Statistical Analysis On Prices And Quantities Of Staple Foods From 2007 To 2008 (A Case Study Of National Bureau Of Statistics Owerri)

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Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics


Dedication


This project is dedicated to my beloved parents Chief and Lolo Joseph Nwagwu and my dearest brothers and sisters for their immense support towards this research work.

I dedicate this research work to the mighty man in battle for his mercy, guidance, wisdom and protection during this period.

Also to Chief Barr. E.O. Egenamba and surveyor Juliet Egenamba his wife and children for their support.

My beloved and lovely sister and her family, Mr. and Mrs. E.O. Lumenzeh and Nemeh baby are not left out for their support through out my stay in this school.


Acknowledgement


My profound gratitude goes to the Almighty God for his endless love on me.

I also acknowledge my supervisor Mr. Uchendu B.A. for his advice and correction to the success of this work.
I also thank the staff of National Bureau of Statistics Owerri for their co-operation in releasing the data for this research work.

My sincere gratitude goes to my beloved lecturers in statistics department, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, for the knowledge they impacted in me.

My special thanks to my beloved friends.


Abstract


In a city, state or country, prices of staple foods are never the same from one period to another. The prices of these staple foods either inflate or deflate depending on the period of purchase. This study is aimed to determine the instabilities in the prices and quantities of staple foods for the years 2007 and 2008 respectively.

The data for this study is secondary data source. Index number as a statistical tool was used to measure the variations in the prices and quantities of these foods. Also, analysis of variance (Anova) test was carried out, which led to the conclusion that there is significant difference in the prices of staple foods in Owerri and in Nigeria as a whole.


Table Of Content


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 introduction/background of the study
  • 1.1 Statement of problem
  • 1.2 Aim and objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Significance of the study
  • 1.4 Research question
  • 1.5 Statement of hypothesis
  • 1.6 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

  • Literature review
  • 2.0 introduction
  • 2.1 Food
  • 2.2 Staple food
  • 2.3 Price
  • 2.4 Index number

Chapter Three

  • Research methodology
  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Source of data collection
  • 3.2 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

  • Data presentation and analysis
  • 4.0 introduction
  • 4.1 Presentation of data
  • 4.2 Analysis of data using index methods
  • 4.3 Testing of result using Anova techniques
  • 4.4 Graphical representation of results

Chapter Five

  • Findings, summary, conclusion and recommendation
  • 5.1 Findings
  • 5.2 summary
  • 5.3 conclusion
  • 5.4 recommendation
  • 5.5 references.

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction / Background Of The Study

A staple food is a food that can be stored for use throughout the year and forms the basis of a traditional diet. Staple foods vary from place to place, but are typically inexpensive starchy foods of vegetable origin that are high in food energy (calories) and carbohydrate. The staple food of a specific cuisine may commonly be served as part of every meal, and its name may be used synonymously with “food” in some contexts such as the reference to “our daily bread” in the Lord ’s Prayer.

Although nutritious, staple foods generally do not by themselves provide a full range of nutrients, so other foods need to be added to the diet to prevent malnutrition.

A staple food is one that is eaten regularly and in such quantities as to constitute the dominant part of a diet and supply a major proportion of energy and nutrient needs. Staple food does not meet a population’s total nutritional needs; a variety of food is required. This is particularly the case for children and other nutritional vulnerable groups.

Typically, staple foods are well adapted to the growth conditions in their source areas. Farmers often rely on staple crops to reduce risk and increase the resilience of their agricultural systems. Most people live on a diet based on one or more of the following staples; rice, wheat, maize (corn), millet, sorghum, roots, tubers, (potatoes, cassava, yams) and animal products such as meat, milk, eggs, cheese and fish.
It has been investigated that some staple foods may act as a giften food in conditions of extreme poverty.


1.1 Statement Of The Problem

In our country Nigeria, the market environment of prices and quantities of staple foods has been unstable due to bad economy, and the ability to adapt to this environmental change is of great importance to most consumers. A means or measure for adaptation is by studying the index in the prices and quantities of staple food items.

However, to have better economy, there is need to study the instability of staple foods which determines the consumption pattern of any consumer in any country.


1.2 Aim And Objectives Of The Study

The aim of this research work is to determine the statistical analysis on the prices and quantities of staple food for the period of two years, 2007 and 2008 of which National Bureau of statistics is used as the case study.

The Objectives Are:

  1. To determine the variation in prices and quantities of staple foods in Owerri, Imo State.
  2. To determine the yearly increase in the prices and quantities of staple foods.
  3. By making some necessary recommendations that will help the country in the nearest future based on the findings of this research work.

1.3 Significance Of The Study

At the end of this project, the Nigerian economy will be better, because it will be useful in controlling the prices and quantities of staple foods. Its significance is as follows:

  1. It will serve as a market picture to the marketers on their daily business.
  2. It will serve as a guide to the government in making certain policies on the prices and quantities of staple foods most especially in Imo State.
  3. It will help the producers of staple foods to project for the future.
  4. It will help the government and some agencies to know the need of keeping day to day record of the prices and quantities of staple foods in any particular place.

1.4 Research Question

A research question serve as a guide to the researcher in his quest for answers to the problems being investigated. Therefore, some of these research questions are as follows:

  1. Are there any changes in the prices and quantities of staple foods?
  2. Is there any effect in the yearly increase in the prices and quantities of staple foods?

1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis

Since we want to know whether there exists difference or changes in the prices and quantities of staple foods in the years 2007 and 2008, our null and alternate hypothesis will be:

  • Ho: There is no significant difference in the prices of staple foods.
  • HI: There is significant difference in the prices of staple foods.

1.6 Definition Of Term

Statistics:

It is a scientific method concerned with the collection, collation, computation, comparison, analysis and interpretation of numbers. These numbers are often referred to as data.

Staple Food:

It is a food that is eaten regularly and in such quantities as to constitute the dominant part of a diet and supplies major proportion of energy and nutrient need.

Price:

This is the sum of money by which a commodity is sold or bought.

Quantity:

This is the number of items or commodity that is sold or bought.

Producer:

This is the person that manufactures the staple foods.

Consumer:

This is the person that utilizes the staple food produced.

Inflation:

This is the general increase in the prices of commodities and fall in the purchasing power of money.

Deflation:

This is the general decrease in the prices of commodities and a rise in the purchasing power of money. It is the opposite of inflation.

Variation:

This is the degree of change.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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