Student – Teachers’ Relationship, Intrinsic Motivation And Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students

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Student – Teachers’ Relationship, Intrinsic Motivation And Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students


Abstract


The study examined student – teachers’ relationship, intrinsic motivation and academic performance of secondary school students in Lagos metropolis. Four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The sample size consisted of 200 Senior Secondary School Students randomly selected. The statistical methods adopted were descriptive and inferential statistics. The major findings were; there is a significant relationship between student- teacher relationship and academic performance.

There is a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and academic performance; there is a significant relationship between teachers’ personality and academic performance; there is a significant difference between students’ who are motivated intrinsically and those that are not. The following recommendations were made among others; teachers should ensure they create enabling environment to help student develop healthy self-esteem, positive social adjustment that will enhance academic attainment; student on their part should see their teachers as lovely and approachable surrogate parent who are concern with their overall development. Parents should teach their children to respect and live in harmony with their teachers.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Students are involved in many important and influential social relationships within the school context including relationships with teachers and peers. These relationships impact performance within several school domains including behavioral, social, and academic arenas. One salient indicator of a child’s success in school is their ability to learn and retain information taught within the classroom, known as academic success. We know that early contributors to academic outcomes are important because early academic achievement has implications for later development (e.g., Berndt, Hawkins, & Jiao, 1999; Graziano, Reavis, Keane, & Calkins 2007; Hamre & Pianta, 2001; Pianta & Stuhlman, 2004) including later academic achievement and success and potential career opportunities. Given the importance of academic achievement, we need to identify early social relationships that can put children on a positive trajectory for long-term success.

In this age of high stakes testing and accountability for both students and teachers, it is important to examine the evidence to determine if these relationships are indeed a factor in raising student achievement. Advocates for the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act assert that the way to improve student achievement is to focus on test scores. However, learning is a process that involves cognitive and social psychological dimensions, and both processes should be considered if academic achievement is to be maximized (Hallinan, 2008).

An extensive examination of the variables that impact learning should include studying the factors that impact students’ attitudes regarding school and the relationships they form with their teachers. Two arguments can be made for the identification of these factors. First, if students like school they reap important social advantages such as building friendships, gaining respect for peers and adults, and learning social skills. Second, if students like school their academic performance is enhanced (Hallinan, 2008). Regardless of if a teacher-student relationship is close or fraught with conflict, that relationship seems to both contribute to, and be an indicator of, a child’s adjustment to school (Pianta & Stuhlman, 2004).

Similarly humans are driven by a mechanism called motivation. What we think and why we behave as we do is generally described as motivation. Adams (2002) claims that in an achievement setting someone would be concerned with motivation if he were to ask , for example , why some students persists to tasks completion despite difficulty while others give up at the slightest provocation or why some students set such unrealistically high goals for themselves that failure is bound to occur.

According to Maclean (2006) teachers often believe some students have no motivation. There is no such thing as an unmotivated student. Every young person has a motivation mindset, but some have more learning focus profiles than others . teachers need to accept that all students have some form of motivation and the challenge is to try to “tune in” to what motivates students especially intrinsic motivation.

Motivation has been seen recently as a key aspect of emotional intelligence covering the marshalling of feelings of enthusiasm, confidence and persistence (Coleman, 1996). Rabideau (2009), said motivation can be defined as the driving force behind all the actions of an individual. The influence of an individual’s needs and desires both have a strong impact on the direction of their behavior. Motivation is based on your emotion and achievement related goals. He went further by distinguish between the different forms of motivation which include extrinsic, intrinsic, and physiological and achievement motivation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

According to Oladele (2009), some of the problems encountered by students in their academics are due to some salient teachers factors which include teacher inapproachability, poor student- teacher relationship, hatred from teachers ., negative name calling or labeling of students , teacher’s package of his subject and lack of belief in student’s ability to excel. He further stated that this is why some students often find it difficult to move closer to their teachers in the teacher and learning environment.

Similarly adolescents in the school setting need to be motivated if they would achieve high academic performance. Teachers , who are in the habit of motivating their students get the benefits of it because those students motivated in terms of rewards such as praises and using other pattern of motivation outperform others who are not motivated intrinsically.

This study will therefore attempt to examine the relationship between teacher- student relationship, intrinsic motivation and academic performance of students in secondary schools. This is because these two variables are central element in the academic performance of children even adults in any educational settings.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of the study will be to examine the relationship between teacher-students relationship, intrinsic motivation and academic performance of secondary school students in Lagos Metropolis.

Other specific objectives of the study will include:

  1. Whether intrinsic motivation has a significant relationship on academic performance.
  2. Whether teacher- student’s relationship has a significant relationship on academic performance.
  3. To find out if there is significant difference in the performance of students who are motivated intrinsically and those who are not.
  4. To find out if there is significant gender difference exist in the performance of students who are motivated intrinsically.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Hypotheses one
  • Ho: Intrinsic motivation has no significant relationship on academic performance.
  • Hi: Intrinsic motivation has a significant relationship on academic performance.
Hypotheses Two
  • Ho: Teacher- student’s relationship has no significant impact on academic performance.
  • Hi: Teacher- student’s relationship has a significant impact on academic performance.

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefits to parents, teachers, counselors.

It is significant for several reasons, firstly it will provide students will see why it is important for them not to only like their subjects but also like their teachers because without a cordial and friendly situation their academic dreams may not be fully realized.

Teachers would be made to see the role of their relationship with students play in promoting or inhibiting student’s academic performance, also they will learn to use cordial relationship with students to motivate them which will enhance their learning outcomes.

Parents would also learn how to create healthy relationship between their children and their children by encouraging both parties to be friendly with each other since one cannot do without each other because the achievement of one depend on the other.

Guidance and counselors would also see this study as beneficial and good because the recommendation will assist them to counsel people especially the student who are low academic achiever due to poor or no motivation from their parents or teachers.

Other researchers carrying out relevant topics would find this study useful.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is primarily concerned with student-teachers’ relationship, intrinsic motivation and academic performance of secondary school students. This study covers selected senior secondary schools in Lagos Metropolis.

The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


1.7 Definition of Terms

  1. Teacher-students’ relationships: this implies the pattern of relation between the teacher and students in the teaching and learning environment and how such relation methods influence learning. In this study teacher’s interaction with students will be considered in term of directing questions /activities to students, allowing them to participate in the teaching and learning process entertaining their questions / opinions, answering their questions and providing their appropriate punishment.
  2. Intrinsic motivation: this refers to motivation to engage in an activity for its own sake, interest and enjoyment. When we get feeling satisfaction during rather than after an activity.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to have a critical analysis of student-teacher relationship, intrinsic motivation and academic performance of secondary school students.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefit in addressing the challenges of student teacher students’ academic performance.


5.2 Summary

This study aimed at havinga critical analysis of student-teachers’ relationship, intrinsic motivation and academic performance of secondary school students. Four objectives were raised to guide this study. These objectives include:Whether intrinsic motivation has a significant relationship on academic performance, whether teacher- student’s relationship has a significant relationship on academic performance, to find out if there is significant difference in the performance of students who are motivated intrinsically and those who are not, to find out if there is significant gender difference exist in the performance of students who are motivated intrinsically.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn.
The crucial period in a human being’s life is the adolescent period. It may be constructive or destructive as per the temperament of the particular human being. There may be various causes for this. The student-teacher relationship plays a very important role in establishing a constructive one.


5.4 Recommendation

  1. Teachers and students must succeed together. For this, it is necessary to build teacher-student interaction in the classroom on the principles such as fairness, integrity, honesty and respect that guide in everything they do.
  2. The interaction must be two-way traffic, but teachers must lead and must feel confident that they will be able to succeed in establishing and maintaining a sound and producing rapport with students.3. The teachers must understand the students and find out what they need. For example, an important part of the teacher-student relationship is getting to know each student in terms of their cultural background, intellectual profile, learning strength and academic potential as well as their interests outside of school and what they do for fun.
  3. One should remember that many students will need to learn how to both give and receive respect.5. Most of the teachers probably favour an assertive discipline model, which is clear, consistent, and, when conducted properly, promotes an effective middle path between hostility at one end of the spectrum and passivity of the other.
  4. The student should be offered interesting activities. Activities must be devised in such a way that enable the students to engage with the learning, have some fun, and develop a sense of belonging to a cohesive group. Success is more likely if the students have some element of control and choice over both what they do and how they do it.
  5. The teacher should enjoy being in the company of their students. They spend a lot of time with them each week and if they make the effort to see time spent with students a pleasant experience, the relationship with their class stands a better chance of being successful. The teacher should maintain certain professional distance as they are their teachers and not their friends.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Does teacher feedback influence student motivation?

Generally, the literature confirms that teacher feedback can effectively influence student motivation (e.g., Pereira et al., 2016; Guo and Wei, 2019; Guo et al., 2019; Van der Kleij, 2019; Lou and Noels, 2020).

How can teachers motivate male and female students in first language learning?

First, since scaffolding feedback and teachers’ praise had positive correlations with both male and female students’ motivation, teachers should provide the two types of feedback more frequently to increase the latter’s motivation in first language learning settings (Haimovitz and Corpus, 2011; Guo and Wei, 2019; Guo et al., 2019).

Do male and female students respond differently to teacher criticism?

Teacher criticism had significant correlations with both male and female students for all components of student motivation (rs = 0.05 to.24; ps < 0.05), except for self-efficacy with male students, and intrinsic motivation with female students (ps > 0.05). 

Does student motivation decrease with age?

However, the literature indicates that students’ motivation declines over age and is one of the main causes of their learning problems in school (Yeung et al., 2011). Therefore, increasing the level of motivation is pivotal for promoting students’ academic success. 

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