Strategies Problems And Prospects Of Refuse Management
This study is on strategies problems and prospects of refuse management. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Enugu state waste management authority in Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up waste collectors, maintenance custodians, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background of the Study
A clear environment promotes health and esthetics living man has consistency struggled throughout the ages to keep his environment clean. Generally the task of maintaining a heating environment through good sanitary disposal or waste has a become increasing difficult in west Africa and most developing countries of the world. This is due to such factors as population explanation rapid urbanization, industrialization increased use prepared (package products, changing lifestyle towards out door recreation etc (WAHEB) 1999. a close study of solid waste management has clearly shown that these factors have generated corresponding problems such as blocked gutters and drainage channels, traffic congestions. overcrowdings, over flooding air pollution and even ineffective refuse management, poor refuse management in out cities has been as associated with other problems such as sporadic fireboat breaks, spread of diseases and distortion of aesthetic value of our environment (Lucas and Giles1990). Varies types waste are generated in Enugu, namely solid waste, liquid waste (sewage ad industrial waste (chemical fluent). This study is concerned with solid waste which comprises refuse from homes offices and market places. Enugu from its statue as the state capital ,has now become an international commercial center with the recent development in the state (ie the new international center which attracts larger influx of residents and tourists. Various attempts have been put in place by the state and local government in the past to enforce refuse management scheme. These effort failed because of poor implementation of these lifting policies the problem of refuse management has assumed a social problem in Enugu, today especially as the Enugu state environment sanitation agency (ENSEPA) appears in capable of handling the task and members of the public appear ignorant and not ready to co-operate with the authority in keeping Enugu clean like in other cities in Nigeria, the problems of refuse management in Enugu metropolis have defied realistic refuse management solution. This poses gave concern to well meaning citizen of the state
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The one- time held historical and cultural reputation the Enugu city was the cleanest city in Nigeria is fast fading away. in its place great Pyramids of refuse are found at every junction and street corner begging for removal despite of public outcry, public enlightenment programmes on personal hygiene and environmental health. The refuse heaps blocks the gutters and drain, obstruct traffic flow,, pollute the air encourage instead and trident breeding and the spread of disease. The National sanitation exercise which was introduce by the head of state General Mohammed Buhari (1984) had then help to check indiscrimate differing of refuse along the streets, but today the story is different since the assumption of chief Olusugn Obasnjo as the president of Nigeria he put an end to it. Even with the introduction of monthly environmental sanitation and the state government it is still unable to meet the standard. Refuse was formally collected from house to house and transferred into a open van. but today the ones that are still use are put in smaller vehicles and not properly covered, as the vehicle moves on almost all of it spill on the street In view of all the above problem of refuse manager in Enugu metropolis, appear enormous with the local government inadequately positive to tackle it.It is the focus of this research project to come up with findings and possible solution to the problem refuse management in Enugu metropolis.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to critically examine the refuse management problems in Engu metropolis in terms of patterns, storage and final disposal with a view to findings solution to Len.
The specific objectives, however include
- To identify the various methods of refuse management applied in Enugu metropolis
- To assess the effectiveness or adequacy of the existing system of refuse management in Enugu metropolis
- To identify the specific problems associated with refuse management
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there is no effectiveness or adequacy of the existing system of refuse management in Enugu metropolis
H1: there is effectiveness or adequacy of the existing system of refuse management in Enugu metropolis
- H02: there are no various methods of refuse management applied in Enugu metropolis
H2: there are various methods of refuse management applied in Enugu metropolis
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is significant to the extent that the findings will ascertain the problems arising from effective and inadequate refuse management and its implication on public health, the study is also important as it findings will beneficial to the state and local government public health sector in their planning of refuse management programs.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers strategies problems and prospects of refuse management. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition of Terms
For purpose of understanding of this study definition of certain terms as are applicable to this study will be advance.
These consists of heterogeneous mass of deposited waste particle from the house hold, office, market places etc as well as homogenous accumulation of agricultural industrial and mineral waste. it therefore include all participle and non-particle solid waste with the exception of bar waste (exceeta) (Wahab 1991).
As a process by which responsible persons in an organization (managers or executives at all levels of management) combine resources (men. Money machinery materials and minute ie time) in achieving a given objectives goals or ends. (ANN, 1 OGBo and Tim Adibe) 2006.
3. Refuse Management:
The process of storage collection/transportation and final disposal of solid waste including the after or care of the disposed site.
4. Solid Waste:
Solid waste is refuse which refers to the useless, unwanted or ill discarded materials that arises from mans daily activities, it is required to be disposed the of according to public health laws so that it does not constitute misname to public health (WAHEB 991)
Is a plan for dealing with uncertain future circumstances (Tim Adibe 2006)
Hopes and expectation for success according to concise oxford dictionary, prospects in relation to this are the hopes and expectations that refuse management will become successful or unsuccessful given the existing efforts and attempts to solve the problems (Oluwande 1983)
This refers to doubtful or difficult matter requiring a solution. Something hard to understand or accomplish or difficult to deal with (cornice oxford dictionary)
8. Roll-On-Roll Off:
Large refuse reacceptances meant to collect refuse from houses and markets at flash sites or communal dumping site. for dis-evacuation or rolling on to final disposal site.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain strategies problems and prospects of refuse management
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of strategies problems and prospects of refuse management
This study was on strategies problems and prospects of refuse management. Three objectives were raised which included: To identify the various methods of refuse management applied in Enugu metropolis, to assess the effectiveness or adequacy of the existing system of refuse management in Enugu metropolis, to identify the specific problems associated with refuse management. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Enugu state waste management authority in Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up waste collectors, maintenance custodians, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
This research work was aimed at ascertaining the extent to which fund affects the efficiency of ESWAMA, to find out the professional training status of ESWAMA‟s staff, verifying the impact of people’s attitudes towards ESWAMA‟s mandate of maintaining a clean environment and to find out the impact of monitoring and control on the management of waste in Enugu. The study discovered that inadequate funding of ESWAMA affects its efficiency to the extent that evacuation and transportation of wastes from waste dumps, maintenance of equipment and payment of worker’s salaries suffer which in turn hinder ESWAMA from carrying out its waste management responsibilities. Furthermore, the study also discovered that there is no professional waste management engineer at ESWAMA and though ESWAMA do carry out training and re-training of its staff, such training and re-training exercises do not come up regularly (about three times since 2004). At times when training exercises are conducted at ESWAMA, the eligible participants are only the senior staff. It was learnt that most waste management activities (like waste disposal, evacuation, handling, etc) are carried out by the junior staff of ESWAMA whom we learnt do not participate both in within and outside training. We then conclude that the status of professional training and re-training at ESWAMA is highly low
- ESWAMA should strengthen and regularize their training programme for the both senior and junior staff generally and monitoring/control staff particularly, taking them to task to their job. This would enhance effective monitoring and control of waste from collection to disposal.
- Sanitation/Environment protection courts should be established to try all environmental pollution cases as obtainable in other jurisdictions. This would require serious policing in the neighborhood but would go a long way reduce or eliminate indiscriminate dumping of refuse by clients.
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