Strength Development In Concrete Using Different Type Of Cement

Project and Seminar Material for Building Technology BT

Strength Development In Concrete Using Different Type Of Cement


The essence of this project work is to look into the causes of highway failure and the different types of failure which are presented along the Eliozu – New Airport road in Obio/Akpor L.G.A in River state, taken as a case study. Some factors identify as being responsible for the failure of the chosen road section includes, poor sub grade soil with questionable material. Ground water study is carried out, which give insight to it effect to the failure of the flexible pavement, lack of drainage facilities, improper pavement design, poor compaction and traffic volume increase and lack of maintenance are critically taken into consideration.

Traffic volume count and soil test analysis and test on asphalt such as extraction-gradation test, are properly carryout, of which it result gives an adequate insight to the various causes of the failure situation experience along the road section through this investigation, show that relative to pavement, base course, wearing course and sub base were to less than the requirement for effective functionality of the said road of case study. From the investigation carryout, useful recommendation are made to improve the design and proper ways of reducing the rate of failure in Nigerian highways.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figure

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Aims and Objective of Study
  • 1.2 Scope of the Project Study
  • 1.3 Background Information of the Study Area
  • 1.4 Limitation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 General
  • 2.2 Engineering Properties of Soil
  • 2.2.1 Soil Properties as Highway Material
  • 2.2.2 Highway Sub-Grade, Sub-Base, Their Thickness and Shaping
  • 2.2.3 Material Classification
  • 2.2.4 Clay Soils and Their Engineering Properties
  • 2.2.5 Soil Compaction and Consolidation Efficiencies
  • 2.2.6 Soil Permeability and Compressibility
  • 2.2.7 Ground Water Penetration and Its Effect on Road Bases
  • 2.2.8 Effect of Void In Highway Pavement
  • 2.3 Types of Pavement Distress
  • 2.4 Traffic Survey
  • 2.4.1 Interpretation of Data
  • 2.5 Traffic Capacity Studies
  • 2.5.1 Factors Affecting Practical Capacity
  • 2.5.2 Traffic Flow Characteristic
  • 2.5.3 Traffic Volume Study

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Site Exploration and Data Analysis
  • 3.2 Source of Sample
  • 3.4 Ground Water Inspection in the Location
  • 3.5 Traffic Volume Study
  • 3.6 Rainfall Data
  • 3.7 Soil Test Data
  • 3.8 Soil Classification
  • 3.9 The C.B.R. Method

Chapter Four

4.0 Experimentation and Procedures

  • 4.1 Field Collection of Soil Sample
  • 4.2 Colour Classification
  • 4.3 Moisture Content
  • 4.4 Specific Gravity Test
  • 4.5 Sieve Analysis
  • 4.6 Atterberg Limit Test
  • 4.6.1 Plastic Limit
  • 4.6.2 Liquid Limit
  • 4.7 Compaction
  • 4.8 Determination of Water Table
  • 4.10 Test For Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion and Summary
  • 5.1.1 Summary
  • 5.1.2 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Bibliography

Chapter One


In construction of highway, generally the roads are not designed to last forever. It is been designed to serve some purpose for a specific time. As it can be seen in engineering work, the life span of a road is always an important factor that must be taken into consideration as one of the criteria for the construction. This really depends on the factors like construction procedure and consideration, the soil water relationship, quality of workmanship during the construction and the type of maintenance culture adopted.

Many roads (Highway mostly) are seen widely as attaining the state of failure and show signs of distress before the expected life span used for construction is reach, due to the lack of factors such as lack of maintenance culture etc. many of our road today serve as death trap and hang out for hoodlums going by the number of accident recorded daily on them as a result of bad paved road.

Pavement failure can be defined as the failure of the constructed layer of durable material of specified thickness, usually of concrete, asphalt or bituminous materials assigned to carry wheeled vehicles. Due to the number of load passing through a pavement structure, some deflection of the surface and underlying layers occur. The deflection can be as a result of the excess load, poor material usage, and poor road foundation resulting from the nature of the soil or groundwater rise in the area of high groundwater level. If layers are lacking in strength, repeated applications causes roughening and cracking that ultimately lead to failure of the pavement structure.

The construction of the Eliozu-New Airport road, which was constructed a while ago, sudden failure due to improper investigation of either the soil composition or traffic capacity situation in the said section of the road networking, lack of proper drainage to control the effect of rise in groundwater level. The pavement thickness of the road section as measure was about 3.87inches (98.3mm) and the width of the dual carriage way about 7.9m with no proper shoulder and drainage provided.

The effort of put in controlling the rate of failure and provision for annually increase of traffic capacity has been a thing of burden to the government of the River State in particular and the Federal government in general. By questioning and observation, failure of the said Eliozu-New Airport road as it problem from compounded presence of water coming out at a particular points on the road surface poor material and workmanship and pressure from increasing traffic capacities on the road pavement of which the government is making provision for overhead bridge which is currently in construction and it is found out that most at a point like Eliozu junction by ABC shuttle, the pavement bituminous material on the road have disappear.

1.1 Aims and Objective of Study

The major objective of this investigation is to ascertain factors that likely lead to the failure of Eliozu-New Airport road in Obio/Akpor L.G.A. of River State in particular and Nigeria Highways in general and how it affect national stability and development. This project work stand at a point to unveil the very facts behind why most of the roads fail soon after construction.

The count carryout will broadly provide information on the actual traffic volume and the capacity of traffic and will help in used for possible traffic planning and design.

It shall lead in proper construction of highway and remedy that will possible give a lasting solution and reduction in road failures. The several test such as test on asphalt, test on soil will provided better facts to the cause of the failure of the case study.

1.2 Scope of the Project Study

The whole section of the road was visited (Reconnaissance) and failure pattern noted.

The project scope includes:

  1. Assessment of kind of failure and causes on the Eliozu-New Airport road.
  2. Soil samples collection and testing and analysis to determine the sub-grade, sub-base strength of the road foundation.
  3. Assessment of underground water level and its affect on the pavement.
  4. Assessment of traffic capacity intensity on the networking plan of the road and volume determination.
  5. Assessment of drainage condition and proper drainage provision.
  6. Assessment of the proportion and amount of bitumen and finer used in the Asphalt mixture used for the surface course.
  7. Classification of the soil according to ASSHATO classification system.
  8. Enumeration of possible pavement distresses that are found along a road section.

1.3 Background Information of the Study Area

The location of which this investigation is been carryout is a road network located at Obio/Akpor L.G.A at the out script of Port-Harcourt, River State. The road is from Eliozu junction to Airport road leading to Elele of which concentration is lay on the Eliozu junction where ABC shuttle is, at where over head bridge is undergoing construction currently to where the Eliozu-New airport road intersect with the airport road.

1.4 Limitation of the Study

This research was carried out under the limits of the available material and resources. The work is centre on soil sample testing and classification, asphalt testing and traffic volume and effect of groundwater on road bases.

The following factors hinder the prompt attainment of this project work.

  1. Lack of laboratory facilities
  2. Cost of the project work

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion and Summary

Base on the essence of this project work, series practical and examination of the existing environment were carryout on the stretch of the road section of Eliozu – New airport Obio/Akpor L.G.A. to aid this investigation come up with a concrete and concise facts behind the cause of the sudden failure of the road.

From the test carryout and the environmental inspection studies done so far, the following summary and conclusion is drawn relative to the failure of the New constructed road.

5.1.3 Summary
  1. From the summary of Atterbery limit, size distribution analysis summary and consequent soil classification of result of sample of soils collected from table 4.7.2 A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D and E has soil group of A-2-6, A -2-6, A-3, A-2-6, A-2-6, A-2-6 and A-2-6 respectively which are all excellent to good and load bearing material but require little soil improvement before road construction due to the present of clay fine in some area, it was also found out that the soil conditions and characteristic and similar with very little variation relative to it engineering properties.
  2. With their group index at the appropriate range indicate the soil good properties as highway sub grade and fill material with minimal improvement.
  3. The plastic nature of the soil, reduces it resistance to shear stress and deformation, thus causing deformation and consequent disintegration of the road section.
  4. From appendix K-1, the combination of CBR of 4% and axle loads of 32.2×106, give the sub-base thick of 340mm and base course + wearing course of 100mm.
  5. By design consideration the maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content of the respective soil sample of sectional road is as shown in table 4.& 2 ranging between 1967 – 2077 and 13.5 – 16.4 respectively.
  6. The ground water study was discover to the adverse of capillarity to be 73.4cm below ground surface from test hole inspection. See table 4.8.1 and appendix.
  7. The adverse traffic volume in design year, said 20 years was collect to be 12,998, 585 vehicles and 12,713,859 in each of the opposing direction see article 4.9.
  8. The compacted bitumen mixtures has back specific, gravity of 1.74.
  9. From the extraction- gradation test, the total percentage bitumen is discover to be 4.8%
  10. The rainfall data collected indicate the mean monthly rainfall penetration of adverse 545.4mm in the said interval of years (see appendix K-1)
5.1.4 Conclusion

Conclusion and criticism relative to the construction work done at the said road is as follows.

  1. The sub-grade material use for the construction of this road has content of clay fine, with characteristic volume changed, need to be improved before construction is carryout.
  2. The pavement thickness provide, from investigation, using traffic design criteria and CBR, wearing course and base course require minimally is 100mm (394 inches) against the 99.3mm (3.91 inches) PROVIDED and sub-base of 29916mm) (11.8 inches) instead of 340mm (13.39mm) as the design indicate.
  3. Poor compaction work done during construction work of the sand road fail to reduce the percentage of void to acceptable standard in the compacted material, causing penetration of moisture with consequent deformation of the road constructed a good compaction is one, when nail is hammer on it, it hard to penetrate.
  4. Poor traffic estimation, on the order hand has it own effect on the construction and the economy, as case an be seen, with congestion on the road and consequent provision of over head bridge as the width of the lane and shoulder post some problem at some section of the road.
  5. By Lederges (1979) state that drain should be provide when annual rainfall accessed 203.3mm for proper collection of the runoff, but there was not drainage provision for this, purpose, even with 545.5mm rainfall instead culvert such as single and multiply cell culvert provide to channel the water, but was on adequate for an area of this situation contribute to pavement deterioration.
  6. The extraction test carryout help to determine the percentage of bitumen content which is 4.8%, see appendix K-1 giving poor stability by the insufficient bitumen. The mat well lack binding or cementing properties require to hold the aggregate in place causing revelling. The crack and shear is due to poor bitumen.
  7. What was the method of mixing and placing and the temperature employed, quality of aggregate used, types of bituminous product used are also factor that contribute to the deteriorable state of the said road.
  8. Various depression on the road section can be seen after rain fall with water as a result of sub-grade settlement result from inadequate compaction during construction.
  9. Pot holes seen on the road section is as a result of alligator cracking occurrence, causing roughness and serious vehicle damage.
  10. The constructed the road with improper improvement of the sub-grad, no proper test was carry out on the soil and the base was the same for both the dry and swampy area of the road network and lack of use of sharp sand usages. The borrow laterate was just spread with specification.
  11. The vegetable soil was not removed to reasonable depth, decay of this vegetation cause settlement and consequent depression.
  12. Settlement was experience due to poor sub-base and poor soil structure, material and method of construction
  13. Shoulder deformation in some area, due to human activities and environment factor; such as inter lock/kerb industries.
  14. Finally, political influence in construction work/infrastructure is a factor which is affects the quality of constructed work.

5.2 Recommendation

Considering the rate of highway failure and consequent maintenance cost, it is of importance to ensure good road network to enhance the economic and technological development of the country after a thorough investigation an fining, the following recommendation are made relative to Eliozu-New airport road particular and highways in Nigeria in general.

  1. From the investigation carryout, the road wearing course an sub-base should be scrapped off and a proper laying mixing and laying of the base carryout.
  2. The road pavement should be raised to at least the height of 1m above its present height as to control the action of flooding and capillary rise of water.
  3. The store base used as foundation should have larger surface area as to bridge the rate of capillary rise of ground water.
  4. Sub-surface drainage should be provide in some critical high water table to maintained the ground water at level of 1.2m (3.94ft) below the carriage way.
  5. The compacted sub-grade must not be within the zone through which the capillary (suction) moisture is capable of rising as it is clay (fine grained) soil, it et of important which can be done by installation of longitudinal drain in either side of the carriage ways.
  6. There should be thorough stabilization of the soil as to improve its engineering property. Soil cement stabilization or bituminous stabilisation may be applicable after all necessary test as to up-grade the shear strength of the soil and its engineering properties.
  7. There is need for adequate. Supper vision should be carried out by the federal ministry of works and relative agency during road constructions as to ascertain that works are done to standard and specification by contractors.
  8. Maintenance of this constructed should be in place, immediately after the said road have been constructed to reduced maintenance cost expenses.
  9. Drainage system, should be provide or both side of this road.
  10. I recommend the government and various agency to support project work, since the finance involve is expenses, thus enhance the efficiency of the project work.
  11. Political influence, my later father, Engr. O.J. Okon (Snr) said and I quote “Nothing has ever been desertions a factor to my profession as a civil engineer like political factor”. Unquote. Political influence is a set back in the foreword movement of construction and implementation of infrastructure.
  12. Due to limited time factor, much of practicals and test would could have validly aid this investigation was unable to be carry out. So I believe the forth coming students will go much deeper into this investigation.

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