring and using information are critical and important activities. Issa (1997) cited in Muhammed, (1994) state that communication is a vital resource, which provides impetus for a nation’s social, cultural, spiritual, political, economic, scientific and technological advancement. Thus, one can rightly infer from the above that communication has always played an important role in human life, hence a basic human need.
The mass media constitute a unique social institution. Undoubtedly, all types of media functions as a socialization agents. However, among the different types of media, scholars have discovered that, the impact that radio has is enormous on personal and societal perceptions. Adebayo (1997) noted that radio messages are used to persuade audience in accepting improved and better opinions.
Radio is a powerful electronic medium utilized in bringing political, economic and social news to any community or group of communities faster than other media. Salama (1978) cited in Asemah, Anum and Edegah (2013) notes that radio serves as an opinion leader in its news commentary and editorial. Overtime, radio has been used to pass vital information about the right attitude, behavior, knowledge, technique and skills, which are expected from the members of the public. Asemah (2011) avers that the information dissemination function of the radio covers areas such as information to people’s alertness to health, agriculture, education, economy, politics, etc. Hence, to say radio has had a tremendous social impact on attitudes and behavior is undeniable.
The value of any programme becomes known only through audience perception and response. Perception is the immediate apprehension of an object or all of the sense organs by way of sensation. The prime function of the mass media is to, educate, enlighten, mobilize and inform both the literate and non-literate audience, hence, bringing them to speed with the events of the time. Klapper (1960, p.34) noted that “the media is the fourth estate of the realm and it is assigned the responsibility of information, education, enlightenment and entertainment of the general public”.
One of the distinct characteristics of mass communication is the large and heterogeneous audience. The audience are heterogeneous, as they are made up of divergent groups who may differ in sex, age, intelligence, political beliefs, ethnic backgrounds, and so on. Prior to the advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), audience participation and research was not widespread and mass communication relationship was unbalanced, with the advantage tending to lie with the communicator. Until the recently, thanks to ICT, broadcasters in the early days of radio and television world over, knew remarkably little about their listeners. Conversely, today, the situation is different with programmes that make audience participation possible, such that producers can meaningfully gauge the involvement and feedback of the audience as well as make effective plan for future events. Marshal McLuhan in a logical prediction has said that, the world will become a global village. Today, the advancement in technology in electronic communication has created a dynamic situation in which one can communicate simultaneously at the interpersonal and mass communication levels with people who may be located in the next room, or dispersed among the farthest continents.
Current Affairs Programme is a genre of broadcast journalism where the emphasis is on detailed analysis and discussion of news stories that have recently occurred or are ongoing at the time of broadcast. This differs from regular news broadcasts where the emphasis is on news reports presented as soon as possible, often with a minimum of analysis. It is also different from the news magazine show format in that the events are discussed immediately. In current affairs programmes, government officials, intellectuals, educationists, research scholars, economists, politicians, scientists, sociologists and individuals express their views.
Phone-in programme of the Osun State Broadcasting Corporation Radio, started in 2012. It is a programme that features critical issues affecting Nigeria’s polity, from economy to politics to matters that affect the ordinary Nigerians. The programme analyses such issues and seeks to proffer solutions where challenges are identified, using carefully selected guests with related expertise and contributions from the audience. The programme is said to have a large audience who participate via phone call. One wonders if the objectives of the programme, as outlined by the station, matches the perception of the audience over the years; given the fact that, Information and Communication Technology in mass communication in recent years, has captured the evolving communication dynamics, in which audiences are increasingly able to function both as senders and receivers of mass communication. It is a fact that a good deal of broadcasting activity goes on without much effort made to find out what is really happening at the other end. The researcher therefore seeks to find out how the audiences of current affairs programmes perceive them as well as understand if the need to contribute to national issues which is an objective of Osun State Broadcasting Corporation Radio has been satisfied.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Communication as observed by Yaroson and Asemah (2008) is a multifaceted phenomenon which is continuous in that it involves actions, responses (reactions and interactions). In their submission, they identified, the elements in the communication process as: stimulus, source, message, medium, receiver and feedback. This is to say that communication process begins with a stimulus and ends with a feedback, without which the process is regarded to be incomplete.
Current affairs programmes have over the years served as a platform for audience participation and contribution to issues of national interest.
The citizens of any country are critical stakeholders in decision making process of that country and their views are amplified via the mass media. If the media succeeds in creating an avenue for audience participation in current affairs programmes through phone-ins, e-mails, text messages etc., it becomes imperative that audiences of this platform be assessed to understand if the current affairs platform has overtime met the objectives for which it was established.
Thus, the major question this study attempts to answer is: How does the audience perceive Osun State Broadcasting Corporation Radio and how does this perception influence their participation in the programme?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study include the following:
- To determine the extent of audience participation in OSBC current affairs programme.
- To find out audience perception of the programme.
- To find out the extent to which OSBC current affairs programme encourages meaningful dialogue and discussion of issues of public interest.
- To identify the challenges to effective audience participation in the programmeOSBC current affairs programme.
1.4 Research question
The study will answer the following research questions;
- What is the extent of audience participation in OSBC current affairs programme. ?
- What is the audience perception of the OSBC current affairsprogramme ?
- What is the extent to which OSBC current affairs programme encourages meaningful dialogue and discussion of issues of public interest ?
- What are the challenges to effective audience participation in the OSBC current affairsprogramme ?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study aims at understanding audience perception of current affairs programmes with reference to OSBC current affairs programme”. In addition, it emphasizes the significance of audience participation in radio current affairs programmes in Nigeria. Producers of current affairs programmes will benefit from this research work as it will enable them know how audiences perceive the programme as well as what influences their participation. Solutions and recommendations will help media practitioners improve on programme production for audience suitability. Finally, this work will add to general knowledge and serve as a reference material especially to media practitioners, lecturers and students of mass communication and may encourage further studies in the area.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study examined the student perception on osun state broadcasting corporation radio on current affairs program ; the study will use the mass communication student of osun state university as its audience.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
During the course of written this research work, the respondent that justify the question took a lot of time before making an effect on the questionnaire paper. The time for the research works is so short to go on extra mile for move data.
This research work will be limited to the volume of information acquired through materials like national dailies, periodic journals, text books speeches, internet materials and write-ups on related subject.
Lack of Adequate Finance:
During the course of writing this research, there is lack of finance to travel from one place to another place for the collection of more data for the research work.
Unco-operate Attitude of Respondents:
As it is unduly know that banks are often busy, so questionnaire administration were not answered very well because majority of the staff were occupied with the customers. This constraints might be regard as the non-response during peak periods.
1.8 Definition of Terms
This is the way the participants feel about the programme.
Current Affairs Programmes:
Current affairs programme is a news programme which gives some details about one or more particular news items or burning issues in the society. These programmes are designed to explain, provide details and also comment on topical events or issues. Such programmes are broadcast to explain significance, consequence and effect of one or more recent events and issues on people.
1.9 Organizations of the Study
- The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
- The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study.
- While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study.
- The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings.
- The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the Student Perception On Osun State Broadcasting Corporation Radio On Current Affairs Program (a Study Of Mass Communication Student Of Osun State University). The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of Findings
Findings The findings of this study were discussed and analysed on the basis of the five research questions posed in this study. Data gathered in the study were analysed using descriptive statistics, in which tables, percentages and frequency were used to answer the research questions. The findings of the study were as follows:
- Most listeners of the programme are active participants. Findings revealed their consistency and commitment in contributing to issues raised in the programme.
- Majority of the audience members perceive the programme as being apolitical and general in its approach which allows for participation by all class of people.
- Similarly, the programme has sufficiently provided the opportunity for meaningful dialogue, with the timing of the programme found to be suitable.
- GSM tariff and poor network, and people’s tendency to keep their opinions to themselves, among others, are challenges affecting participation in the programme.
- Current affairs programmes are important in any democratic dispensation as they provide platforms for the audience to access information as well as express their views on issues. Interestingly, participation in Current Affair programme on OSBC is massive as revealed by the research.
- The adoption and proper utilization of social media technologies as channels for feedback on the programme would in no small way improve participation in the programme.
Current Affairs Programmes provide a platform where issues of national interest are discussed, as decisions reached from such discussions can affect lives of the people. In this light multiplicity of views becomes necessary such that when needs, interests and thoughts of the people are known and represented in the media, if addressed properly and channeled to the appropriate authorities, it can bring about societal development. Audience participation can consequently be improved to an appreciable level as this will strengthen and complete the process of communication.
Similarly, worthy of note, is that Current Affair programme on OSBC which dwells on critical issues attracts mass participation taking into account its role of educating and empowering the participants. As Sambe (2008, p182) puts it, “the mass media in Nigeria set agenda for national discourse. It is the media that sensitize Nigerians on the need to be active participants in governance during democratic eras.” It is incumbent on the media to advance and ensure the survival of freedom of expression, not just the right to receive information, but to impact as well. The need for audience research is essential as this will enable the media to know the needs and preferences of their audience in order to produce programmes or improve programme content and format to suit the audience, which will bring about the achievement of the overall objectives of the programme. Corroborating the above, Ike cited in Akpan and Pascal (2010, p115) noted that, “Broadcasters should study their audiences to know what their problems are and later tackle such problems to enhance greater participation by the audience.”
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:
- Producers of current affairs programmes clearly bearing in mind the significance of audience participation in programmes, should begin educating the audience on the importance of active participation and contribution to issues raised, this would go a long way in improving level of participation.
- Producers of current affairs programmes should explore new social media platforms and adopt the same in promoting audience participation. Today, many Nigerians have access to new social media technologies on their mobile phones, ipads, and other devices, therefore adopting this platform for feedback would increase participation.
- The importance of audience participation in public discourse should be emphasized and encouraged by the media. People should be encouraged to speak out while ensuring that their suggestions and contributions are taken seriously and directed to appropriate authorities. When audience members observe that their contributions are appreciated, they will make concerted efforts to participate in the programme.
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