Strategies For Promoting Productivity In Civil Service (A Case Study Of Enugu State Civil Service Commission)

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Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM


This work is dedicated to Almighty God for the abundant blessing and protection throughout this work, and to my family and friends for their effort towards this work. And also to my lovely lecturer and supervisor Mrs. Chidimma Amadi for direction and support towards this work. May our good God bless and grant you all your desires in Jesus name Amen and Amen.


I wish to acknowledgement with immense gratitude to the Almighty God for abundant blessing and protection since birth.

I humble place on permanent record my profound appreciation to some person(s) whose influence and work had helped to male this project a reality. And to my beloved parents Mr. and late Mrs. GODWIN PETER.

To my dearest uncle Mr & Mrs Henry Agbasonu. Last but not the least, to my honourable supervisor Mrs. Chidimma Amadi who spent her time in order to give the work a through supervision.

May God continue to bless you all in Jesus name Amen.


This project research aimed to x-rays strategies for promoting productivity in civil service in Nigeria, which is located at Enugu state civil service commission.

The study is aimed at looking to the definition of civil service from many scholars, functions of civil service, meaning of productivity, productivity decline in the civil service, causes of productivity decline in the civil service and conditions for promoting productivity in the civil service

Table Of Content

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research question
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms.

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Meaning of civil service
  • 2.3 Functions of Civil service
  • 2.4 Meaning of productivity
  • 2.5 Productivity
  • 2.6 Causes of productivity decline in the civil service
  • 2.7 Condition for promoting productivity in the civil service.

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research design and methodology
  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Sources/methods of data collection
  • 3.3 Population and sample size
  • 3.4 Sampling techniques
  • 3.5 Validation and reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.6 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Analysis of data
  • 4.4 Interpretation of result

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

With the emergence of modern states and the development of the organs of government- the legislature, judiciary and executive arm, the civil service evolved as the bed-rock of the executive arm of the state.

The term civil service is used to describe those public servants who are direct employees of the federal and state government, other the police, the armed forces personnel. The judicial personnel and teachers. Its usage exclude also employees of statutory corporations and broads (Nwosu, 1977). According to Adebayo (1980), the civil service comprises all servants of the state other than those holding political appointments, who are employed in a civil capacity and whose remunerations are paid out of money voted by the legislature Adamolekun (1983) sees the civil service as the body of permanent officials appointed to assist the political executives in formulating and implement its policies and programmes.

However, the civil service is an indispensable instrument through which governments implement its policies and programmes.

The term civil service can also be seen as the totality of the states civilian bureaucracy and major source of expert advice as well as instrument for the implementation of government policies.

1.1 Background Of The Study

The historical background of the civil service dated back to the end of colonial masters and post independence period.

After the second world war there were about 14 British administration in the recitation to Nigerians supported staff and one European stenotherm. The headquarter of the most technical departments was in Ebutometa that of the veterinary service was vow while that agriculture and forestry was in Ibadan field administration was co-ordination from two centers Kaduna for the North and Lagos later Enugu for the South. In 1959, Southern Nigeria was splitted into two regions eastern and western region respectively.

The Rechard constitution in 1946 further divided the country into the regions namely:The northern and eastern regions. The McPherson constitution 1951 introduced the apartments of ministers for the regions and at the center, there was also the suggest the independence of the civil service between the politicians in office and the authorities of the central government.

During the lord lauguard era the duties of all administrative offices were just that of maintaining law and order in the district placed under their immediate administrative control. It was only at the end of world war 11 (two) that effort were made to achieve some social and economic benefit for Nigerians. It was at that time that such office like the department of marketing and export were established.

In the western Nigerian civil servant were told that policy making was the executive function of the legislature. So, the civil servant were to do whatever the legislature wanted them to do. In the eastern state civil servants were to give sound advice to the political leaders control the traditional aspects of the government activities and were also to be efficient executives who could manage and treat all the complex operations of modern state.

In the northern Nigeria the duties of administration office includes to give out themselves to the service of training people to build up an efficient institution of local government and finally to facilitate the emergence of an intelligent and responsible public opinion. The system of administration that emerges on independence was British in character. It was also English language that was used as a medium of communication in the conduct of followed by another six years of oil boom which brought about extreme materialism.

These gave use to great indiscipline corruption and a total contemplation of order within the whole society including the civil service. Having discussed the histories background of the civil service and its role before and after independence, it is necessary at this stage to define the “productivity which is the main objective of this research.

Productivity has been defined as the volume of goods and service produced per worker with in some specified unit of the year month week day and hour for some years now there has been consistent public outcry about continued decline of productivity in the civil service.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

There has been consistent low productivity in the civil service since Nigeria become independence. This study is set out to assess the knowledge of job motivation and use of official work hours in the civil service in order to promote productivity.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The purpose of the present study is to large extent explained by the titles promoting productivity in the civil service. To be more specific

  1. To identify the things that makes civil servant to perform below standard.
  2. To find out the main cause of productivity decline in the civil service commission
  3. And to determine the measures to be taken in order to arrest the situation.

1.4 Research Question

The research question of the present study are to a large extent explained by the title strategies of promoting productivity in civil service commission specifically they are as follows:

  1. What are the thing that makes civil servant to perform below standard?
  2. What are the main cause of productivity decline in the civil service commission?
  3. What is the measure to be taken to arrest the situation?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The main significance of this study is to promote productivity in civil service mainly in the Enugu state civil service commission.

If the productivity of Enugu state civil service commission is promoting, the following people will benefit from it.

  1. The civil servant of the commission they will benefit in the sense that the workers in the commission will be enjoying good pay and allowances.
  2. The government will also benefit from the promotion, in this case governments will no more be faced with the problems of state and complaint that comes from the civil servant of the commission.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The scope of study focus on the strategies of productivity in civil service commission and the objectives of Enugu state civil services commission in other to carry out research of this nature one would always require adequate provision of finance, accurate information and time limit.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

At the time questionnaire were distribute to some members of staff of Enugu state civil service commission. Some felt reluctant to receive them on the preference, that they were too busy with office work. Some workers even complained that because they were civil servant they could not answer every question.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

There are some terms in this research work which needs to be defined in other to alert their scholars of their meanings.


It can be defined as the volume of goods and services produced by a worker within some specified unit of the year, month, week, day or hours.

Civil Service:

It can be defined as the body of permanent officials appointed to assist the political executives in formulating and implementing government policies.


Is the process of planning something of putting a plan into operation in a skillful way.


It is the activity that encourages people to believe in the value or importance of something or that helps something to succeed. It is also the benefits enjoys by the some set of group or individual.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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