Stress Management Practices Of Career Women In Lagos State Nigeria

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Stress Management Practices Of Career Women In Lagos State Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out to investigate stress management practices of career women in Lagos State Nigeria. Specifically, the study examine the causes of stress among career women in Lagos State, find out the effect of stress on career women in Lagos State, investigate the stress management practices used by career women in Lagos State and find out how to improve on stress management practices among career women in Lagos State. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 77 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that the causes of stress among career women in Lagos State is work overload, family problems, long hours of work and unfulfilling job. The study also revealed that the effect of stress on career women in Lagos State is difficulty in sleeping, overeating/under eating, Less productivity at work and higher levels of exhaustion. The study further revealed that the stress management practices used by career women in Lagos State is exercise, schedule leisure time, repeat positive emotions and get enough sleep. Lastly, the study revealed that stress management practices be improved among career women in Lagos State by track their stressors, establish boundaries, develop healthy responses and take time to recharge. The study thereby recommend that the management of the organization should facilitate an employee skill audit that will help to place employees that feel underutilized. Also, an employee assistance programme has to be introduced for early identification and intervention on problems so that performance levels will increase. Lastly, organizations can also use few more interventions for stress management namely regular counseling sessions, time management and behavioral training, employee wellness program and sessions like art of living etc.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The nature of work and workplace has changed over the years. A decrease in sentiments of well-being and trust in the workplace are two potential outcomes of workplace competition that prioritizes individual interests. The effect of intense competition that has been bolstered by globalization has been the creation of job prospects that are not secure. This can be seen in the ever-increasing number of mergers, acquisitions, outsourcing, and downsizing operations. Not just people, but even corporations, which can be thought of as artificial humans, are feeling the pressure to outperform their rivals and secure a competitive edge for themselves. In contemporary situation women are represented in the workforce in higher numbers than ever before. They are holding a bigger share of management and executive occupations than in the past. As a consequence of this, finding a balance between their personal and professional life has proven to be a difficult challenge for women executives in every field and job profile. It is possible to see that issues encountered in one’s place of employment may have a negative impact on one’s personal life and vice versa (Umesh, 2016). The prevalence of high stress levels in the workplace is an issue that is increasing all across the world. Among the acknowledged probable causes of job related stress, role stress has been recognized as a key contributor to work stress. Designing an effective role stress management programme requires a clear understanding of the employee experience of role stressors. In order to construct an efficient program for managing role stress, it may be helpful to divide workers into groups according to the degree of exposure they have had to various stressors associated with their roles. However, the present paradigm for grasping the role stressor based segmentation of workers is insufficient, and notably so in the case of frontline bank employees who hold boundary bridging jobs and confront rising role constraints. Stress affects persons mentally, emotionally and behaviorally, and is intimately related to various health issues, including coronary heart diseases. Any sensation, overly pushed, dragged, squeezed or awakened by external and internal sources has to be identified. The reasons have to be recognized as to whether they are good or detrimental. Individuals struggling to deal with the stress of their personal lives and work environments might benefit from a variety of approaches and programs. The effective management of stress is an important problem for both people and businesses. Realizing that a person is exposed to things that might cause stress is the first step in effectively managing that stress. It is impossible to effectively manage stress unless its physiological, psychological, and behavioral sources as well as their effects are well understood. Therefore, efficient management of stress enables an organization to increase the performance of both individuals and groups, which in turn improves the performance of the company as a whole. There are a wide variety of mental and physical symptoms that may be brought on by stress, and these symptoms might change depending on the specifics of each unique circumstance. The decrease of one’s physical health as well as mental health might be among them. The reaction of a person to a stressful element in their environment, as well as the consequences of such a link, are both considered to be forms of stress. Both good and negative effects of stress may manifest themselves in a variety of ways. It is referred to be positive stress when the circumstances provide the possibility of gaining something. According to Reddy and Jagannayaki (2018), stress is considered to be harmful when it is coupled with undesirable outcomes such as health risks, drinking, drug misuse, skipping work, and organizational issues. Stress is the underlying cause of a wide variety of disorders, including psychosomatic and cardiac ailments, and it may be a key contributor to disruptions in an individual’s emotional, social, professional, and familial life. It stifles creative expression as well as one’s own efficacy and manifests itself in a general sense of discontentment. Hence, the study seeks to examine the stress management practices of career women in Lagos State Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of Research Problem

It would be a mistake to ignore Nigerian professional women in light of the rapid rise that many of them are making in the workforce, where they are swiftly becoming a force to be reckoned with. They constitute a considerable percentage of Nigeria’s overall population, and it is impossible to discount the impact that they have. Recent research (Akinpelu and Jekayinfa, 2000) indicates that women make up 20.3% of the workforce in Nigeria’s professional fields. It is impossible to separate what seems to be the reason of the low number of women who hold top management positions from the problem that women have in trying to maintain a household and perform at their highest level in their employment at the same time. It is possible that the stress experienced by career women at the homework interface is higher than that experienced by their male colleagues. Women in the workforce often experience higher levels of stress due to their jobs than their male colleagues do. These pressures and the consequences that are linked to stress have significant negative effects on women’s performance as well as their mental, psychological, and physical well-being. Therefore, the study examine the stress management practices of career women in Lagos State Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective for this study is to examine the stress management practices of career women in Lagos State Nigeria. The specific objectives is as follows:

  1. To examine the causes of stress among career women in Lagos State.
  2. To find out the effect of stress on career women in Lagos State.
  3. To investigate the stress management practices used by career women in Lagos State.
  4. To find out how to improve on stress management practices among career women in Lagos State.

1.3 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

  1. What are the causes of stress among career women in Lagos State?
  2. What are the effect of stress on career women in Lagos State?
  3. What are the stress management practices used by career women in Lagos State?
  4. How can stress management practices be improved among career women in Lagos State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Stress has no significant effect on career women in Lagos State.
  • Ha: Stress has a significant effect on career women in Lagos State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

The study will provide relevant information that will benefit organizations in taking decisions regarding the management of job related stress among women. It will contribute to the body of knowledge on job stress management level and as such will provide a reliable reference for researchers and scholars working in similar field.

The study proffers useful information that will help career women to guard against those factors that cause job related stress, managing its effect as well as providing techniques for tackling job stress.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study intends to examine the stress management practices of career women in Lagos State Nigeria. The study also find out the effect of stress on career women in Lagos State. The study further investigate the stress management practices used by career women in Lagos State. Lastly, the study will find out how to improve on stress management practices among career women in Lagos State. Hence, the study will be delimited selected organizations in Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Stress:

Pressure or tension exerted on a material object.

Management:

The process of dealing with or controlling things or people

Practices:

The actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it.

Career Women:

A career woman is a woman who takes pride in her career, who chooses to work and often who is successful at her job.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine the stress management practices of career women in Lagos State Nigeria using selected organizations in Lagos State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to examine the causes of stress among career women in Lagos State, find out the effect of stress on career women in Lagos State, investigate the stress management practices used by career women in Lagos State and find out how to improve on stress management practices among career women in Lagos State. A total of 77 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from employee in selected organizations.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. The causes of stress among career women in Lagos State is work overload, family problems, long hours of work and unfulfilling job.
  2. The effect of stress on career women in Lagos State is difficulty in sleeping, overeating/under eating, Less productivity at work and higher levels of exhaustion.
  3. The stress management practices used by career women in Lagos State is exercise, schedule leisure time, repeat positive emotions and get enough sleep.
  4. Stress management practices be improved among career women in Lagos State by track their stressors, establish boundaries, develop healthy responses and take time to recharge.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. The management of the organization should invite employees, who think that they are being given jobs that are in contradiction with each other, and clarify their roles.
  2. The management of the organization should facilitate an employee skill audit that will help to place employees that feel underutilized.
  3. An Employee Assistance Programme has to be introduced for early identification and intervention on problems so that performance levels will increase.
  4. Organizations can also use few more interventions for stress management namely regular counseling sessions, time management and behavioural training, employee wellness program and sessions like art of living etc.

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