Strategies Of Traditional And Mixed Learning Methods In Public Primary Schools In Amac-Fct.

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

Strategies Of Traditional And Mixed Learning Methods In Public Primary Schools In Amac-Fct.


Abstract


The main focus of this study is to examine strategies of traditional and mixed learning methods in public primary schools in AMAC-FCT. The study explained different methods of traditional and mixed approaches to teaching and learning. Also the study further ascertain whether blending both traditional and mixed method facilitates effective learning in public primary schools. This research is reported in five distinct yet interrelated chapters. In the chapter one we describes the study objectives clearly by stating the motive behind this study. Research hypotheses were developed for testing while the scope of this research was defined as well. The study adopted the survey descriptive research design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher purposively selected one hundred and fifty (150) participant for the study. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one hundred forty-one (141) was retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23). Findings of the study reveal that mixed method of learning involves bringing together both the traditional and modern teaching method which includes: montessori approach, small group instruction and collaborative learning, discussion method and critical thinking, computer-assisted instruction, face to face classroom instruction, online-individual learning, group online learning and project. strategies of traditional and mixed learning methods in public primary schools includes that teachers should be well versed with both the modes, ensuring pupils get face to face interaction as well they interact in virtual space, ensuring students get full experience in using new technology,all round development of personality should be targeted and that teachers should encourage pupil to get training in different life skills. The study therefore recommends that for preparing educational institutes for blended learning we will need to increase educational budgets, it can be done by taking help of NGOs and also coordinating with the industrial and corporate sector. These sectors can be motivated to give their financial inputs for blended learning execution as these sectors will be most benefited if, the output from these educational institutes are more efficiently groomed for the global market. More, Teacher training programmes both in-service and pre-service have to be reoriented to prepare teachers for blended learning approach.


Table of Content


  • TITLE PAGE
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Review of Concepts
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Review of Empirical Studies

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.5 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.9 Validity of the Study
  • 3.10 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.11 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Testing Hypothesis

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is one parameter to see the level of the economy in a country. Education is the most strategic element for the development of a nation. Anero (2013)postulated that Education is seen as instrument of development in all ramification of our life.Education as a development agent has made man useful, not only for himself but to his generation and beyond . The light of education to humanity has transformed man from ignorance to knowledge and happiness. Raharjo (2018) averred that education specifically helps the individual to develop physically, mentally, morally, spiritually, and emotionally by providing suitable environment, teaching him new knowledge, attitudes and skills that will enable him to be useful to himself and his society. In his words , education is vital requirement for man in order to undergo the process of social life. To promote national unity and peaceful coexistence that leads to national development, education of the citizenry starting from primary school level must be the government priority.

Importantly, proper education of the child is a basic tool for effective child upbringing and overall societal development. In recognition of this fact, most nations of the world place much premium on the care and education of the child through primary education. Some such programmes are the regional UPE programmes of 1950’s and 60’s, 1976 national Universal Primary Education (UPE), the disagreement of who funds and manages childhood education among the tiers of government led to the promulgation and abrogation of various National Primary Education Commission decrees between 1988 and 1993. Primary education as stated in the National Policy on Education (2014) is the education given in institutions for pupils aged 6-12 years. The subsequent system of education is built upon primary-level education. Therefore, the key to the success or failure of the whole education system is dependent on what happens at this stage.

Importantly, the development of sound attitude, morals, and the ability to communicate effectively begins at this first formal stage of learning through the method of teaching adopted by the instructor. According to McLaughlin, Gharkholonarehe, Khanova, Deyo& Rodgers(2015), changes in the view of the overall concept of education are reflected in the approach to teaching. In recent decades, there is a shift from the traditional approach , which is characterized by the transmission of finished information, to a constructivist approach. According to Kayii,& Dambo(2018), traditional teaching methods are the methods when students perform certain instructions, work according to the model. Due to the development of science and ICT, since the end of the 20th century there has been a replacement of direct teaching methods with principle of knowledge constructing in specific increments. The purpose of education is not and cannot be the transmission of the truth only, as it is in the case of the so-called transmissive pedagogy (its method is memorising, transmission of non-problematic “facts” – knowledge into the consciousness of a pupil). A more substantial challenge facing education is to equip pupils with the ability to navigate in the vast sea of knowledge and learn to use them correctly.

Recently, much attention and discussion has been evident in terms of the manner and process of providing education


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Recently, much attention and discussion has been evident in terms of the manner and process of providing education. According to Kayii& Dambo(2018), the educational system at present is in a transition stage. Thus to meet the challenges of expansion and for catering individuals need it is trying to adopt new technologies and exploring new paths to reach the goal of quality educational opportunities for all, at the same time due to various factors like deficient budgets, lack of facilities, advantages of face to face interaction, it is not completely ready to leave the traditional modes of knowledge transfer thus the need to incorporate the mixed method of teaching. As observed by Dibal& Obaje (2018)., even the management and stakeholder in public primary education are in a state of dual mind, when a group of teacher trainees were inquired about the mode of teaching they will prefer from tradition classroom teaching and ICT supported teaching the students were nearly evenly divided between both the choices.

Conversely, in other to ensure modern pedagogy which supports and promotes a teaching methodology that is both diversified and flexible, providing a very wide range of teaching-learning methods (traditional and mixed learning methods) was paramount for educators which is today known as Blended learning. Lalima (2021) asserts that Blended learning is an innovative concept that embraces the advantages of both traditional teaching in the classroom and ICT supported learning including both offline learning and online learning. It has scope for collaborative learning; constructive learning and computer assisted learning (CAI). Whereas this traditional and mixed learning methods incorporates diverse modes, Yaghmour(2016) posits that it is not just a difficult task, it is complex and organizing requiring drafted strategies for implementation.

Although there are several literature on teaching and learning method, in recent times, little or attention has been given to strategies for blending both Traditional and mixed approach in teaching and learning process. Against this backdrop, the researcher seeks to examine strategies of traditional and mixed learning methods in public primary schools in AMAC-FCT.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is focused on strategies of traditional and mixed learning methods in public primary schools in AMAC-FCT.

Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To examine the traditional methods of learning in public primary schools.
  2. To investigate the mixed methods of learning in public primary schools .
  3. To examine the strategies for enhancing traditional and mixed learning methods in public primary schools.
  4. To ascertain whether blending both traditional and mixed method facilitates effective learning in public primary schools.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the traditional methods of learning in public primary schools?
  2. What are the mixed methods of learning in public primary schools?
  3. What the strategies for enhancing traditional and mixed learning methods in public primary schools?
  4. Does blending both traditional and mixed method facilitates effective learning in public primary schools.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: Blending both traditional and mixed method does not facilitate effective learning in public primary schools.

Hi: Blending both traditional and mixed method facilitates effective learning in public primary schools.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will enable teachers to know the right methods to use in teaching primary school pupils. The study will improve stakeholders and curriculum planners awareness on drafting strategies to enhance blended learning so as to promote modern pedagogy. It is also significant in the sense that it will enable the teacher training college to intensify effort on assessing the performances of their students while on teaching practice (TP).The study will also serve as a help to show the outcome of the method been used at the end of the lesson and enlighten the school authorities to employ quality teachers to the subjects who can adopts dual teaching method during instruction process. Empirically, the study will contribute to the general body of knowledge and serve as reference material to scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study borders on strategies of traditional and mixed learning methods in public primary schools in AMAC-FCT. The study will further ascertain whether blending both traditional and mixed method facilitates effective learning in public primary schools. The study is however delimited to selected primary schools in AMAC-FCT.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that blended learning method discourse is vast thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only primary schools in AMAC Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Primary Education:

Primary education provides learning and educational activities typically designed to provide students with fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics (i.e. literacy and numeracy) and establish a solid foundation for learning and understanding core areas of knowledge and personal development.

Traditional Method of Learning:

Traditional method of teaching is the process through teachers follow the drill and rote method of memorization. In this method, children learn through repetition and memorization. There is little or no scope for critical thinking

Mixed Learning Methods:

This is an innovative Learning method is that embraces the advantages of both traditional teaching in the classroom and ICT supported learning including both offline learning and online learning. It has scope for collaborative learning; constructive learning and computer assisted learning (CAI).

Blended learning:

(also known as hybrid learning) is a method of teaching that integrates technology and digital media with traditional instructor-led classroom activities, giving students more flexibility to customize their learning experiences.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

The main focus of this study is to examine strategies of traditional and mixed learning methods in public primary schools in AMAC-FCT. The study explained different methods of traditional and mixed approaches to teaching and learning. Also the study further ascertain whether blending both traditional and mixed method facilitates effective learning in public primary schools.

This research is reported in five distinct yet interrelated chapters. In the chapter one we describes the study objectives clearly by stating the motive behind this study. Research hypotheses were developed for testing while the scope of this research was defined as well. The study adopted the survey descriptive research design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher purposively selected one hundred and fifty (150) participant for the study. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one hundred forty-one (141) was retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23).


5.2 Conclusion

Teaching involves the impartation of requisite attributes, while learning can be seen as the acquisition of requisite attributes. These two concepts help in changing the behaviour of the students resulting from experiential interventions.Blended learning has being in existence long before the advent of computers and social networks; teacher created blended learning experiences using simple technologies like paper and pencil. The idea of blending different learning experiences is as old as teaching, but the materials of the blend are new. It began as soon as humans started engaging in the art of teaching. However incorporating traditional and mix method of learning is not an easy task. It requires certain fundamental preparations in all the elements of teaching learning process- teacher, student, content designing, and infrastructure.

From the analysis of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. Traditional method of learning includes Listening and Observation, Drilling, Repetition and Memorization.
  2. Mixed method of learning involves bringing together both the traditional and modern teaching method which includes: Montessori approach, Small group instruction and collaborative learning, discussion method and critical thinking, Computer-Assisted Instruction, Face to Face classroom instruction, Online-individual learning, group online learning and project.
  3. Strategies of traditional and mixed learning methods in public primary schools includes that teachers should be well versed with both the modes, ensuring pupils get face to face interaction as well they interact in virtual space, ensuring students get full experience in using new technology, all round development of personality should be targeted and that teachers should encourage pupil to get training in different life skills.
  4. Blending both traditional and mixed method facilitates effective learning in public primary schools.

5.3 Recommendation

Implementing blended learning needs a full dedication on the part of educational authorities and managements of educational institutes. It needs a well-planned design that include all from individuals top to bottom of the educational hierarchy.

Based on the issue at stake, the following recommendations are made:

  1. The appointment of head teachers should be based on merit, not favoritism. Thus, politics should be discouraged for the smooth flow of administrative activities.
  2. For preparing educational institutes for blended learning we will need to increase educational budgets, it can be done by taking help of NGOs and also coordinating with the industrial and corporate sector. These sectors can be motivated to give their financial inputs for blended learning execution as these sectors will be most benefited if, the output from these educational institutes are more efficiently groomed for the global market.
  3. The other very important issue that has to be considered is development of right type of attitudes towards this ground-breaking concept in all those who are concerned with educational system. For changes in attitudes of parents, community, teachers and students awareness programmes, seminars, discussion forums should be organised. These can be utilized to make people aware about the benefits of blended learning so that a right mind set is prepared for its implementation. Mass media can well beutilized for this purpose.
  4. Teacher training programmes both in-service and pre-service have to be reoriented to prepare teachers for blended learning approach.
  5. The finance and efforts that are put in for various projects to meet education for all should be re directed in preparing our primary schools for blended learning as it will cater many problems simultaneously and both finance and efforts are more fruitfully utilized.
  6. Non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) and government need to sponsor enlightenment programmes to educate the parents on the relevance of primary education to the child and societal development and explain the dangers of using the child as an economic tool as well as the need to provide the enabling environment that will enable the child acquire primary education; and
  7. Government and other major Stakeholders should endeavour to provide sufficient amount of financial resources so as to help in ensuring the implementation of students-centred methods in teaching business studies especially at the junior secondary schools.

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