Structural Detailing Of A Single Storey Residential Building With Retaining
This project is mainly concerned with the presentation of information basically on the structural detailing of reinforced concrete members of a story building, in a sloppy land with a retaining wall. Structural detailing is a branch of structural work that transposes the idea of works of a structural engineer into working drawings for easier utilization in the building construction. Working drawings are drawings produced by engineers for easy execution of a plan by builders.
The drawing also shows the interrelationship between the architectural and the engineering design, it shows all the construction detail properly as they relate to the other with no attempt of separation of diverse materials.
Table Of Contents
- Cover page
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of contents
- Structural symbol
Introduction of Project
- 2.0 Detailing process
- 2.1 Reinforcement size
- 2.2 Notation of drawing
- 2.3 Identification of bars
- 2.4 Bar bending schedule
- 2.5 Type of drawing
- 2.6 Profile drawing and reinforcement drawing
- 2.7 Detailed drawing
- 2.8 Drawing size, and margin and panels
- 2.9 Thickness of line lettering and sapling
- 2.10 Dimension and scales
- 2.11 Plan, elevation, section, grid lines
- 2.12 Equipment
3.0 Retaining wall
- 3.1 Small height retaining wall
- 3.2 Cantilever retaining wall
- 3.3 Retaining wall for basement
5.0 Engineering specification
- 5.1 Floor slab and beam and staircase
6.0 Detail of the element
- 6.1 Foundation column
- 6.2 Kicker and beam
- 6.3 Slab
- 6.4 Stair case
A. The following abbreviations are recommended for structural detailing works:-
- Fdn Foundation
- DRG Drawing
- RC Reinforced Concrete
- CB Column Base
- Conc Concrete
- D/a Diameter
- Vert Vertical
- AOR Horizontal
- UC Universal Column
- UB Universal Beam
B. Types of reinforcement
- R Mild Steel Bars
- Y High Yield Bars
C. Comments relating to reinforcement
- C Centre Line
- B Bottom
- T Top
- C/C Centre to Centre
There is only one means by which information is transfer to a contractor in a construction industry, designers in the engineering sector communicate to each order by means of drawing and specification. Before any construction work could be done properly, there must be an engineering drawing mostly done by architecture in connection with the design being provide by the structural engineer.
It is the work of a structural engineer to design an object such as bridges, railways, dams, roads, buildings and so on. The design comes up in the hand sketch first after which the design are put together into a clear and presented working drawing used by builders or contractors often taken to the authority involve for approval.
The drawing will show the interrelationship of all the parks that go together to make the ground design drawing. All the general construction details are shown properly as they relate to the other with no attempt of separation of diverse materials.
A good drawing should provide the following information.
- Overall dimension
- Interrelationship of material, equipment and the space schedule of finishes
- Doors and windows type and sizes
All detailing works developed by the detailer serves a good purpose of standing the risk of sudden of buildings. It also helps to avoid unnecessary delay of work, which may come up doubts and frequent clarification.
Detailing Of The Element Foundation
A 1:10, 1:20, an appropriate foundation base is used to produce an enlarging drawing sharing the length and the width. The tensile reinforcement is represented with thick lines which include the 30mm concrete covers. Usually, tensile reinforcement is represented by one each on both the vertical and horizontal direction. The faint lines shown along both the length and width of the foundation base excludes the 30mm cover with arrowhead, described the reinforcement. You will get the position of the reinforcement if you cut out a section from the bars, it will show how the column rises out form the base and you will see that the reinforcement is placed first, follow by the distribution bars it protrudes to a height of 1725mm from the base including kicke. The starter bar is provided with a lap at 75mm after the over site concrete. A line is drawn from the bar for the descript ion links are also space at a distance of 1500mm c/c from the foot of starter bar to the foundation slab.
Columns used are 2 with different size and shape, round and square. They are vertical members and equal through out their length.
Generally reinforcement used for the column decreases as t he loading reduces towards the t op of the building.
In the section, only 2 longitudinal bars are drawn on the thick line to represent the others. The bar usually start from the 75mm kicker slitly above the over site concrete and either end or continue above the head room at 3000mm. A line is draw from the bar for description.
Kicker is a square or circular cross – section concrete cast at the top of the slab with size equal for easy placing of the frame work. This is also provide to reduce the risk of column fitting from vertical. The height is usually 75mm.
These are the horizontal members usually of rectangular shape. They are exactly the same as the columns that support them and their depth usually included that of the slab. The beam have tensile reinforcement at the bottom and links provided to resist shear forced across the depth of the beam.
The beams are detailed in elevation with section cut to show the position of all bars and the shape of the links. The slab is supported by the longitudinal and transverse beams running in both directions.
In the detailing of the beam, each beam is referred to by the gridline on which it is located. The out line of the beam and the supports are drawn on faint lines. The effectiveness is usually from the center of the supports. The tensile reinforcement is drawn in thick line at the bottom part of the beam excluding the 30mm cover. A line is attached for the description of the beam. The hanger bar is also provided on the path of the beam excluding 30mm cover to distribute the links. A line is attached to the bar and described. The links or binder are represented using a vertical line usually ¼ span from both support and ½ span at the middle is spaced normally. The formular for normal spacing is (075d) where d = (in cover – 1/20). A label also attached and the bar is described.
They are usually designed in similar to that of beams except that slabs usually reduced depth in compression to beam and deflection if more pronounce to the slab. It is beams that support slab, they are usually cast together with the supporting beams.
In detailing of slab, the first floor plan is drawn using 1:50, or 1:100 and position of the column shown in square or circle shades. The columns are usually located where two or three walls meet at the edges. The slab tension reinforcement are placed based on the CP 110. It requires that the main tension reinforcement should be placed based in such that reinforcement within the middle of the span is twice that nearer to the support. This is owing to the fact that deflection is maximum at the mid span and zero at the support. The reinforcement is placed at a stop of 0.1 spans so that both can be lapped together. He bar, which starts from the edge is provide with a compression lap length of 600mm. A line is drawn from the center of the two bars that are to be lapped excluding 30mm cover and reinforcement described the distribution bars. Top bar are placed in the slab where they grosses interval wall be counteract negative bending moment and distribution steel to keep them in place.
Staircase is a sloping slab upon which series of steps are been cast. It is usually constructed after the first floor slab has been cast and continuation bars project out. The foundation of the staircase is usually 450mm deep including the floor slab thickness. In the detailing of the staircase, the plan of the staircase is drawn out. A tensile reinforcement is shown starting from the middle of the first step up to the support and compression lap provided. A table is attached to describe the bar. Distribution steel is provided to describe the tensile on reinforcement. A line is also attached to describe the bars. Top bars are also placed beneath the compression laps. The same process continues to the other.
Staircase can be defined as a series of steps t hat will enable us move from one floor to another in building (going + riser + waist = staircase) + hand way.
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