Statistical Analysis Of The Problems Associated With Skill Acquisition In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics


Abstract


The data for the study were collected from randomly selected tailors within Owerri municipal. A total number of 200 tailors were given questionnaire out of which 200 were returned. The X2 square test of independent and percentage were used in the analysis. Based on the analysis, it was found that the challenge faced by a male tailor is independent of their academic qualification.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

There is no issue that should be addressed as a matter of urgent national importance than that of skills acquisition by the youth, considering the failure of our basic education to yield the expected positive result with its attendant consequences such as armed robbering, kidnapping, and host of others. This paper discuses the importance of skill acquisition in national development and suggests ways it can be encourage in the country. According to Encerta Dictionary (2009), a skill is seen as ability to do something well, usually gained through training or experience. Skill acquisition and generation of employment have remained a constant factor in Nigeria Government policy. The National Youth Employment and skills acquisition programme was initiated by the Government to promote self employment and self reliance in the generation of gainful self employment. The following study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the programme. The type of skill that can be acquired by the youth include

  1. Vocational carpentry, hair dressing, fashion designing, tailoring etc
  2. Mechanic, electrical, repair of GSM handset, wrist watches, air conditioners etc
  3. Entrepreneurial (small scale business such as operation of kiosk, buying and selling of spare parts, restraints)

The youthful period which is a very critical one that have been noted as an essential time for training in entrepreneurship , provide a positive distractive from the self and aggressive behaviour that are frequently associated with adolescents and growing up (woolflk 1998). In a study of American adolescents in 1998 it was reported that a good number of the youth had little information about life and life expectation. If this is true, youths in a developed nation what can be said about Nigerian youth? This critical age however is the right time to teach them the concept of entrepreneurship to help them learn wealth creation.

The lack of acquisition of vocational skills on the part of individuals has been considered the bane of the economy of African societies, particularly Nigeria. This is so because in Nigeria for instance the education operated at post independence placed emphasis on academic excellence rather than acquisition of vocational skills which prepare the individual for a more useful and fulfilling life within the society. In other word, the system focused on and emphases subject in the humanity of art at the expenses of vocational which can facilitate practical skill acquisition that is generally believed to be more relevant to the development of the nation.

The system for so many years was carried on entirely like that without any conscious or deliberate effort to the cultural, social and ethical values of our society. It is now a well know fact that the system failed to achieve the desired objective that were expected from the education is considered the most effective means of bringing about total change that would ensure accelerated economic growth and national development for the country. There was a need to tailor the educational system to suit the local existential situation of Nigerians. This need culminated in the new national policy on education promulgated in 1977 and revised recently in 1998.

A fundamental change brought about by the new national policy on education was the recognition and introduction of vocational courses in the educational curriculum. The policy therefore marked a deliberate shift in emphasis from literary to science oriented education and training. The policy was considered land able because it was capable of promoting the appropriate skills at various levels of our educational system and thus promoting individual and national efficiency. It was also hope that the system would help check the high rate of unemployment and bringing about economic and social revolution in the country by producing self relent citizens if carefully pursued and implemented to the letter.

Nigerian experience fell short of what was expected, the problem then was over production of persons with litter or no relevant vocational ability. The education and training of people in the country remained lopsided. The adverse consequences was that the unemployment rate assumed as alarming proportion, in it frantic effort to seek away out of the problem, the Federal Government constituted a committee known as the Chukwuma committee on the 26th of march 1986 to consider appropriate strategies for dealing with the mass unemployment problem in the country under the aegis of the ministry of Employment labour and productivity. Under the policy, workers with no or little specialised training are apprentice for a period of one to three years after entering the enterprise. It is on record that the programme have assisted tremendously in the country procurement of solution to unemployment problem, shortage of skilled manpower and antisocial activities


1.2 Statement Of Problems

More than half of the Nigerian population are under the age 30 according to 2006 census. Expectedly, today’s youth will become in a short decade tomorrows parents, youth are said to be confronted with poverty, unemployment, urbanization, lack of capacity skills needed to move the economy forward. Poverty which is a force for HIV/AIDS is very common this is because the youth faced unemployment and lack of necessary productivity skill to keep body and soul together. This reality leaves them without any meaningful means of sustainable livelihood.


1.3 Aims And Objective Of The Study

  1. To evaluate the problems associated with skills acquisition in Nigeria.
  2. To identify what stratagem that can be adopted to improve skill acquisition in male tailoring.
  3. To suggest ways of encouraging skills acquisition in the country.

1.4 Significance Of Study

  1. This project will serve as a reference point to researchers who intend to carry out a research on this topic or any other related topics.
  2. This research work will serve as a cell for youth to rice and depend on their skills and knowledge for self reliant and employment.
  3. This research work will encourage the youth to know their God given potentials in them to be independent.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. Ho: major challenge faced by male tailors is independent of their academic qualification
    H1: the major challenge faced by male tailors is not independent of their academic qualification
  2. Ho: lack of apprentice among male tailors is independent of academic qualification
    H1: lack of apprentice among male tailors is not independent of academic qualification
  3. Ho: numbers of apprentice is independent of academic qualification of male tailors
    H1: numbers of apprentice is not independent of academic qualification of male tailors
  4. Ho: major challenge faced by skill (male tailors)is independent of academic qualification
    H1: major challenge faced by skill (male tailors) is not independent of academic qualification

1.6 Research Question

  1. As a tailor, what major challenge does your skill face?
  2. What might be the cause of tailors not getting the needed number of apprentice?

1.7 Scope And Limitation Of Study

The scope of the study covers statistical analysis of problem associated with skill acquisition in Nigeria, but in the cause of the study, there are some factors that limited the scope of the study;

(a) Availability of research material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

(b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

(c) Finance:

The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.


1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms

Skill

A skill is the ability to carry out a task with determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills

Skill acquisition

Skill acquisition is the ability to be trained on a particular task or function and become expert in it. It is a pity that there is “huge” parading of unemployment in many parts of the world today especially in Nigeria

Vocational skill

Vocational skills are skills you gain toward becoming knowledgeable in a specific trade or profession


1.9 Organization of the study

This research work is organized in five chapters for easy understanding as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study it’s based thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at examining the problem associated with skill acquisition in Nigeria.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of skill acquisition in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

The history of research in skill acquisition is long and full of a vast amount of tinkering with variables to gauge their effects on learning and performance. In spite of the huge amount of information that has been collected on these issues, two generalizations are possible: (1) practice leads to performance improvements that are dramatic early in practice and diminish with further practice; and (2) transfer between tasks is a function of the degree of similarity between the two tasks. Both of these generalizations are, of course, subject to qualifications, and yet, they both form the basic assumptions of most theories of skill acquisition. As indicated in this chapter, however, the theories account for these basic ‘facts’ of skill acquisition to varying degrees. Although all of the theories presented provide an account of the power law, with respect to the issue of transfer there is greater unevenness.


5.3 Conclusion

In conclusion, as can be seen from the result of this study, the Skills Acquisition Training Programme of SPDC and NDDC have been thus far effective but not bereft of problems. The primary aim of every Skills Acquisition Programme is to equip the target recipients with relevant skills that make them economically important and help them earn a living. Both SPDC and NDDC programmes respectively have achieved this; however, problems such as embezzlement or mismanagement of fund, Nigerian factors or politics, lack of evaluation and monitoring, inconsistent payment of stipend, unavailability of job provision, lack of equipment, and poor training facilities and infrastructure still stifle the impact of the programmes and their effectiveness. The study therefore recommends that the Government and the private sector should ensure Skills Acquisition Training Programme is effective. This could be done by effective supervision, monitoring and provision of Information Communication Technology (ICT), and modern equipment for easy learning.


5.4 Recommendations

There is need to ensure that adequate funding is made available to ensure prompt payment of stipends and starter packs. Apart from this, experts and professionals should be engaged to train these youths. Government in addition should ensure that these Skill Acquisition programmes graduate youths secure job or be given micro credit facilities which could be paid back.


Statistical Analysis Of The Problems Associated With Skill Acquisition In Nigeria


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