Strategies For Integrating ICT Into The Teaching Of Agricultural Science In Senior Secondary Schools

Agricultural Education Project and Seminar Material

Strategies For Integrating ICT Into The Teaching Of Agricultural Science In Senior Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the strategies for integrating ICT into the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools using kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the ICT tools that can be integrated into the teaching agricultural science in senior secondary schools, find out the extent ICT is adopted in the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools, and determine whether the use of ICT enhances the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of agricultural science teachers of some selected senior secondary schools in kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the ICT tools that can be integrated into the teaching agricultural science in senior secondary schools includes: E-learning, Social Media, Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Software/Applications, and Internet. The study further revealed that the use of ICT enhances the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools. Therefore, it is recommended that curriculum planners and developers should integrate ICT tools into agricultural education curriculum. They can be included as part of instructional materials for quality teaching. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The world we live today is very different from what it was during the past centuries, especially in the way things are carried out. Although the 19th century was characterized by industrial revolution that increased human production capacity, the 20th century witness tremendous development in computer technology that helped humans invent new ways to live and work (Alhawiti, 2013), and in the improvement of quality education. Education is perhaps most affected by technological development given to the huge changes that resulted from the use of computer technologies in instruction delivery. This is because instructional delivery is now easier due to the integration of Information and communication technologies (ICT).

Information and communication according to Alhawiti (2013), exposes learners to different types of digitalized activities and machines like computers, digital mobile devices (iPods, smartphones, etc.), and online games. Thus, many learners can access the internet, participate in social networks (Facebook, Twitter, etc.), send e-mails, and exchange images and videos. ICTs are tools or resources that could be used to process, store, preserve, access, retrieve and disseminate information with ease (Onoh, Onu, & Oluka, 2012). The authors also noted that ICT has become part of life, thereby making the entire world a global village where people readily communicate to function effectively. According to Mishra, Vinay and Tripathi (2015) ICT is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store and manage information. Ibezim (2017) defined ICT as all equipment that support activities involving the creation, storage, manipulation and communication of information, including related methods of application and management. ICT simply means any electronic gadget or tool that can aid easy creation, storage, retrieval and transfer of information. The ICT tools that can be employed in Agricultural education instructional delivery include social media, use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), e-learning, computer software, internet among others. Gulbahar & Guven (2008) buttressed that most countries throughout the world have begun integration of technology innovations in schools using different methods to increase the quality of teaching and learning. Mastering information technology and understanding basic skills and concepts of ICT are now highly appreciated by many countries (Rampersad, 2011).

Agricultural Education is a programme designed for training learners in the improved crop and animal production processes and marketing as well as in teaching (Egbule, 2004). Agricultural Education provides learners with sound academic knowledge and skill as well as ample opportunity to apply the knowledge through classroom activities, laboratory experiments, project participation and supervised agricultural experiences as contained in the curriculum (Osinem, 2008). According to Tyler in Ughamadu (2006), curriculum refers to all the learning experiences which is planned by and directed by the school to attain its educational goals. To achieve agricultural education objectives both in colleges of education and universities, quality instructional delivery of the planned curriculum is very vital.

The integration of ICT in agricultural education teaching and learning is a medium in which a variety of methods, approaches and pedagogical philosophies may be implemented (Hadi & Zeinab, 2012). According to Munienge, Telisa, and Kikunga (2013), the integration of ICTs in the curriculum of agricultural education brings many opportunities such as increasing learners learning capability, enhancing problem solving capabilities, facilitating learners’ critical thinking among others. The authors further stated that before integrating the use of ICT tools in agricultural education instructional delivery, one needs to make sure that suitable levels of investment is in place such as adequate training, good policy, careful planning, restructuring the teaching process, and a systematic approach in order to achieve maximum educational benefits. Integration of ICT tools in agricultural education curriculum instructional delivery enhances students’ skill acquisition thereby solving the problem of skill mismatch. This is achievable because ICT enable learners learn beyond the classroom, give them the opportunity to put what they learnt in classroom into practice, and enable them to interact with their counterparts outside the school settings among others.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The call for application of ICT in secondary education is to infuse and inject efficiency and effectiveness in curriculum implementation. However, in developing countries like Nigeria, ICT is challenged with the problem of material devices such as computer, computer laboratories, internet and e-mail facilities, videophone systems and teleconferencing devices, fax and wireless applications, digital library, digital classrooms, multimedia systems and the problem of multimedia courseware development among others (Global Information Technology Report, 2005) . Other studies indicated that there is dearth of trained Agricultural science teachers for ICT learning, lack of facilities, infrastructures and equipment (Ikemenjima, 2005; and Jegede&Owolabi, 2008).

The problem is that ICT in secondary education is challenged by the new technologies in terms of availability and use. Another challenge of integrating ICT into the teaching of agricultural science in secondary schools is the “Lack of/inadequate inadequate ICT facilities in schools” which ranked very poor. This finding is corroborated by Ndiku (2003) cited by Wims and Lawler (2007) who discovered that insufficient numbers of computers and peripheral devices inhibit deployment of ICT by Agricultural science teachers and by Plante and Beattie (2004) who observed that inadequate ICTs was a challenge to integration of technologies in schools. Similarly, Okwudishu (2005) discovered that unavailability of some ICT components in the schools hampered Agricultural science teachers’ use of ICTs. This problem may be due to under funding e.tc (Enakrire and Onyenenia, 2007). it is against this backdrop that the study tends to examine the strategies for integrating ICT into the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine the strategies for integrating ICT into the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain the ICT tools that can be integrated into the teaching agricultural science in senior secondary schools
  2. Find out the extent ICT is adopted in the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools
  3. Determine whether the use of ICT enhances the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions

  1. What are the ICT tools that can be integrated into the teaching agricultural science in senior secondary schools?
  2. What is the extent ICT is adopted in the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools?
  3. Does the use of ICT enhances the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The integration of ICT does not facilitates the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools.
  • Ha: The integration of ICT facilitates the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of Study

This study will be beneficial to students would benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because it would help them to be able to be more aware of the information communication technology in the school. This study will enable students to get more involved in the utilization of information communication technology due to the benefits derivable from it. Knowledge of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)integration and electronic resources will help the Government, school Administrators, Parents and Science Teachers to start working together towards alleviating some of the problem face by the students in integrating information and communication technology (ICT) for better educational outcome.

This study will also benefit administrators and educators in pursuing knowledge that will assist in determining the important variables as well as recognizing access to ICT infrastructure and resources in successful academic performance.

The study will also help to reduce increased dropout rate in the country (especially for students) that lack ICT skills thus increasing literacy rate as well as level of ICT integration among students and teacher.

Finally, the study will also be beneficial to students as it will enlighten them on the need to take their educational life more seriously especially with the integration of ICT, so as to contribute to the development of science and technology in the country (Nigeria).


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the strategies for integrating ICT into the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools. However the respondents of agricultural science teachers of some selected senior secondary schools kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited to extention teachers as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other aspect of agriculture. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Information Communication Technology:

Is the component culture that enables people to use their power to utilize their environment for their survival. It has made the world to be a global village.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the strategies for integrating ICT into the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools using kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the strategies for integrating ICT into the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools using kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the ICT tools that can be integrated into the teaching agricultural science in senior secondary schools, find out the extent ICT is adopted in the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools, and determine whether the use of ICT enhances the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were agricultural science teachers of some selected senior secondary schools in kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The ICT tools that can be integrated into the teaching agricultural science in senior secondary schools includes: E-learning, Social Media, Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Software/Applications, and Internet.
  2. The extent ICT is adopted in the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools is poor.
  3. The use of ICT enhances the teaching of agricultural science in senior secondary schools.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Curriculum planners and developers should integrate ICT tools into agricultural education curriculum. They can be included as part of instructional materials for quality teaching.
  2. The school administration through the help of the government should provide sufficient computers and other ICT tools necessary for teaching and learning.
  3. The school management should provide strong and constant internet services in the school. This will enable easy access to internet at any given time.
  4. Agricultural education lecturers and instructors should be constantly trained on the usage of new ICT tools which they can employ in instructional delivery.
  5. There should be an establishment of an effective ICT unit and support structure which will act as a catalyst for the integration of ICT tools in the teaching learning process.
  6. Schools should adopt online assessment tools in assessing students’ performance. This will enable the students embrace ICT usage knowing that they will write online test.
  7. Constant power supply is highly necessary for the integration of ICT in instructional delivery in schools.

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