Statistical Analysis Of Reported Cases Of Road Traffic Accidents In Imo State

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics


This project is to determine the level and rate of road traffic accidents in Imo state Data from Federal Road Safety Commission was used to find out the prevalence of Road Traffic Accidents over a years period (2005-2011) and to know if there were any dedication to be made.It was discovered that over the selected period of study, the number of road traffic accidents that occurred within each year did not follow any significant trend.

The trend equation is y=a + bt, based on the equation the projection for 4th quarter of 2007 will be 132.6319. Also the season noticed that majority of the road users that involved in road traffic accidents were on motorcycle. It was noticed also that on the whole, more males were victims of road traffic accidents than females.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.2 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.3 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.4 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.5 Causes Of Road Traffic Accidents
  • 1.6 Effects Of Road Traffic Accidents
  • 1.7 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Sources Of Data Used
  • 3.2 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Analysis Data

  • 4.1 Findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Findings
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Conclusions
  • Reference

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

The incidence of road traffic accidents is raising world wide. Road traffic accidents, like all other forms of accidents, are unplanned, however those involved are the roads user viz; pedestrians, cyclists and motorists, therefore, the factors include the man the vehicle and the road, the outcome of road traffic accidents may vary from meld injuries and bruises to loss of life in extreme cases depending on the group of road users involved.

Alcohol and drugs intoxication accounts for large proportion of road traffic accidents world wide. In the developing world, roads are poorly built and maintained as a result the roads have become death traps, vehicles are also poorly maintained due to poverty, ignorance and corruption.

In recent times, the rate of road traffic accidents seems to be on the increase especially in the urban areas, one begins to question why this is so and if possible, come up with suggestions to alleviate this growing problem that constitutes a drain to the economy through loose of manpower.

1.1 Statement Of Problem

May people worry about the increasing rate of road traffic accidents on our roads in Imo state. However, there has not been a clear statement as to the trend in the accidents.

1.2 Objectives Of The Study

  1. To determine the area of imo state with the highest prevalence of road traffic accidents
  2. To determine the age group mostly involved in road traffic accident
  3. To determine the causes and effects of road traffic accidents
  4. To determine the significant linear relationship between periods and rate of accidents occurrence over the selected year of study
  5. To determine the significant linear association between periods and the rate of accidents. Occurrence over the selected year of study.

1.3 Scope Of The Study

To obtain the data needed for my study over the selected. Year of study, that is from (2005-2011).

The General Hospital in Owerri, federal medical center as well as some hospital. That specializes in trauma, especially due to road traffic accidents, this is because as I learnt that most other hospitals to not receive road traffic accidents cases, especially those that involve the police,

Also data required for my study will be obtained from police records, road safety commission files as well as the federal office of statistics (FOS) annual report. For literature review, data from magazines, journals, Newspapers, the internet and past work of others will be used.

The factors of accidents being man, vehicle and road, the main focus of this study will be to find out, the commonest factor that causes accidents, or the pedestrian? This study will also find out ages of these victims, their sexes, so as to draw appropriate statistical method to illustrating relationship or significant findings.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

The major concern of the study is to determine the level and rate of road traffic accidents in imo state. The causes and its effects are considered also. The periods at which these accidents occur most. This study is also. Concerned with the prevalence of these accidents over the selected years of the study in imo state.
It is hoped that the study will help the populace to know the above mentioned factors and also if possible proffer solutions to the under lying problems for instance

  1. It will help the economy to reduce the drain of manpower through road traffic accident
  2. It will also help to reduce the sorrows that it brings to families etc

1.5 Causes Of Road Traffic

There are lots of reasons why road traffic accidents occur that it would be practically impossible to exhaust all of them. For this reason, only the major and must common causes. Will be mentioned.

This will be broadly divided into external factors (i.e. circus -stance that the road user can change).

Internal Factors

this is a common cause or road traffic accident. When the motorist is drunk his judgment is impaired on so he is not able to respond appropriately to situation that mighty occur on the road, for example swerving to avoid a parked vehicle.

Excessive Speeding;

This is another common cause of road transport accident, when driving at top speed, it is difficult to control the vehicle in case of emergency e.g. a burst tier, pedestrian suddenly dashing across the road etc.

To reduce and present excessive speeding and thus reduce the risk of road accident. The road safety commission enacted the 100m /hr speed limit meaning that no motorcyclist and motors should exceed 100km/hr. Despite of this, motorist regularly fell this rule thus increasing their chances of being involved in road accidents.

Failure To Obey Road Signs;

This can be deliberate on because the road users. In question can neither read nor interpret road signs. Whatever, the cause, the road user endangers himself.

Mechanical Fault;

Failure to check vehicles properly before use. This is a common problem in our environment most users enter their vehicles without inspecting it first to ensure that it is good before going on. As such things like lose tier low brake fluid etc. are missed only noticed when they encounter problem on the road, for example failed brakes, tier leaving the car, this increases the chances of being involved in a road traffic accident

External Factors:
Road Condition;

Poor road conditions increase the chances of road users being involved in accidents. For example, motorist would drive on the opposite of the road so as to avoid a pothole on their own side of the road, this constitutes a hazard both to themselves and on coming vehicles.

Weather Condition;

Poor weather conditions constitute a hazard to road users. During a heavy rainfall, visibility is reduced and so the chances of a road user being involved in a road traffic accident are increased also during rainfall, the road tends to be wet and slippery thus motorists are liable to skid off the road.

1.6 Effects Of Road Traffic Accidents

The effects of road traffic accidents cut across the family, the society and nation at large. The family of the accident victim may suddenly have to grapple with the loss of their breadwinner or be forced to take care of the victim who has. Suddenly become crippled for life the family may also have to contend with the huge medical bills to pay as a result of hospital care given their loved ones. If they cannot afford it, they should ask for support thus constituting a financial drain on the government.

Also valuable manpower is cost because of the accident, the company where the vehicle is employed is forced to find a replacement through the period the victim is hospitalized some companies are also required to pay part, if not all of their employees medical bills. This constitutes a financial burden on company,

In summary, the road traffic accidents is far reaching extending beyond the immediate effects of injuries and loss of life of huge economic drain it is because of its wider spread effects that it is important that road traffic accidents are brought to a barest minimum

1.7 Definition Of Terms

This section will define the meaning of accident as defined in many places and also. Some terms. Will be defined

World Health Organization defines accident as an event, which is independent of human will power caused by an extended force, acts rapidly and results in mental damage if death occurs at once or within a weak after the accident it is termed as fatal accident (IC DX, WHO, 1992) according to advanced learners dictionary was designed as an unpleasant event which causes injuries or damages.

Based on the definitions of an event that take place on the road. Among the road users (motorist, pedestrians, cyclists) that result in damage to the vehicles, injuries of life in extreme cases which could be called ‘’fatal’’

Fatal Accident:

Is the accidents that result in death.

Minor Accident;

Those accidents that result only vehicles

Serious Accident;

These are accidents that result in serious injuries such as permanent disorder, amputation fracture, bleeding etc.

Chapter Five

Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations

In this chapter, result obtained from the research will be discussed and reasonable deductions made. At the end, recommendation should be offered towards the solution of established problems.

5.1 Findings

Based on the results of the study in the previous chapters the following points can be noted.

  1. Over the selected period of study (Jan 2005-2011 December 2005). The number of road traffic accidents that occurred within each year did not follow any significant trend. There were 691 accidents in 2011, 630 in 2012 and 596 in 2013. this is contrary to what was expected when this project was embarked upon, I had earlier expected that there would be a yearly increase in the number of road traffic accidents due variety of some reason,
  2. There is no definite pattern as to the number of road traffic accidents that occur with in the year that is to say it occurs within the year, study there are no months that one can conclusively say are peak periods. There were no definite seasonal variations as well this also is contrary to what was expected because it was previously assumed that there would be an increase in number of road accidents towards the end of the year since most people travel to villages for charismas and New year celebrations.
  3. A greater percentage of people involved in road accident within the period of study were discovered to be males greater then females in 2005, 2006 but in the year of 2007 the females greater than the male.
    This was not surprising considering that in our environment, out work force comprises in more of males than females and as such more on the road than females.
  4. In 2011, most of the reported road traffic accidents involved cyclists, follow by motorists and pedestrian, on 2005, and are still the same. This implies that over the past year there has been an upsurge in the number of cyclists compared to others is due to low cost of motorcycles compared with cars and buses.

5.2 Recommendations

Based on the outcome of the study, the following recommendations are given to minimize the number of road traffic accident that occurs with Imo state.

  1. The government should make every effort to repair existing roads and create new ones. A lot of roads within Imo state are in a state of disrepair recently as I learnt like old Nekede road. Due to poor maintenance of our roads, a lot of vehicles are able to breakdown at these areas.
  2. Government should organize regular seminar and workshops for drivers and cyclists so as to educate them on safe driving method and interpretation of road signs. A lot of drivers in imo state become casualties in road accidents because they are ignorant about safe driving.
  3. Walkways and footbridges should be created for pedestrians to walk and cross the road safely this is to prevent them from walking on the road or dashing across the road. In an attempt to cross a busy road, pedestrian have a high chance of being knocked down by a moving vehicle.

5.3 Conclusion

Road traffic accidents are blessing to no one they constitute a nuisance when they occur they bring sorrow into families due to loss of their loved ones constitute burden both to the surviving relations and to the government.

However, most traffic accidents are preventable if simple measures as already outlined are implemented it is hoped that this study will help create awareness into the menace posed by road traffic accidents and that steps will subsequently be taken to reduce its occurrence to the barest minimum.

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