Strategies For Improving Instructional Delivery In The Teaching And Learning Of Agricultural Science In Junior Secondary School

Agricultural Education Project and Seminar Material

Strategies For Improving Instructional Delivery In The Teaching And Learning Of Agricultural Science In Junior Secondary School


Abstract


The study was designed to determine the strategies for improving the teaching of Agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in River State, Nigeria. Five research questions guided the study and five hypotheses were postulated and tested using student t – test at 0.05 level of significance. A sample size of 101 registered Agricultural Science teachers were statistically obtained using Taro Yamane formula for finite population. Random sampling technique was adopted for the study. Data was collected from respondents using validated and tested structured questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.83 based on Cronbach Alpha formula. The results of the analysis revealed that varied strategies; instructional materials and methods; and different types of Continuous Assessment can be used to improve the teaching of Agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in the state. It was recommended that in teaching of Agriculture, teachers should activate the magnets of curiosity, knowledge and wisdom in students based on proper demonstration; varied instructional materials and relevant teaching methods. Moreover, adequate time should be allocated to practical agriculture lessons; and regular diagnostic assessment should be employed as a tool for evaluation of the students based on the fact that teaching of Agriculture is more than imparting Knowledge but inspiring change and learning of Agricultural science is more than absorbing facts but acquiring understanding.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Over a century ago, Nigeria was an agro-economy-based nation. Then Nigerian economy was sustained through agricultural produce such as cocoa, ground nut, palm produce. Agriculture then seemed sustaining because everybody was involved, everybody had interest and it appeared to be everybody’s major source of family sustenance. There were less cases of unemployment due to less interest or crazy of white collar jobs. Families were not complaining of hunger as there were food surplus in most homes. The problem then was inadequate money (cash) to educate young ones, procure quality health facilities and enhanced standard of living in line with the developed nation. Egbule (2004) defines agriculture as a process of training learners in the process of agricultural productivity as well as the techniques for teaching of agriculture. Agricultural science is therefore designed for inculcation of the necessary skills for the practice of agriculture for effective citizenship and contribution to food security for national sustainability. That is why the FRN (1994) outlines the seven major objectives of teaching and learning of agricultural science to reflect the following;

  1. Ability to stimulate students interest in agriculture.
  2. Ability to enable students acquire basic knowledge of agriculture.
  3. Ability to enable students integrate knowledge with skills in agriculture.
  4. Ability to expose students to opportunities in the field of agriculture
  5. Ability to prepare students for further studies in agriculture.

Attainment of the above objectives depends on teachers’ factors and pedagogical approaches. Agricultural science teachers are trained and groomed from teacher preparation institutions for quality impact of agricultural skills, knowledge attitudes and values for self-reliance, promotion of agriculture and food security in their future lives. It is therefore the duty of this group of teachers to; stimulate and sustain student’s interest in agriculture, enable students acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in agriculture, enable students integrate knowledge with skills in Agriculture, prepare and expose students for occupation. Attainment of the goals and objectives of agricultural science depends on effectiveness of teaching and learning of Agricultural science.

Furthermore, Agricultural education programs provide a curriculum aimed at helping individuals gain knowledge and skills in agriculture. Moore (1994) studied the historical teaching me±odologies in agricultural education and found three major teaching approaches in agriculture: formal steps, project approach, and problem solving approach. For this reason, the role of teachers and their teaching strategies are never ending topics in all educational settings. (Martin et al., 1986; Miller et al., 1984).Recently there has been much concern expressed about quality teaching in educational institutions, while industries in the rapidly changing society have been concerned about the well educated person. These concems have led to the issue of teaching strategies and their effectiveness in secondary agriculture education (Kahler, 1995; Martin, 1995; Moore, 1994; Rollins, 1989).

As agricultural educators, the responsibility is to ensure adequate teaching and learning as necessary to meet the changing needs of the industry and the values of society (Melion, 1995, p. 5). According to Carkhuff (1981), teaching is the opportunity to help others to live their lives fully, which means we help to give to our learners’ lives through their physical, emotional, intellectual and social growth. Anderson (1994) concluded that student outcomes may heavily depend on the teacher’s instructional planning, teaching method selection, and having a variety of learning activities.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Agricultural science taught at basic and secondary schools has not been able to transform the citizens and the nation adequately. Graduates still lack basic vocational and entrepreneurial skills expected to be acquired from agricultural science. Graduates still wallow about in search of white collar jobs instead of becoming self reliant and employers of labour. It also appear to be due to inadequate teaching and learning process on the part of the agricultural science teachers in Nigerian secondary schools. Therefore, this study will investigate effective instructional Materials to improve teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.


1.3 Objective of the study

The main purpose of this study is to determine the strategies for effective instructional Materials to improve teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state. Specifically the Study sought:

  1. To determine the teaching strategies to be adopted to foster student’s participation in Practical Agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.
  2. To determine the need for teachers to improve the teaching of Practical Agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.
  3. To determine the instructional methods that will be adopted to improve the acquisition of skills in Practical Agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.
  4. To determine the instructional materials to be used in improving the teaching of Practical Agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.
  5. To determine the continuous assessment techniques suitable for improving the teaching of practical agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to science teachers and students.

This study will be significant to a number of Agricultural science teachers who will become aware of problems to teaching agricultural science, and guide them in making adjustment in their methods and techniques of teaching agriculture science. The teachers and students will have a true concept of, and develop positive attitude towards agriculture science. The Government, the researcher believes will come to realize the importance of agricultural development of the nation.

The need to provide the school with facilities relevant to the learning and teaching modern agriculture practices as secondary school level is very essential. It will also help in the acceptance new innovations in present day agriculture.

This information may be helpful in the evaluation of teaching and learning of Agriculture thus helping in putting in place the strategies aimed at improving teaching and learning of Agriculture in schools. Findings may be of value to teaching learning strategies and teaching learning resources in implementation of agriculture curriculum.

Finally, it will be helpful to farmer and creates in them the awareness of being part of the economy and contributing measures towards its development.


1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions served as a guide to this study:

  1. What are the teaching strategies to be adopted to foster students’ participation in practical agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state?
  2. Are there needs for teachers to improve teaching of practical Agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state?
  3. What are the instructional methods that would be used to improve the acquisition of skills in practical agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state?
  4. What instructional materials would be used to improve the teaching of practical agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state?
  5. What are the continuous assessment techniques suitable for improving the teaching of practical agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state?

1.6 Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

  1. Ho1. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female teachers on the strategies to be adopted to foster student’s participation in practical agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.
  2. Ho2. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female teachers on the needs for improving the teaching of practical agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.
  3. Ho3. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female teachers on the instructional methods that will be adopted to improve the acquisition of skills in practical agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.
  4. Ho4. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female teachers on the appropriate instructional materials to be used to improve the teaching of practical agriculture in Senior Secondary School in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.
  5. Ho5. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female teachers on the continuous assessment techniques that could be used to improve the teaching of practical agriculture in Senior Secondary Schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study covers on the effective instructional Materials to improve teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools with specific focus on selected local government iin Opobo/Nkoro LGA of river state.


1.8 Limitation of Study

In carrying out this research work, the researcher had to go through severe of challenges as money in the dispersing, photocopying and transportation was a major constraint for the success of the research work.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The study determined the strategy to be adopted by teachers in teaching practical agriculture. Based on the results of the study, it is clear that students’ effective participation in practical agriculture largely depends on the strategies employed by the teachers; this enhances skills acquisition which can be transfer into real jobs in the world of work. Based on the result of this study, the need for agricultural Science teachers at the secondary school level to vary the methodology cannot be overemphasized. This would go a long way in creating positive disposition of students to agricultural Science as entrepreneurship education rather than been seen as academic education. Furthermore, it is evident in this study that instructional materials and methods have positive impact towards teaching of practical agriculture. This enhances retentive memory and the ability to apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations. The last aspect highlights on all the types of continuous assessment technique suitable to improve teaching of practical agriculture to students, this also has positive impact in the cognitive and psychomotor abilities of the students particularly at thesenior secondary schools in Opobo/Nkoro LGA River State Nigeria.


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Frequently Asked Questions


What makes an effective instructional strategy?

Effective instructional strategies meet all learning styles and the developmental needs of all learners. Teachers must be equipped with a well-rounded arsenal of effective instructional strategies to maximize their effectiveness and to increase student learning opportunities.

What do you mean by instructional delivery?

Instructional Delivery refers to the interaction among the student, the teacher, the content, and the knowledge/skills/dispositions students will need for learning and collaborating with others in a diverse society and rapidly changing world. The process of instructional delivery involves applying a repertoire

What are the different instruction strategies for early childhood education?

Popular instructional strategies include cloze reading, cooperative learning, hands-on learning activities, scaffolding, group instruction, self-assessment, thematic instruction, and word walls.

What makes a good teaching strategy?

Teachers must be equipped with a well-rounded arsenal of effective instructional strategies to maximize their effectiveness and to increase student learning opportunities. Teachers are best served when they utilize a variety of instructional strategies as opposed to one or two. Variety ensures that students are never bored. 

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