Strategic Human Resource Planning And Performance Of Small And Medium Enterprises (SMES)

Project and Seminar Material for Industrial Relations and Personnel Management

Strategic Human Resource Planning And Performance Of Small And Medium Enterprises (SMES)


Abstract


The major objective of this study is to examine the effect of strategic human resource planning on organizational performance in selected SMEs in Alaba informal industrial sector in Lagos State. Survey research design was employed for the study and with aid of convenient sampling sixty female (66) staff of SMEs in Alaba informal industrial sector in Lagos State was selected as the participant of the study. The sources of data collection was both primary and secondary with the application of questionnaires as an instrument to gather the necessary data. The questionnaires were properly completed as well returned by only 60 respondent after being administered and this was a basis by which the primary data were collected. Textbooks, journals, articles, law reports, newspapers publications, were collected as secondary data, and also limitations to the study were indicated. The hypothesis was tested using chi-square test statistical tool (SPSS v.2.3)and the result were similar to those of the responses drawn from the questionnaires.

Findings of the study revealed that, there is a significant relationship between strategic human resources planning and productivity among SMEs in Lagos. That manpower planning is a significant predictor of employees’ commitment in the SMEs sector. The study therefore recommends that small businesses who desire to attain their objectives should endeavour to have human resource manager available to aid their planning and management. More so, The entrepreneurial centre and business schools in Nigeria should incorporate strategic management principles into their curricular. This will engender sound managerial know-how and boost the performance and competitiveness of firms in Nigeria.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The performance and growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is a major driver and indices for the level of industrialization; modernization; urbanization, gainful and meaningful employment for all those who are able and willing to work, equitable distribution of income, the welfare, income per capital and quality of life enjoyed by the citizenry (Aremu and Adeyemi, 2011); this is because SMEs contribute to employment growth at a higher rate than larger firms (Farouk and Saleh, 2011). The SMEs sector with global recognition is view as an important force of driving the economic growth and employment creation in both developing and developed countries (Ariyo, 2008; Kpleai, 2009).

Whether SMEs or larger firms, organizations are today becoming increasingly aware of the place of strategic human resource planning (SHRP) in management. This awareness in a system is a critical dimension in the performance of organizations. The real life experiences substantiate the assumption that no matter how sophisticated and modern the business activities of the organization may become, it will be extremely difficult to sustain its growth and effectiveness unless there are strategies and plans that complement its operations (Rees, 2006).

The history of planning is as old as man himself. Planning has started from the ancient era during the primitive period when there were no industries or firms. Planning is the process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals of an organization. It includes the selection of objective, policies, procedures and programmes from among alternative. A plan is a determined cause of action to achieve a specified goal. It is an intellectual characterized by thinking before doing.

According to Terry (2002) planning is a continuous process and there is no end to it. It involves continuous collection, evaluation and selection of data, and scientific investigation and analysis of the possible alternative courses of action and the selection of the best alternative.

Through planning, organization goals and objectives are determined; the resource available must be strategic to achieve the goals and objectives. An organisation without planning becomes random in nature and decisions become meaningless and ad hoc choices (Koontz and O’ Donnell, 1972).

Strategic human resource planning (SHRP) is a systematic analysis of human resource needs in order to ensure that correct number of employees with necessary skills are available when they are required (Igbinomwanhia, 2010). The human resource department of small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) complete several tasks relevant to its workers including collecting of information, creating objectives, goals and making conclusion in order for the business to achieve its goals. The reason for using strategic human resource planning in SMEs is to find out how many employees do the business have, what kind of workers the enterprise have, how an enterprise should use their available resources and how can the enterprise stay and maintain its workers.

In this way, strategic human resource planning (SHRP) is used to systematically and continuously analyse a firm’s human resource needs under mutating conditions and developing workforce policies suitable to the longer term effectiveness of the organization in a bid to achieve better corporate performance (Fajana, 2002).

Therefore, this research investigates the effect of Strategic Human Resource Planning on Performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Inadequacy of Human Resources Planning has been cited as the reason why most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) today are facing a chaotic situations as they did not at onset plan their workforce neither did they have any systematic human resource (HR) management programme that put the organizations goals first (Anyadike, 2013). Resulting from this is the dwindling in business performance and productivity which is giving entrepreneurs, government and other stakeholders cause to worry and work all around the clock. The cause of this unfortunate development is primarily a lack or absence of strategic human resource planning (SHRP). If not, what else can explain the sharp increase in workers strength as soon as any new chief executive emerges?

Another fundamental problem facing SMEs organistions in Nigeria is the shortage of qualified human resources as a result of poor planning. Human resources being the set of individuals that makes up the workforce in the organization and makes productivity to take place must be well planned for and must be placed in the appropriate positions in other to be effective.

Whether in fact the use of strategic human resource planning (SHRP) affects SMEs performance positively or negatively in practice for the typical firms is an empirical question that remains open. It is on this premise that this study seeks to explore the effect of Strategic Human Resource Planning on Performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria with particular reference to Alaba informal industrial sector in Lagos State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to examine the effect of strategic human resource planning on organisational performance in selected SMEs in Alaba informal industrial sector in Lagos State. While other specific objectives are:

  1. To identify the manpower planning policies and key performance indicators in SMEs in Lagos
  2. To examine the effect of strategic human resources planning on organisational profitability.
  3. To assess the role of manpower planning on employee commitment in the SMEs sector
  4. To identify current challenges of implementing strategic human resources planning amongsmall and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria.
  5. To recommend strategies for enhancing human resources planning for effective performanceof SMEs in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The undertaking of this research project will beam a searchlight on the following research questions;

  1. Does strategic human resources planning have any effect on productivity among SMEs in Lagos?
  2. To what extent do effective human resources planning influences organisational profitability?
  3. What is the relationship between manpower planning and commitment in the SMEs sector?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The under listed hypotheses will be tested in the course of this research.

Hypothesis One:
  • Ho; There is no significant relationship between strategic human resources planning and productivity among SMEs in Lagos.
  • Hi; There is a significant relationship between strategic human resources planning and productivity among SMEs in Lagos.
Hypothesis Two:
  • Ho; Manpower planning is not a significant predictor of employees’ commitment in the SMEs sector.
  • Hi; Manpower planning is not a significant predictor of employees’ commitment in the SMEs sector.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be beneficial to all stakeholders in the Nigerian school system for example the school authorities and the stakeholders in our educational sector at the secondary school level would find this study very useful because it will generate good information on the way forward to planning and management of educational resources in our various schools. Not only the school authorities, the teachers who are one of the most important and prominent stakeholders in Nigerian educational system, would be able to receive proper and better information on the effect of planning and management of educational resources for example, this study will afford them the opportunity of knowing how to effectively use the planned educational resources in their teaching and learning processes in the school.

This study will be very informative, educative and directional, in the sense that, it will help the school managers/administrators and school planners to redirect their system of thinking and planning for effective education of the Nigerian child.The findings and recommendations of this study will afford school authorities and other stakeholders the opportunity of knowing the best way to plan educational resources and enough insights on how best to implement and manage the planned educational resources in the school system effectively.

This work if completed, will serve as reference material to researchers and students. This is because, they would use this material or part of it in their future studies or researches. Also, this study will be relevant to other agencies of our educational system, because it will help them to understand and appreciate the effect of educational planning on productivity of school teachers in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on strategic human resource planning and performance of small and medium enterprises (SMES). The study is however delimited to selected SME’s in Alaba informal industrial sector in Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Besides time and resources constraint the researcher encountered some of the limitations that hampered the study revolves around gathering of primary materials and analyzing data. The banks unwillingness to release all the necessary data for the research work, probably for the fear of competitors however the researcher assured them of anonymity as the information obtained is vital to this study hence considered confidential. More so, the uncooperative attitude of the respondent which led to the non-return of some questionnaires was another setback to the researcher. However in spite of the limitations the researcher painstakingly ensured that these f actors were downplayed.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The major objective of this study is to examine the effect of strategic human resource planning on organizational performance in selected SMEs in Alaba informal industrial sector in Lagos State. While other specific objectives identified the manpower planning policies and key performance indicators in SMEs in Lagos, examined the effect of strategic human resources planning on organizational profitability, assessed the role of manpower planning on employee commitment in the SMEs sector, identify current challenges of implementing strategic human resources planning among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria.

Survey research design was employed for the study and with aid of convenient sampling sixty female (66) staff of SMEs in Alaba informal industrial sector in Lagos State was selected as the participant of the study. The sources of data collection was both primary and secondary with the application of questionnaires as an instrument to gather the necessary data. The questionnaires were properly completed as well returned by only 60 respondent after being administered and this was a basis by which the primary data were collected. Textbooks, journals, articles, law reports, newspapers publications, were collected as secondary data, and also limitations to the study were indicated. The hypothesis was tested using chi-square test statistical tool (SPSS v.2.3)and the result were similar to those of the responses drawn from the questionnaires.


5.2 Conclusion

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) contribute enormously to the economic development of Ghana in terms of job creation, income generation and poverty reduction. Planning is a very important strategic tool used by most organizations to minimise the effect of the changing economical, political and global environment. Human resource planning undoubtedly augments and safeguards the present and future demand and supply of human resources in an organization. Human resource planning ensures an adequate supply of employees at the right time and in the right quantity and quality.

Findings of the study revealed that, there is a significant relationship between strategic human resources planning and productivity among SMEs in Lagos. That manpower planning is a significant predictor of employees’ commitment in the SMEs sector.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

Arising from the objective, it is recommended that the firms’ efforts on firm efficiency be enhanced by material incentives, non material incentives and performance appraisal given to employees. The entrepreneurial centre and business schools in Nigeria should incorporate strategic management principles into their curricular. This will engender sound managerial know-how and boost the performance and competitiveness of firms in Nigeria.


Strategic Human Resource Planning And Performance Of Small And Medium Enterprises (SMES)


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