Strategies For Effective Supervision And Management Of Secondary Schools
Supervision is a household name as far as education is concerned. It is still alarming to see many secondary schools lacking adequate care and supervision both internally and externally. Internal and external supervision if well practiced will help to eradicate the problems with Nigerian educational system. This study also looked into the problem of management of secondary schools in Awka north L.G.A. with the aim of eradicating the problem of poor funding, lack of facilities and lack of maintenance facilities.
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigeria is at the cross roads of her developmental stage and therefore needs a decisive action to liberate her from the danger of total collapse in the face of political, economic, socio-cultural, environmental, ecological, and religious and communication problems. It has been repeatedly said that no nation can rise above her education and Nigeria is not an exception. The method of education adopted by any country speaks volumes as to how far the country would go in solving her domestic or internal problems and her relationship with other people especially her external neighbours.
Each country has problems and needs that are peculiar to her and her environment and as such need to construct her education philosophy with regards to her needs. Education in Nigeria is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development (N.P.E. 2004:4).
It has witnessed active participation by individuals, communities, non-governmental agencies as well as government intervention. It is therefore desirable for the nation to spell out in clear and unequivocal terms the philosophy and objectives that underlines its investment in education. The Federal Government of Nigeria. has stated that for the benefit of all citizens the country’s educational goals shall be clearly set out in terms of their relevance to the needs of the individuals and those of the society in consonance with the realities of our environment and modern world (ibid).
Unfortunately, Nigeria’s education system is still in the woods courtesy of strict adherence to the conventional pedagogical method of education which she received from her erstwhile British colonial master which does not consider the implications of such education philosophy to Nigeria’s political, socio-cultural, economic, environmental and ecological needs.
The pedagogical method of education is devoid of reasonableness ab initio because the British came to Nigeria and other African colonial dependences not to develop them but to saturate their economic and political ambitions and so their educational objectives are based on how to maximize their profit and expand their territorial ambition. They introduced to the colonies the type of education that ensured their continuous domination of those colonies which emphasizes basically the “3Rs” – Reading;’ writing and (A) rithmetic through which they produced those who could read their letters or directives (Anih,s ; Igwe, S. and Igwe, C. 2004: 110). This method of education is devoid of the 41h. Reasonableness which is the missing link in our education system.
Since the system does not teach reasonableness, it does not possess the capacity to empower the citizens towards self – actualization, self fulfillment and self – emancipation. The system was only able to produce local teachers, catechists, interpreters, clerks and other minor workers, who have no capability to play any leadership role in economic cum socio-political arena of their countries. The colonial masters tended to cling to these leadership roles perpetually while keeping the citizens of the colonies in perpetual bondage of servitude. It then became true that no education philosophy could appropriately address the problems of a country than the one made for her by her own citizens because it is one who wears the shoe that knows where it pinches him. It is pertinent at this juncture to state that we know our problems better and should solve them better with our own indigenou’s, resources.
The educational objectives of Nigeria in the 21st century differ completely from that of Britain of the 18th century. There is a big gulf of difference in the spatio-temporal perspectives of the two countries and so educational philosophy planned by the British and for the British interests in the 18th century can not be used to solve Nigeria’s problems in the 21st century.
The major alms of the British venture into Nigeria were for politico-economic interests to ensure steady supply of raw materials to their industries back home and not to train the indigenous people of Nigeria. They worked for gain and not for grace.
Thus, it can be said free of any equivocation that the system of education which the British people bequeathed to Nigeria was completely pedagogical in practice, dehumanizing and depersonalizing in intent and slavish in execution. Any education system based on pedagogy emphasizes competition instead of cooperation, me ism instead of we hood, egoism and monocracy instead of democracy.
The education policy formulated by the pedagogists always paid lips service to the teaching of reflective, critical and creative thinking even as enshrined in the national policy on education 1981 (revised 1998 and 2004) respectively.
When we examine the in-put and out-put of the nation’s education system, we shall see how far we have performed woefully below expectations ‘because of misapplication of priorities which is associated with the pedagogical stance of education. The Nigerian education system has failed to achieve the broad goals of education as mapped out in the national education policy.
It is common knowledge that most of our secondary school leavers do not possess the ability and skills to reason well, they do not respect the dignity of labour, all they live and hope for IS to pass their final examinations through cheat and “expo 419”. They like the school administrators target only the end result. They are not interested in the means by which they achieve those results. The values and norms of honest living have eluded those children from the beginning and so, how would they be expected to live honest lives after they had been schooled and graduated in dishonesty. That is why in our political lives, we exhibit bitterness, rancor and turgery. The school curriculum is prepared and delivered in such a way that the children are not invited to think. They are expected to reproduce exactly what the teachers had given them thereby encouraging laziness among the pupils/ students hence there is acute lack of creativity.
The pedagogical method of education has dealt a great havoc to our education system. As. a result we have the problems of cultism in the secondary ‘Schools and tertiary institutions to contend with. The students vandalize school properties, kill and main their fellow students and teachers; they are threat to themselves and the society in which they live and above all they have been performing woefully in their academic out-put generally.
Anih, S. (2004: 109) states that negligence of reason results in the loss of everything. He emphasized the need for redesigning of Nigeria’s education philosophy. We need an authentic philosophy of education to solve national problems in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Secondary school education in Awka North is faced with myriads of problem, ranging from poor organizational structure to lack of staff continuity, unqualified staff, inadequate educational method and lack of constant supervision and management of schools. Public secondary schools in Awka North have suffered a lot of these problems and the resultant effect is total breakdown of law and order in these schools which affects teacher – student’s effectiveness.
1.3 Objective of the Study
Objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the need for internal supervision of secondary schools
- To ascertain the need for educational structure or ladder in secondary schools
- To ascertain the possible sources of funding for secondary schools
- To ascertain the need for external supervision of secondary schools
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there is no need for internal supervision of secondary schools
H1: there is need for internal supervision of secondary schools
- H02: there are no possible sources of funding for secondary schools
H2: there are possible sources of funding for secondary schools
1.5 Significance of the Study
The importance of this study is that it will enlighten educators on the strategies they will use for effective supervision and management of secondary school in Awka North and in their Local Governments and states round Nigeria.
As a result of this, the following people would benefit from the study viz:
- The teachers
- The head teacher
- The Local Government Education officers
- The state Government Education Officers
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study has its focus in schools within Awka North Local Government Area only and is limited to exposing the strategies necessary for effective supervision and management of Secondary schools The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Strategy is an action that managers take to attain one or more of the organization’s goals. Strategy can also be defined as “A general direction set for the company and its various components to achieve a desired state in the future. Strategy results from the detailed strategic planning process”
Supervision is the act or function of overseeing something or somebody. A person who performs supervision is a “supervisor”, but does not always have the formal title of supervisor. A person who is getting supervision is the “supervisee”.
Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain strategies for effective supervision and management of secondary school
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of strategies for effective supervision and management of secondary school
This study was on strategies for effective supervision and management of secondary school. Four objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the need for internal supervision of secondary schools, to ascertain the need for educational structure or ladder in secondary schools , to ascertain the possible sources of funding for secondary schools, to ascertain the need for external supervision of secondary schools. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Awka north local government of Anambra state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
The researchers therefore noted that supervisors’ adequate visitations observe teaching/learning process as an aspect of supervisory strategies to influenced teachers’ effective instructional delivery in secondary schools in Awka north Local Government Area of Anambra state. It is also the conclusion of this study that significant relationship existed between supervisors’ visitations to observe teaching/learning process as an aspect of supervisory strategies and teachers’ effective instructional delivery in secondary schools. The researchers therefore concludes that supervisors’ inadequate visitations to organize conferences for the teachers as an aspect of supervisory strategies did not influence teachers’ effective instructional delivery in secondary schools in Awka north Local Government Area of Anambra state. It was also noted in this study that no significant relationship existed between supervisors’ visitations to organize conferences for the teachers as an aspect of supervisory strategies and teachers’ effective instructional delivery in secondary schools.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:
- Efforts should be intensified by principals of secondary schools in Awka North Local Government Area of Anambra state to ensure that seminars and workshops are organized for their teachers. This will help to improve on their instructional delivery system.
- Government should intensify efforts to ensure that school supervisors live up to expectation in performing their supervisory role in secondary schools. This will help to improve on their instructional delivery system.
- Government should intensify actions to ensure that secondary school teachers are provided the opportunities for re-training. This will help to improve on their instructional delivery system.
- There is need for principals to ensure that cases of non-supervision or inadequate supervision of their colleges are reported to the Ministry of Education and Post-secondary Schools’ Management Board. This will help to improve on effective supervision.
- Efforts should be intensified to ensure that seminars and workshops are organized to further educate school supervisors on how they could improve on their supervisory functions.
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