Street Guide Mapping

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Street Guide Mapping


Abstract


The advent and advances made in computer technology in the twenty-first century has generally increased the speed and the capacity of various geoinformation and map-making processes. The improvements have revolutionized the map-making process, which has metamorphosed into the widely acknowledged of the use of ARCGIS 9.2. ARCGIS 9.2 has tremendously transformed the traditional (analogue) method of map-making. Round the world, ARCGIS9.2 is continuously being applied in achieving high precision street guide maps for a variety of purposes. However in Nigeria, the full potentials of such modern technologies and science are to be realized.

In achieving this, a Analogue map of part of Birnin Kebbi metropolis was obtain from Kebbi urban development Authority (KUDA) which was scanned in order to convert it from analogue to Digital map which can be use and also a Google image of part of Birnin Kebbi covering the entire area of the project was save as alibekjoe (jpeg format) which copy into the flesh drive and latter on been transfer to the laptop computer hp(930).

Coordinate of the part of the area was obtain through hand held GPS that will be use for geo-referencing comparing them with those on the ground.

A spatially referenced street guide map showing various essential information in the study area such as streets names, street index; important features and services such as schools, hotels, Church, hospitals, Government, and High court of justice was produced in the process. It is expected that the result will among other things boost tourists’ experience in the state, which are often hampered by the unavailability and often times outdated analogue street maps of the city. The results will also be of immense help to the general management and administration of the local government council through the provision of up-to-date information on the location of utilities and services in the state.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Introduction

A map is a model of part of the earth surface showing the shape, and position of different countries, political boarders, natural features such as rivers and mountains, and artificial features such as roads and buildings. A map can also give you particular type of information about a certain area on the surface of the earth. It can be made so simple and specific that it shows direction of travel from one place to another. Reconnaissance technologies such as aerial photograph and satellite based sensing have come to man’s aid in quest to understand and preserve his environment. This advancement has given the map makers new tools for creating and updating maps as well as allowing mapping in details which is of great use most especially in planning of urban areas. Maps are specially designed to serve several purposes and answer specific questions such as street maps, utility maps etc. A street map is a type of map that contains the position and names of streets. A street map is useful in areas such as: planning enumeration areas by demographers; navigation for tourists; salesmen; firemen; police; security agent; tax collectors, postal service etc. [1]. It can also be defined as a graphic portrayal of a town or city, showing the positions and names of all the streets; major/minor highways and roads, railroads, tracks and other points of interest and the general road network. It is a form of map that details roads and transport links [2]. A street map has the ability to provide answers to question like: where a road is; where it leads to; the distance and type, the best route between two points or the shortest point [3]. Also some of the usage of street map as: for locating houses and streets; car navigation; planning of transportation, trips and driving directions; and for planning of movement and provision of facilities, goods and services [2].


1.2 Background of the Study

Street map stands as a basic datum that can help researchers conduct good research such as emergency response studies, proximity and accessibility studies. This can be designed and consistently updated to accommodate further developments using a robust technology such as GIS and remote sensing. The level of urbanization in the developing world indicates that more people now live in cities than before. Birnin Kebbi is the heart of Kebbi State considering the fact that the big organizations are located in the city, which attracts millions of people every day especially visitors either for admission, jobs, health services or business transactions, who finds it difficult to locate most of the streets thereby ending their movements and activities unaccomplished. New streets are created everyday as new structures are constructed for rent, hotels, restaurants as well as other purpose. Road network helps in creating Street Network Information Management System (SNIMS) for better administration of the local government area. As at the time of this study, creating a new road network and the management of existing road network seems difficult and cost demanding due to non-availability of cohesive information on road network architecture. In addition, most of the available revenue generating infrastructures located within the metropolis such as tourist sites, health facilities, markets, sawmills etc. have been affected by poor road network. The need for the use of remotely sensed data for mapping, naming and numbering of the streets in Kebbi Metropolis using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques cannot be over emphasized.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

As at the time of this study, creating a new road network and the management of existing road network seems difficult and cost demanding due to non-availability of cohesive information on road network architecture. In addition, most of the available revenue generating infrastructures located within the metropolis such as tourist sites, health facilities, markets, sawmills etc. have been affected by poor road network.

In the area like the case study which attracts millions of people every day especially visitors either for admission, jobs, health services or business transactions, find it difficult to locate most of the streets thereby ending their movements and activities unaccomplished.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study was to develop street guide mapping. Also this study generally aimed at exposing students to the need for street guide mapping especially in big cities.

It objectives were:

  1. To produce a street map that will ease navigation within the study area
  2. To help in road network analysis, site suitability analysis etc
  3. To provide information about the roads as faithful as possible in such a way that it can accommodate changes that are rapidly occurring
  4. To properly represent the various land use within the study area

1.4 Scope of the Study

The study covers a stretch of 8kilometers and a road width of 32meters. The exercise covers the horizontal alignment inform of traversing to give the line of the proposed street guide map.


1.5 Limitations to the Study

The limitations during the excavation of this study were:

  1. The effect of the poor network in the study area affected capturing
  2. The aspect of finance delay affected the project at some point.
  3. As at the time of this study, creating a new road network and the management of existing road network seems difficult and cost demanding due to non-availability of cohesive information on road network architecture.

1.6 Organization of the Report

This report is arrange in five chapters which include

  • Chapter one – Introduction
  • Chapter two – Literature Review
  • Chapter three – Methodology
  • Chapter four – Data Processing, Analysis and Presentation
  • Chapter five – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
  • – Reference
  • – Appendices

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

As a central point of this study, a street guide mapping in Kebbi was carried to produce a road network with names and direction and profile showing details, vegetation of the road. The techniques taken to arrive at the delivery of the project were reconnaissance, road network survey, acquisition of data using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Data were processed using relevant software and plan was produced.


5.2 Conclusion

Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing has given us the opportunity to present an up-to-date map of any place on the surface of the earth. It can also provide opportunity for revision of any map as fast as possible. With the help of this, map navigation is made easily in Kebbi Metropolis which will in turn aid a lot of development in several areas such as Infrastructural Development and evenly distribution, tourism, marketing etc.


5.3 Recommendation

This work revealed that several roads were not properly named. Therefore, we recommend that the local government should adopt a standard format for all the street and implement it. Also we recommend that small sign board or notice board should be used to identify the beginning and the end of each street so as to aid navigation. It’s also important to create street map for the whole Local Government in Kebbi (Kebbi North, Kebbi Central, Kebbi South) and Kebbi State at large.


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