Strategies For Utilization Of Instructional Materials For Effective Learning In Secondary School

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Strategies For Utilization Of Instructional Materials For Effective Learning In Secondary School


Abstract


This study was on “Strategies For Utilizations Of Instructional Materials For Effective Learning In Secondary School. Four research questions were answered and the population of this study is fourteen (14) schools in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state and nine (9) school were selected.

Data were presented in table and were analyzed using the mean. The sampling technique used for this study is random sampling and total sample size is 200. It was found out by the researchers that the significance of this study serves several parties and this includes: the teachers, the society, the students, the curriculum planners etc.

It was concluded among others that there is Utilization And Availability of adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning of mathematics. The researchers recommended among others, that local government and state government should encourage teachers and provide sufficient instructional materials for secondary school in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state.


List of Tables


  • TITLE PAGE
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis Of The Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Framework
  • 2.4 Chapter Summary

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size determination
  • 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the study

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypothesis

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.0 Summary
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Instructional strategies are all the things the teachers uses to aid the learners in their learning process; they are the means used to bring about effective teaching and learning. Obara and Okoh (2005) regard instructional strategies and materials as “all the things the teacher utilizes to interactively enhance, motivate and facilitate teaching and learning in an attempt to ensuring the achievement of a set objectives.” The effectiveness of instructional materials and strategies depends upon the manner and degree to which they meet the needs of the teacher and students. Instructional strategies and materials are selected based on the principles of provision of accurate materials that will enrich and support the curriculum, taking into consideration the interest, abilities and maturity levels of the students. Teachers should be encouraged in every way to use instructional strategies as it makes learning more concrete and meaningful (Buseri and Dorgu 2011). Teaching brings about understanding; it involves a teacher, a learner and subject matter and teaching materials.

Varrella (2001) stated that several available instructional materials will serve their purposes if effectively accessed and effectively used. Instructional materials enhance effective and appropriate developmental experience quality of instruction, instructional methods and techniques.

There has been rapid expansion of Nigerian secondary education system in a bid to equip a good number of people with basic knowledge and skills, which will facilitate their interactions with members of the wider society. Awoyimi in Ugama (2000) attributes this rapid expansion to a number of factors which include. Politics, expansion of primary/secondary schools, government report on the need to increase the number of secondary schools, revision of the curriculum and the provision of science & technical education.

Before Nigerian independence, in 1960 and ten years after, there was what Government and the voluntary agencies could regard as joint management of secondary schools. After the civil war, however, the East Central State Government in 1970 passed the public education edict, which took over the control of secondary schools, in the state. Other states in the federation quickly followed suits. This culminated in what could be described as the dawn in rapid expansion in secondary education as many communities and wealthy individuals established secondary schools, which they handled over to various instructors, governments to manage.

However, education is a valuable tool for human development and improvement is seen by Durkheinn in Ugama (2000). It is a means of organizing the individual self and the social self, into a discipline, stable and meaningful being. Bebell etal (2004) states that education is the sum total of culture that a society deliberately gives its younger generation in order to qualify them and raise the level of improvement it has attained.

Educationists in the country have not relented in their effort to make sure that educational system and standards are maintained or reformed. This is done through the ministry of education or other government bodies. The introduction of 6 – 3- 3 – 4 system of education in Nigeria which was amended by 9 – 3 – 4 system as also stipulated in the National Policy on education (2004). These policies were aimed at enhancing qualitative education to the citizenry.

Consequently, education helps in the transmission of values, norms, and knowledge. From generation to generation. It takes individuals to be rational thinkers and also enhances their ability to critically evaluate issues. Through education, those in darkness always see the light of the day.

Because of the immense important of education, there is need for proper monitoring/supervision of educational activities in order to achieve the proper goals of education. The extent explained, is concerned with helping, directing, advising and guiding the subordinate in order to maximize his productivity. However, according to Nwaogu in Ugama (2000) he sees supervision as the process of bringing about improvement in instruction by working with the instructional materials to enable the teacher and the students to improve.

He maintained that it is a process of stimulating growth and means of helping teachers to help themselves. Viles in Ugama (2000) on his own part define instructional materials as the release of human potentials that make available a more competent teacher to conduct the human interaction that education. For effective education to be ensured, there could be taken to mean all efforts of designated school officials direct towards providing good leadership to teachers and other educational workers or educationalist in the improvement of instructural materials. Instructural materials involves stimulation of professional growth development of students and teachers, the selection and revision of educational objectives the instructional materials and methods of teaching and learning. However in recent times, as a result of some economic set backs and non-commitment by some teachers use of lecture method are mostly vogue which goes to negate the expected result.

Need for the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning process

Instructional materials are the necessary materials that will aid and facilitate learning. These materials include charts, models, specimens, graphics, chemicals, monitor, keyboard, mouse, central processing unit. These can motivate students and serve as effective ways to explain and illustrate subject content. The instructional materials are needed in schools in order to improve teachers effectiveness ensure that teachers are performing their duties as expected. It is also targeted at the improvement of incompetent teachers and provision of guide for staff development. It aid in the determination of effectiveness of the teachers classroom management and determination of special abilities possessed by teachers.

Instructional materials are selected based on the principles of provision of accurate, well-written materials that will enrich and support the adopted curriculum, taking into consideration varied interests, abilities and maturity levels of the students served, provision of materials that will stimulate growth in factual and ethical standards. Provide a background of information that will enable students to make intelligent judgments in their daily lives.

In secondary schools, one observed uprightly abandonment of classroom by teachers for the market places or other business. This has given rise to the emergence of teacher-turned business people who hawk wares ranging from food items through shoes and bags of various designs during office hours. And as a result the time left for teaching will be reduced and there will be no enough time for the use of teaching aids in teaching.

Furthermore, apathy on the side of school authority and teachers had even gone to create a situation where even available instructional materials are not used in demonstration during teaching and learning in many schools today. For instance, in teaching of computer, learners are allowed to see the hard and soft wares without using them. In some cases, such instructional materials are not even displayed to the learners.

At school administrative level, the principal charged with the internal supervision of teachers leave much to be desired in terms of their responsibilities. Some of them lack the necessary human relation for effective leadership of subordinates. Such school leads often jettison the guidelines for materials issued by the relevant authorities in preference for methods guided by their personal interest than laid down specifications.

Government that is at the apex of co-ordination especially the relevant authorities does not help matters. The mathematics materials are sporadically carried out and when it is done. Principals and teachers as well make up deficiencies in their school by way of borrowing science apparatus to be returned to their original owners after supervisors has come and gone.

Instructional materials are indispensable tools in teaching and learning of mathematics. According to one Chinese proverb which says “what I hear I forget, what I see I remember, what I do, I know”.

Therefore, as a result of the on going, there is need to look at the Strategies For Utilizations Of Instructional Materials For Effective Learning In Secondary School (a case study of Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The urge to embark on this research work was stimulated by the short comings in terms of academic standards in most of our educational institution especially in secondary schools.

The students would not have the opportunity to manipulate the requires equipments necessary for the programme, thereby making them not to be conversant with the materials. Lack of instructional materials leads to poor performance in examination and inability of the student to handle any instructional materials at his or her disposal after secondary school.

The study therefore wish to address the Strategies For Utilizations Of Instructional Materials For Effective Learning In Secondary School (a Case Study Of Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state). Taking cognizance of the associated problems of teaching and learning.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

This study seeks to evaluate the Strategies For Utilizations Of Instructional Materials For Effective Learning In Secondary School (a Case Study Of Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state). The researcher’s work is designed to achieve some specific objectives as follows to:-

  1. Ascertain the adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state.
  2. To find out the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary school.
  3. To ascertain the extent use of instructional materials used in teaching and learning in secondary school.
  4. To find out the problems militating against the extent use of instructional material in teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary school in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state.
  5. To ascertain the problems confronting secondary school teachers in the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning.

1.4 Research Question

The under listed are relevant research questions, which will help the researcher to actually evaluate the extent use of instructional material in teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary school in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state.

They are as follows

  1. Are there adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state?
  2. What is the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary school pupils?
  3. To what extent does the use of instructional materials encourage active participation of pupils during the teaching and learning of mathematics?
  4. What are the problems militating against extent of use of instructional material in teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary school in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state?

1.5 Hypotheses of the Study

The following null hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. The null hypothesis was tested at the alpha level 0.05 of significance.

H01: Teacher’s teaching experience is not a significant factor in mathematics teachers efforts at improvising and using of instructional materials for teaching and learning of mathematics


1.6 Significance of the Study

This research project should be of importance to several parties and this includes the teachers, the society, the students, the curriculum planners, future researchers on the subject matter.

The Teachers:

It improve the professional growth and development of teachers.

The Society:

Basic scientific education is established.

The Students:

It will increase the interest of learners in the learning process.

The Curriculum Planners:

It enables the curriculum planners to itemize the teaching period into suitable unit and be able to access a period during which a topic should be stop.

The Future Researchers:

Consequently, this study will be a bench mark for future researchers on the subject matter, as it will be a guide for future enquiry.


1.7 Scope of the Study

Like every research projects, this project has its scope and limits within which a verifiable, acceptable, efficient, effective and reliable solution to be problem being investigated can be founded and the defined population of study.
The scope of this study is delimited to teaching and learning of mathematics in Secondary School in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Much is expected of this research work as the research hers intend, but they were faced with the following constraints:

The research period is limited and funds at their disposal was limited . Some materials needs in carrying out the study were not found on time. Some respondents showed negative attitudes towards the questionnaires.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Instruction Materials:

These are materials objects that aid teaching and learning more meaningful teachers use them to explain, illustrate and simplify concepts and ideas.

Learning Gadgets:

These are materials designed provided genuinely for the purpose of instructional usage overhead projectors, charts, textbooks, slides e.t.c

Financial Accounting:

It is the recording of day-to-day business transactions in a systematic manner.

Learning:

Learning is relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of exposure to conditions in the environment. It is also defined as acquiring knowledge or skills gained through study or by being taught (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).

Researcher:

A person carrying out an investigation in order to discover facts or get additional information (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).

Research Question:

Some hypothetical question raised by the researcher to help him carrying out the research.

Respondent:

A person who answers questions, especially is survey or questionnaire (Oxford Advanced Learning Dictionary).


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into The Strategies For Utilizations Of Instructional Materials For Effective Learning In Secondary School (a Case Study Of Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state). The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to investigate the Strategies For Utilizations Of Instructional Materials For Effective Learning In Secondary School, A case study of Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state. The study specifically was aimed at identifying the availability of instructional material at the secondary school level; identify the extent of use of instructional material at the secondary school level; determine how the use of visual aids influence the students’ performance in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state; find out whether learning environment also influence the students’ performance in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state; identify some guiding principles towards optimal learning outcome at the secondary school level.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 200 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers and students of the 4 selected schools in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Textbooks as part of instructional materials has to a high extent influence the students’ performance in Enugu north L.G.A Enugu state.
  2. The use of visual aids influence the students’ performance to a very high extent
  3. Conducive environment influence students’ academic performance.
  4. There is a significant difference in the performance of students in schools with adequate materials resources and the performance of students in schools with inadequate material resources.
  5. There is a significant relationship between teacher’s appropriate methodology and students’ academic performance.
  6. There is a significant relationship between conducive learning environment and students’ learning ability.
  7. There is a significant difference in performance of students in schools with adequate supply of qualified teachers and students in schools with inadequate supply of qualified teachers.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendation;

  1. Teachers/Students should improvise locally made instructional materials using resource from the school environment or raw materials from outside the school environment to be used in teaching of social studies.
  2. The State Ministry of Education, Education Board and Local Education Authorities should employ competent teachers who can handle the subjects very well, because most of the teachers teaching the subject are not qualified.
  3. Parents should be encouraged to donate money through parent teachers association (PTA) for the provision of instructional materials for teaching and learning in the schools, government alone cannot shoulder all the responsibilities in the schools, there is need for the parents to help in running the schools. The money donated by the parents should be used for the purchasing of teaching aids.
  4. The production of low cost instructional materials should be intensified by the board. The production of these materials can be of the Resource Centres, local raw materials can be effectively utilized in the production of the needed instructional media. This will reduce the cost of importing materials and equipment which have foreign background and may not serve the need of Nigerians. Any materials and equipment produced locally will be such that have the users needs as the focal point. Materials and equipments which could be used in the rural areas where there is no electricity would be produced locally at the resource centres, Thus, the constraints imposed by lack of electricity will be remove.
  5. A miniature resource centre should be established in every secondary schools by the Ministry of Education and Local Education Authority, such a resource centre should serve the secondary schools in which it is established. Instructional materials should be produced, stored, maintained and others should go there to loan any materials or equipment which they need in teaching and return such a materials or equipment immediately after use.
  6. Parents should help in the repairs of the damaged instructional materials in the various secondary schools in the state.
  7. The State Ministry of Education, Education Board should release fund to the various Zonal Education Offices and Local Education Authorities and the principals specifically for maintaining and repairing damaged equipment. This method will remove the protocol of applying, filling forms and awaiting for approval before money is released for the repair of every minor damage done to an equipment.
  8. Seminars, conferences and workshops on the relevance, production and improvisation of instructional materials should be organised during vocations by the State Ministry of Education and Education Board. These should be organized on Zonal Levels and Local Government basis to attract so many teachers as possible, because some teachers cannot operate some of the available instructional materials while some teachers do not know the functions of some instructional media.
  9. The available social studies text-books in use in secondary schools in the state were not recommended for teaching-learning by the Ministry of Education. So recommended text-books should be purchased and supply to the secondary schools.

Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

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Frequently Asked Questions


What makes an effective instructional strategy?

Effective instructional strategies meet all learning styles and the developmental needs of all learners. Teachers must be equipped with a well-rounded arsenal of effective instructional strategies to maximize their effectiveness and to increase student learning opportunities.

What are the instructional materials necessary for effective teaching and learning?

Some of the instructional materials necessary for effective teaching and learning of Social Studies include the chalkboard, models, graphs, charts, maps, pictures, diagrams, cartoons, slides, filmstrips, radio, and television (Kochhar, 1991). The importance of the use of these materials cannot be underscored.

What are the different instruction strategies for early childhood education?

Popular instructional strategies include cloze reading, cooperative learning, hands-on learning activities, scaffolding, group instruction, self-assessment, thematic instruction, and word walls.

How do instructional strategies keep students from getting bored?

Instructional strategies, when used correctly keep students from becoming bored with how they learn. When a teacher uses the same strategy over and over again, it becomes boring to students. Instructional strategies enhance instruction and boost learning. 

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