Status Of Business Education In Secondary Schools In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Owerri North LGA)
This study was concerned with the status of business education in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area. The study was guided by four research questions. A questionnaire was designed and used to collect data from population of 34 respondents comprising of the business education teachers in Enugu North Local Government Area. The data collected was analyzed by the use of percentage and mean statistics, and analyzed data revealed that:
- Business education curriculum contents are not properly covered in the secondary schools.
- Facilities and equipment and not enough for the teaching of business education in secondary schools.
- There are qualified teachers to teach business education in secondary schools.
- The government does not adequately play its roles in implementing the national policy on education as it affects the teaching of business education.
Appropriate recommendations were advanced to include:
- Serious efforts should be made the properly lever the business education curriculum contents in the secondary schools.
- Government should provide some basic facilities and equipment to the schools so that they do not lack the resources with which to impact knowledge to the students.
- Government should from time to time send school supervisors to supervise the teaching learning activities in schools.
- Government should also make special allocation to the schools especially for business education programmes.
1.1 Background of the Study
The present technological advancement in many countries of the world requires that an individual be given a type of education that will prepare him as an all round consumer or producer of human and material resources in any society he may find himself.
Nigeria economy is facing technological changes in business and industry. Hence the increasing demands for competent and efficient personnel in these sectors. The economy today is such that specialization is required in the labour market. It is no longer a period for pen pushers and letter writers but a time for people who possess the necessary skills and knowledge in various occupations, such as business and office occupations.
The present situation in Nigeria can be compared to that of America when the National Business Education Association Chaired by A. C. Farkner (1963) observed that office and distributive occupation constitute one of the fastest growing employment groups in the labour market. The Nigeria economy is expanding in line with the demand for youths prepared for occupations in these areas. Preparing youths for various occupations and providing occupational information for the same group of youth is the duty of business education. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the expansion of the programme of business education in our secondary schools. The expansion does not however, mean much, unless the programme maintains a corresponding high status, which of course is measured by the attitude of the general public i.e the Government, schools, parents, students and teachers towards it as well as the effectiveness of teaching the subject.
Among the objectives of teaching business education in secondary schools as outlined in the business education curriculum for junior secondary school (1983) include:
- That the student may, after completing the junior secondary school will have opportunity for a job in a business organization or/and apprenticeship in industry.
- That the student may go through senior secondary school, technical colleges and on to polytechnics or universities.
- To offer prospective graduates an opportunity to develop those skills, abilities and understanding that will enable them to handle competently their personal business affairs.
- To provide them with occupational intelligence to enable them get job satisfaction in the labour force of the economy.
- To provide business oriented graduates who can be self-reliant in future.
- To produce skillful graduates in business education.
The teaching of business education in secondary schools today is not encouraging as there are insufficient qualified teachers, lack of teaching facilities, textbooks and workshops. Besides, period allocations for the teaching of the subjects as a teaching unit are hardly enough to cover the scheme within the specified period.
Yet schools continue to produce students who pass through the teaching of business education as a subject without the requisite acquisition of skills.
Business education at the secondary school level is regarded as business studies. The Jess business study is a single subject, which comprises five integral areas of commence, bookkeeping/accounting, office practice, shorthand and typewriting. Business studies at the senior secondary school comprise five separate subjects which are economics, commerce, bookkeeping/accounting, shorthand, and typewriting. Students should be equipped with the appropriate skills in each of the units in business education after graduation from the school systems. Only then can one conclude that the objectives of teaching these subjects in secondary school have been achieved.
It is, therefore, necessary to find out the present teaching situation and the status of business education to know whether it is capable of achieving the objectives for which it was established.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In the junior secondary school, business education subjects are treated as interpreted subject, as business studies, which comprises commerce, office practice, bookkeeping and accounting, shorthand, and typewriting. In the senior secondary school, it is treated as single subjects where the students are allowed to choose the subjects they feel they can do. These subjects are economies, commerce, bookkeeping and accounting, shorthand and typewriting. For the effective teaching and learning of business education subject, there should be enough qualified teachers, enough teaching facilities, enough period of teaching allocated to the subject and adoption of practical oriented teaching method, these will lead to the realization in teaching of the subject in school.
Moreover, the availability and utilization of the instructional facilities in most of the schools cannot be guaranteed and the training in the subject areas where they will specialize in future. This is because most universities and colleges of education allow their undergraduates to specialize in a particular option of their choice, thereby producing graduates who are not all round specialists.
In the senior secondary, the students are allowed to choose their subject, but in a course like typewriting and shorthand which go on parri passu a student may be good in one area and not very good in another, but since the two subjects go together it poses a problem in teaching of the course.
In order that business education should meet up with the challenges, all the business subjects including typewriting and shorthand must be properly taught both in theory and practice to produce the type of individuals needed in the society. This is not always the case. The problem of this study, therefore, is on the need to find out the extent to which the teaching and learning of business education in secondary schools are carried out for better understanding of the subject.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to determine whether business education is meeting up with the challenges of business education in the 6-3-3-4 educational system in Owerri North LGA of Imo State. Specifically, the study was aimed at:
- Finding the content coverage of business education by the teacher during the teaching of the subject with respect to business education programme, as stipulated in the national policy on education.
- Identifying the equipment and other facilities available for teaching business subject in secondary schools.
- Ascertaining the number of professionally trained teachers who teach these business subjects in secondary schools.
- Determining the extent of support from government for business education programme in secondary schools in owerri North L.G.A.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The following will benefit from the findings of the study; the students, the teachers, researchers and the government. This study will be of immense benefit to the students to enable them gain a better understanding of the business education. It will also form a base for the teachers in business education in the execution of their duty after gaining a better understanding of the business studies. This research finding will form a base for further researchers who will be conducting research in a similar area. It will also be of immense help to both the government and the problem of unemployment and producing capable hands in the business sector.
1.5 Research Questions
For purpose of a grater sense of direction in the study, a number of questions to guide the research were formulated thus:
- To what extent do teachers carry out the business education curriculum content during the teaching of business education in schools?
- What facilities and equipment are available for the teaching of business subjects in secondary schools?
- What are the qualifications of the teachers in business subjects in the secondary school?
- What are the roles of the government in implementing the national policy on education as it affects the teaching of business education in secondary schools in owerri North L.G.A.?
1.6 Basic Assumption
It was assumed that all the information that was supplied to the researcher by the respondents on the status of business education in secondary schools in Owerri North Local Government Area was correct, and reliable.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
To carry out a study of this nature, the researcher was expected to cover a wider area to enable him collect enough facts for the study. The scope covered the curriculum content coverage of Business Education, equipment and facilities available for teaching Business Education, quality of professionally trained teachers and the extent of support from Government. The study was also delimited to owerri North L.G.A. only.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Before this study was completed, some problems were encountered. There were financial and time constraints.
Difficulties in the distribution and return of the questionnaire used also arose.
The researcher was limited to the accuracy of information that was given by the respondents.
1.9 Definition of Terms
It is the social, legal or professional position of somebody/something in relation to others.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter deals with the restatement of the problem, summary of procedures used, principal findings, conclusions, recommendations, and suggestions for further study.
5.2 Restatement of the Problem
The status of business education in secondary school has been manhandled by a number of factors. For the effective teaching and learning of business education subjects, there should be enough qualified teachers, enough teaching facilities, enough period of teaching allocated to the subjects and adoption of practical oriented teaching method, these will lead to the realization of the objectives of teaching business education in secondary schools.
There is, however, the need for the availability and utilization of the instructional facilities in the schools.
For the business educators to meet up with the challenges, all the business subjects including typewriting and shorthand must be properly taught both in theory and practice to produce the type of individual needed in the society.
To cap it, the problem is here stated as the status of business education in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.
5.3 Summary of Procedures Used
The data of this study was gathered through structure questionnaire administered to 34 respondents that consisted of the business subject teachers in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.
The questionnaire was designed to consist of four sections (A – D). Each of these was used to answer one research question. Each of these questions was expanded to accommodate various opinions at respondents towards the idea being portrayed in such question.
34 copies of the questionnaire were administered by hand and by the researcher directly to the secondary school business subject teachers in Enugu North Local Government Area. Each was filled and collected immediately.
Finally, percentage, mean and cluster mean were used in calculating the results of the responses. Analysis and interpretation of data were made therefrom.
5.4 Principal Findings
The researcher based on the data gathered and analyzed in chapter four made the following principal findings.
From table labour, the cluster mean was calculated to be 2.34, which means that respondents felt that the business education curriculum contents are covered in a little extent.
From table 2 above, the respondents felt that out of twenty equipment needed in the teaching of business subject, only four is available which means that facilities and equipment are not enough for the teaching of business education in Enugu North Local Government Area,
From table 3 above, the respondent felt that there are enough qualified teachers to teach business education in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.
From table 4 above, the cluster mean was calculated to be 2.39, which means that the respondents were of the opinion that the government does not play their roles in implementing the national policy on education as it affects the teaching of business education in Enugu North Local Government Area.
Based on the principal findings, the following conclusions were drawn:
- Business education curriculum contents are not properly covered.
- Facilities and equipment are not enough for the teaching of business education.
- There are qualified teachers to teach business education in secondary schools.
- The government does not play its roles in implementing the national policy on education as it affect the teaching of business education.
Based on the findings from this research the following recommendations were made:
- Serious efforts should be made to property cover the business education curriculum contents in the secondary schools.
- It is also recommended that government should provide some basic facilities and equipment to the schools so that they do not lack the resources with which to impact knowledge to the students.
- Moreover, government should from time to time send school supervisors to watch the teaching-learning activities in schools.
- Government should also make special allocations to the schools especially for business education programmes.
5.7 Suggestions for Further Study
The following suggestions are hereby advanced for further study:
- There is the need for a research into the reasons why in the face of inadequate supply of facilities and equipment for the teaching of business education, the available ones are not utilized effectively.
- A comparative analysis of the status of business education in public secondary schools and private business schools.
- The study could be replicated as it affects the tertiary institution level.
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