Strategies For Improving The Acquisition Of Vocational And Technical Skills Through The Utilization Of ICT In Technical Colleges In Enugu State

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Strategies For Improving The Acquisition Of Vocational And Technical Skills Through The Utilization Of ICT In Technical Colleges In Enugu State


Abstract


This study identified strategies that can improve the acquisition of vocational and technical skills through the utilization of ICT in Technical Colleges of Enugu State. To elicit the pertinent information for the purpose of the study, four research questions and three null hypotheses were also formulated. The research design was a descriptive type using the survey method. The instrument for collection of data was a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was face validated by three experts. The population for the study was 202 respondents made up of academic and non academic staff in technical colleges of education in Enugu State. The data collected were analysed using mean to answer the research questions. The three null hypotheses were tested with t-test and ANOVA statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The findings from this research reveal that ICT can be utilized as a strategy for the improvement of vocational and technical skill acquisition in Technical Colleges in Enugu state of Nigeria. ICT should be used in teaching and learning with personalized instruction by tailoring learning program for each student according to the needs and interests of each individual student. ICT should be used in Situative learning by allowing an individual (students/learner) to learn by socialization, visualization, and imitation. This improves students’ effectiveness in skill acquisition, re-conceptualizes the school by providing time for teachers to work and learn the same time. ICT and action learning can improve students vocational and technical skill acquisition in universities by taking action and reflecting upon the results. Cooperative learning with ICT ensures network design skills that must be taught in order for successful co-operative learning to occur. The study recommends that the National Commission of Colleges of Education should as a matter of urgency ensure ICT is used as a strategy for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skills acquisition in technical colleges in Enugu State. The study also concludes that there is need to develop and enhance skills acquisition in vocational and technical colleges in Enugu state using appropriate ICT strategies, in technical colleges of education in Enugu State.


Table of Contents


  • Approval Page
  • Certification Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • List of Tables
  • Table of Contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background of the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Research Question
  • Hypotheses
  • Scope of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • The Concept of ICT
  • Utilization of ICT in Skill Acquisition
  • Development of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria
  • The Role of Technical Colleges in Skill Acquisition
  • Technical Colleges Initiatives on Skill Acquisition
  • The Use of ICT in Personalized Instruction Learning
  • The Use of ICT in Situation Instruction
  • The Use of ICT in Action Learning
  • Programmed Knowledge
  • Questioning Insight
  • The Use of ICT in Co-operative Learning
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Review of Related Empirical Studies
  • Summary of Related Literature

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • Design of the Study
  • Areas of the Study
  • Population for the Study
  • Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • Instrument for Data Collection
  • Validation of Instrument
  • Method of Data Collection
  • Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Presentation and Analysis Data

  • Research Question I
  • Research Question 2
  • Research Question 3
  • Research Question 4
  • Testing of Hypotheses
  • Hypothesis I
  • Hypothesis 2
  • Hypothesis 3
  • Findings of the Study
  • Findings on Hypotheses
  • Discussions of the Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Restatement of the Problem
  • Summary of Procedures Used
  • Summary of Principal Findings
  • Implications of the Study
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • Suggestions for Further Studies
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


Introduction

Background of the Study

Information can be described as facts and figures about something. In the view of Hornby (2006), it is a fact about something. Information is a fact said or known by people to aid their language, action or sign (Ezeji 2006). With reference to this study, information is a collection of related data used by people for the purpose of helping them have a better knowledge about something. Information can be communicated to people through different means like internet, mass media and telecommunication.

Communication can be described as the process of disseminating information. According to Hornby (2006) it is the activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings of people.

In the opinion of Osuala (1997) communication is a mutual exchange of fact, thought, opinion, emotions or knowledge that requires representation and reception resulting in understanding between parties. In the context of this study, communication is the transfer of ideas from teachers to students. This transfer can be carried out by the effective use of the computer or other technological devices which enhances the acquisition of Vocational .and Tech. Skills.

UNESCO (1984) defined vocational and technical education as an educational Process which involves, in addition to general education the study of technologies and related sciences and acquisition of practical skills and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of the economy and social life effectively and adequately enhanced by use of modern technology..

Technology is the utilization of energy in any process designed to satisfy a need, it also involves usage of scientific knowledge in practical ways to meet human needs (Ogbuanya, 2005). With references to this study, technology is a branch of knowledge that deals with industrial art and sciences and the utilization of that knowledge in the production of materials. Information can be communicated through the use of technology and is referred to as Information Communication Technology (ICT).

According to Ibezim (2010) ICT is the combination of network, hardware and software as well as the means of communication, collaboration and engagement that enables the processing, management and exchange of data, information and knowledge. ICT according to Obetta (2008) means Information and Communication Technology and comprises a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communication, create, disseminate, store and manage information. Bakpo (2006), explained that ICT is the application of digital equipments to all aspects of teaching and learning. ICT promotes collaborative learning which includes role playing, group work, problem solving activities, personalized learning and articulated projects (Moifino et al, 2000). ICT can be defined in this study as a collection of individual technology components, the human resources that are needed to develop, install and operate the hardware and software as well as the services associated with their uses in acquiring skills.

Skills refer to the ability individual posses that enable him/her to perform a job well. According to Osinem (2005) skill means the expertness and proficiency displayed in the performance of a task. Skill involves the acquisition of performance capability through repetitive performance of an operation and can be developed through work experience, education in the school workshop and laboratories. According to Ogwo (2006) skills exhibited by an individual shows the extent the individual acquired it. Using educational technology for drill and practice of basic skills can be highly effective according to a large body of learners (Kulik, 1994). Students usually learn of ICT in course that has computer assisted instructions (CAI). Therefore new developments in skills acquisition need to be improved in the area of vocational and technical education by applying or employing certain strategies.

According to Baker (2001) strategy is the skill of planning in advance or well planned series of action for achieving an aim. Strategy means an intelligent trick which an individual has, specifically known to him or her alone for the achievement of certain objectives.

Osuala (2002) has provided some teaching strategies such as personalized instructional learning, situative instructional learning, action learning and cooperative learning. These strategies can be employed in teaching vocational and technical courses. The vocational and technical courses offered in the technical colleges in Enugu State includes; welding and fabrication, electronics, building and construction, wood work, auto mechanics, home management and computer science education. These courses are designed to achieve the goals of technical and vocational skills in Nigeria. One of which is to give training and impart the necessary skills to individuals who will in turn become self- reliant economically, Federal Government of Nigeria (2004). National policy on Education (FGN, 2004).

Education is the acquisition of skills so as to develop one’s potentials in order to perform effectively and become functional and beneficial to oneself and the society. It is generally believed that technical education is an essential pre-requisite for the technological development of any society. The National Policy on Education (2004) spells out the broad goals of vocational and technical education as being meant to: provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and business particularly at craft, advanced craft and technical levels; provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, commercial and economic development; and to give training and impart the necessary skills to individual who shall be self-reliant economically. This necessitated the introduction of courses that are tailored towards achieving the set objectives. Such as welding, building technology, electrical and electronics technology, automobile technology, metal work technology as well as woodwork technology among others. These courses/programmes requires certain equipments like Cutting Machine, Planning Machine, Jointing Machine, Lathe Machine, Computer and its accessories, Tenonner Machine, Mortiser, Band Saw, Dimension Saw, Oscilloscope, Galvanometer, Digital Multipurpose Meter, Frequency Indicating Device, Pylon Lifter, Synchronoscope etc. Granted that the functions being performed with these basic equipments cannot be replaced with ICT as at the moment, ICT can be adopted in writing software programmes indicating how the use of such machines can be simplified. This is necessary given the fact that the use of robotic machines has not gained popularity in Nigeria.

One cannot over-estimate the importance of the use of ICT in everyday activities of the school. however, it is saddening to note that a cursory look at the technical colleges in Nigeria will show that many teachers in the system still rely much on the traditional “chalk and talk” method of teaching rather than embracing the use of ICT. Little wonder, Okebukola (1997) stated authoritatively that computer is not part of classroom technology in over 90% of public schools in Nigeria, thus the talk and chalkboard, textbooks and note copying continue to dominate classroom activities resulting to boredom. This is an indication that the students are still lagging behind in the trend of changes in the contemporary ICT world. This presupposes that there is the tendency for the teachers and students to be denied the opportunities which ICT offers in the teaching-learning activities. There is the need to replace the traditional pedagogical practices that still undermines the educational system in the country, hence the need for strategies to adopt in improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skills through the use of ICT in technical colleges in Enugu state.

The various ICT facilities used in the teaching and learning process in schools according to Babajide and Bolaji (2003), Bryers (2004), Bandele (2006) and Ofodu (2007) include; electronic whiteboard also known as smart board or clever board, clever pad, word wall, radio, television, computers, overhead projectors, optical fibres, fax machines, CD-Rom, Internet, electronic notice board, slides, digital multimedia, video/VCD machine and so on. It appears some of the facilities are not sufficiently provided for teaching – learning process in most technical colleges in Nigeria in general and Enugu State in particular. To further buttress the afore-mentioned, the skills acquired by the students of some technical colleges are not complementary enough for them to be self-employed and reliant (Ogwo, 2006). The poor performance is as a result of the equipment, machines, tools and strategies that are used in training the students. With the rate of changes of globalization in the twenty first century, there is need to improve the students skills in the technical colleges using the new ICT strategies such as personalized instruction, situative instruction, action learning and co-operative learning.

Some countries like America, Japan, China, and German regard the development and utilization of ICT within their economy and society as key component of their national vision to improve the quality of life, knowledge and international competencies which should be focused on.

In the view of Hornby (2006) improvement is the change in something that makes it better. According to Osinem and Nwoji (2005) improvement refers to the process of acquiring knowledge, skill or attitude needed to perform better. Osinem and Nwoji (2005) further define improvement in education as an inter-mix of teaching and practice carried out in order to attain desired standard of behavior, efficiency and effectiveness with the sole purpose of effecting a change for the better.

As a matter of enhancing this “change for the better”, utilization of ICT will in no small way facilitate this improvement in skills acquisition in the technical colleges in Enugu state.

Utilization is the act of using something. In the context of this study, utilization means the act of using ICT to acquire vocational and technical skill using four ICT strategies of learning, which are; personalized instruction learning, situational instruction learning, action learning, and co operational learning.

Personalized instructional learning as viewed by science in Farrant (2006) is the transmission of information or skill by providing activities, materials and necessary guidance that facilitates learning in formal and informal situations. It is about giving learners the opportunity to take their learning in the direction they want to take it to.

According to Spillane (2002), learning which is based on situativity theory involves “changing the culture of schools so that teaching is more of a public practice, open to regular discussion among peers”. It is a meaningful action in a socially constituted environment, (Okorie, 1993).

The utilization of ICT in Action Learning is the process of doing something in order to make something happen or to deal with a situation. Action theory according to Marshall (2002), states that action learning is used to teach learners in order to impart experience and skills.

Co-operative learning in the view of Hornby (2001) involves working together with others towards a shared aim. Co-operative learning according to Johnson and Hollube (1994) is the instructional use of small groups through which students work together to maximize their learning. In this type of learning, the students interact with their groups and perform task oriented activities designed by the teacher.

In conclusion, Olaitan and Nwachukwu (2001) believe that the ICT and effective learning strategies will enhance the learning and acquisition of skills in technical colleges. Unfortunately, most of the technical colleges in Enugu state have been facing a lot of setbacks that have hindered the effective acquisition of skills through the use of ICT. Among these is insufficient technical staff to teach and operate the system, ill-equipped teachers of technical colleges, lack of infrastructures and materials, inadequate funds, poor awareness and support from people, and ineffective traditional pedagogical strategy. It is against this background that this study is being carried out to find out the learning strategies that will improve the acquisitions of vocational and technical skills through the utilization of ICT in technical colleges in Enugu State.


Statement of the Problem

There is an inherent problem of distractions when students read in a non-automated setting because they would have to get up from their reading desk in search of one reference material or the other, unlike when ICT is employed or utilized.

According to the National policy on education (2004) one of the goals of vocational education is to provide trained manpower in the applied-science, technology( ICT and automation)and business particularly at craft, advanced craft and technician craft level. The development in automation technique has brought about challenges on the functional competencies of workers. in the view of (Nworgu, 2006) if the skills acquired by students in the technical college is not reassessed and redirected to accommodate the changing classroom and office practice and procedures, technical colleges will end up producing unemployable graduates.

Therefore, the goals of training and imparting the necessary skills to individuals, who shall be self-reliant economically (NPE, 2004) have not been achieved. This can be due to outdated equipments, machines, tools and teaching strategy used in training the students in the technical colleges, the consequences focus that after graduating, and the students cannot fit into the working environment (Nworgu, 2006).

Sometimes the new equipments, machines and tools available are few and in the view of Olu (1991) inadequate equipment and facilities contributes to learner’s poor performance. The consequences faults the theory of vocational education which states that the learning environments, equipments, tools and machines used in training students must be a replica of the environment where the learner is going to work.

Furthermore, the teachers and technical instructors hired to impart knowledge and skills to the students were trained with obsolete equipment that are no more in vogue in the world of work, this thereby makes the teachers to impart theoretical knowledge to the students. Inadequate qualified teachers and administrator is one of the greatest handicaps in the improvement and expansion of vocational and technical education (Nwachukwu 2001). This faults another theory of vocational and technical education that the teacher should be the master of the subject taught by that teacher (MPE, 2004). Olaitan (1996) identified inadequate funding of vocational and technical education as the brain behind failure of skill acquisition in technical colleges.

In summary, lack of ICT technologies and poor performance of the machine and tools used in training the students has increased unemployment. Among these is insufficient technical staff to teach and operate the system, ill-equipped graduates of technical colleges, lack of infrastructures and materials, inadequate funds, poor awareness and support from people, outdated pedagogical strategies and practices. It has therefore become necessary to carry out investigations aimed at identifying strategies that will improve the acquisition of vocational and technical skills through the utilization of ICT in technical colleges in Enugu state.


Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to determine the strategies for improving the acquisitions of vocational and technical skills through the utilization of ICT in technical colleges in Enugu State.

Specifically, the study seeks to determine the strategies that could be used to improve the acquisition of vocational and technical skills through the utilization of ICT in;

  • Personalized instruction.
  • Situation instruction.
  • Action learning.
  • Co-operative learning.

Significance of the Study

The information generated by this study will be beneficial to students, teachers, school administrators, companies, curriculum planners and government officials.

The strategies identified in the study for improving the acquisition of Vocational and Technical skills using ICT in Personalized instruction will benefit the students in fostering collaborative partnership between the teacher, parents, students and school that designs a tailored learning program for each student according to the needs and interests of each individual student. Personalized Instruction help students become independent learners, so that after graduation they can fit into the working environment and become self reliant economically. Through personalized instruction as a strategy, the students will be able to develop problem-solving skills thereby stimulating creativity.

With the use of ICT in Action learning as a strategy for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skill, student’s will leave school as confident, creative and productive users of new technologies including Information and Communication Technologies and understand the impact of those technologies on society. By Action learning strategy, schools will seek to integrate ICTs into their operations to improve student learning, to offer flexible learning opportunities and to improve the efficiency of their business practices.

Through co-operative learning strategy, student assumes the role of the teacher on a given topic and is in charge of teaching the topic to a classmate. The idea is that if students can teach something, they have already learned the material. Also Co-operative learning as a strategy for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skill will help both students to capitalize on one another’s resources and skills (asking one another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas, monitoring one another’s work, etc.). Furthermore, the teacher’s role changes from giving information to facilitating students’ learning.

Simulative learning strategy will further benefit the students, teacher and school as the use of ICT in situated learning will make the student and teachers more practical in nature and skill- oriented in their field as a result of situated activities such as workshops, field trips, laboratory practices et.c thereby becoming specialist in their field, which in turn benefits the school as quality graduates will be at schools disposal in particular, and the society at large.

In situated learning, the learner learns by socialization, visualization and imitation vis-à-vis from their own experience. Real life situation is explored to find answers to certain problems, and when these answers are found knowledge is increased and a higher level of thinking is achieved. As always, situated learning accelerates a student learning process and ability.

The information that this study provides will further make clear to Government(Ministry of education), Curriculum Planners, School authorities, Philanthropic bodies, stakeholders in the educational sector et.c of the strategies that can be employed to improve the acquisition of Vocational and Technical Skills in Enugu State College of Education(Technical), It will also enable the government to provide skill improvement training through Workshops, Seminars, refresher courses and in-service training to be attended by Vocational and Technical Educators and students.

The curriculum planners such as the National Board of Colleges of Education (NCCE), National Board of Technical Education (NBTE) and the National Universities Commission (NUC) and teachers trainers will benefit immensely from the information provided by this study, as highlights of the strategies and skills provided by the study will enable the curriculum planners incorporate such strategies and skills into the technical training in Colleges of education and Technical Colleges curriculum.

Philanthropic bodies, and stakeholders in the educational sector and the society at large, will benefit when the students graduate and they get employment in establishments so that at the end of the month, they receive salaries, and should be able to pay their taxes as at when due and contribute wisely to the community development and security of the society.


Research Questions

The following research questions guided this study;

  1. In what ways will the use of ICT in personalized instruction enhance student’s achievement in vocational and technical skills acquisitions?
  2. In what ways can ICT be used in situative learning for improving vocational and technical skills acquisition?
  3. In what ways can ICT be used in action learning for acquisition of vocational and technical skills?
  4. In what ways can ICT be used in Co-operative learning for acquisition of vocational and technical skills?

Hypotheses

The study was guided by the following null hypotheses;

  • HO1: Gender is not a source of significant difference on the mean responses of ICT educators in technical colleges of Enugu State on the use of ICT for improvement in vocational and technical skills acquisition.
  • HO2: Location is not a source of significant response on the mean responses of ICT educators in technical colleges of Enugu State on the use of ICT for acquisition of vocational and technical skills.
  • HO3: Years of experience is not a significant difference on the mean responses of ICT educators in technical college of Enugu State on the use of ICT in improving learning.

Scope of the Study

This study will be delimited to ICT educators and other staff of Technical Colleges in Enugu State. Technical colleges are always at the fore-front of training skilled manpower for vocational job opportunities amongst others. But the present situation report shows technical colleges has lost its glory of old. The study covers the strategies for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skills through the utilization of ICT in technical colleges of Enugu state. It focus on The use of ICT in personalized instruction, the use of ICT in situation instruction, The use of the ICT in Action learning, and the use of ICT in co-operative learning in technical colleges in Enugu State. The descriptive survey research design will be used for the study and the usefulness of the findings would be limited to Technical Colleges in Enugu State.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter presents Restatement of problems, Summary of procedure used, Summary of findings, and Implication of the study, Conclusions, Recommendation and Suggestions for further studies.


Restatement of the Problem

Ineffective strategy for skill acquisition has been a major problem in vocational and technical education. Baker (1994). Observed that vocational and technical education programme in universities places more emphasis on many with little or no prominence given to practical awareness and production. The quality of teaching of any subject affects students’ mission to the subject. Effective teaching of vocational and technical courses in Technical Colleges of Education is used to develop in students a keen interest in the subject and subsequent actions done to gain necessary knowledge, experience and skills that will enable them to be self-reliant economically and to suit-in in the world of work but with the teaching methods, lack of ICT technologies, poor performance of the machine and tools used in training students, interest is lowered an aspiration weakened.

Considering the above state of vocational and technical skills in Technical Colleges, It has become necessary to carry-out investigations aimed at identifying strategies for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skills in Technical Colleges using ICT. The major purpose of this study is to determine the strategies for improving the acquisitions of vocational and technical skills through the utilization of ICT in technical colleges in Enugu State.

To guide this study the following research questions were specifically asked:

  1. In what ways will the use of ICT in personalized instruction enhance student’s achievement in vocational and technical skills acquisitions?
  2. In what ways can ICT be used in situative learning for improving vocational and technical skills acquisition?
  3. In what ways can ICT be used in action learning for acquisition of vocational and technical skills?
  4. In what ways can ICT be used in Co-operative learning for acquisition of vocational and technical skills?

Summary of Procedures Used

To fulfill the above objectives, four research questions were formulated for which solutions and information were sought and collected from respondents within the geographical area of the study. The study was carried out in Technical Colleges in Enugu State. The study was made up of lecturers and Non academic staff in Technical Colleges of Enugu State. And the sample of the study was drawn from 103 technical educators and 99 non teaching staff from various technical colleges in Enugu state. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire with 48 items and a four point Lickert scale ranging from SA (Strongly Agreed) A (Agree) D (Disagree) and SD (Strongly Disagree). This was personally administered by the researchers who also collected them after few weeks. The data collected were analyzed using the mean and standard deviation. The t-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance was used to test three hypotheses formulated to guide this study.


Summary of Principal Findings

Based on the data collected and analyzed, the following findings were made:

  1. ICT should be used in teaching and learning with personalized instruction by tailoring learning program for each student according to the needs and interests of each individual student. Since ICT facilitates learning and helps learners to learn independently using ICT gadgets.
  2. ICT should be used in Situative learning by allowing an individual (students/learner) to learn by socialization, visualization, and imitation. This improves students’ effectiveness in skill acquisition, re-conceptualizes the school by providing time for teachers to work and learn the same time. It also develops literacy and skills in both students and teachers and also helps the school to establish work place learning. It also aligns learning with the requirements of information and skills required for viable through life-long learning.
  3. ICT and action learning can improve students vocational and technical skill acquisition in universities by taking action and reflecting upon the results, as in programming, this helps learners to learn in a more productive way and faster, makes group learning possible and equips the learner with working skills for the contemporary workplace.
  4. Cooperative learning with ICT ensures network design skills that must be taught in order for successful co-operative learning to occur. It also ensures learners learn cooperatively and capitalize on one another’s applications or resources. It ensures group processing through group responsibilities and accountability in order to reach their goal. Making it possible for a group of people to work together at the same time using video conferencing. It can improve students’ vocational and technical skill acquisition by organizing classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences vis-à-vis “structuring positive interdependence.” This allows group of people to work on real organizational issues, it extends students experiences, it provides opportunity for the students to access information, enhance skills and engage in experimental, collaborative and effective learning, it also poses challenges of gaining new knowledge on both the teacher and learner not the teacher dosing knowledge and provides learners with better opportunity of becoming proficient in developing skills.

Implications of the Study

The findings of this study will be useful to government (Federal and State).National University Commission (NUC), administrators of Colleges of Education (Technical), and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and Universities. It will also be useful to vocational and technical education teachers and lecturers who prepare students for the world of work.

The implication of this study to Government is that they should sponsor the provision of equipment, facilities, materials and resources. The training and professional improvement needs of the teachers that will enhance effective teaching of skill. The findings also revealed that possession of in-depth knowledge in content area of vocational and technical education is one of the core competencies that are necessary for administration of Colleges of Education (Technical)

The implication of this study to the teachers and lecturers is that they have to realize the need to use suitable teaching methods and strategies, also update their skills in order to be able to use the ICT technologies efficiently in teaching. This will make students develop interest in learning of skills, ensure self-reliance and would help reduce unemployment in our country.


Conclusion

The following conclusions were made based on the result of the study. As most equipments are being operated powerfully and more technologies still under construction, there is need to train people who will handle these sophisticated equipment with the use of ICT.

The usefulness of training students on ICT with some learning strategies like: personalized instruction, situative learning, action learning and cooperative learning cannot be overemphasized. Lack of these teaching strategies might lead to the training of students who would end up either unemployed or unskilled to sustain and advance in the world of work.

However, skill acquisition in vocational and technical areas should be enhanced in Technical Colleges of Education using the appropriate strategies. Adequate ICT technologies and teaching aids should also be in proportion to the number of students using them to learn. Lecturers on their part must acquire the basic skills and knowledge to be able to handle technologies. Regular retraining, seminars and workshops should also be organized for them at intervals.

The lecturers should also make use of the demonstration methods and practical’s while teaching as most students learn better through watching and practice, rather than theory.


Recommendation

Based on the findings and conclusion drawn, the following recommendations are made:

  1. The National Commission of Colleges of Education should as a matter of urgency ensure ICT is used as a strategy for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skill acquisition in technical colleges.
  2. ICT should be used in personalized instruction as a strategy for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skill acquisition in technical colleges.
  3. ICT should be used in suitative learning for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skill acquisition in technical colleges.
  4. ICT should be used in action learning for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skill acquisition in technical colleges.
  5. ICT should be used in cooperative learning for improving the acquisition of vocational and technical skill acquisition in technical colleges.

Suggestions for Further Studies

The following suggestions for further studies are made as follows:

  1. A study to determine the level of funding strategies that enhance the accessibility and the use of ICT in administration and teaching/learning process.
  2. Software development for the use of ICT for teaching and learning in technical colleges of education.
  3. A study on ascertaining the competencies of practicing staff in the use of ICT for education purposes.
  4. Implementation strategies for infusing ICT into NCCE curriculum and design.
  5. Strategies for implementing the management of ICT in administration and teaching/learning process.

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