Statistical Analysis Of The Effect Of Training And Development Of Man Power In An Organization For efficient Performance Using (P. H. C. N)

Project and Seminar Material for Mathematics and Statistics

Statistical Analysis Of The Effect Of Training And Development Of Man Power In An Organization For efficient Performance Using (P. H. C. N)


Most service organization in Nigeria, in recent years are facing the challenges of labour turn over due to lack of job training of their employees. More so, most service organization keep downsizing their employees and recruiting new ones as a result of changes in their services and work processes driven by technological trends and competitive environment. Primary data were used for the study, which were generated through the use of questionnaires. The study is a descriptive research method and adopted the system theory. To guide the study, three research questions and hypotheses were posed. The study took a sample of 154 respondents from a population of 250 from the total population of staff in the Power Holding Company of Nigeria(PHCN) Zaria used as case study. Simple random technique was used to select the respondents. The statistical instruments used in testing the validity of the hypotheses were analyzed using chi-square. Result of model summary shows that the independent variables account for 39.1% of the variation in organizational performance. The study therefore concluded that for training and development to have significant impact on organizational performance, employees need to be motivated during training programs. It was recommended that organization should introduce reward system for outstanding performance so as to motivate employees to always put in their best during each training session.

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

The importance of human resources in an organization depends more on those resources, for attainments of its objective. However, these objectives cannot be achieved unless the organization is made up of employees who have skill, knowledge and abilities to work. Employees may have these qualities but skill find it very difficult to cope with their jobs to some factors such as organizational changes and so on.

Therefore, the management of organizations involves training and development of manpower, as one of its various activities. When workers are employed, they are just left to stay and work until they are due for retirement but are being trained and developed in order to increase their abilities, skills and knowledge.

Experiences have shown that many employees have failed in their organizations, because the provision of training as an indispensable part of management function was not rendered to them. Employees are not just trained for their own benefits only, the organization stand to gain a lot from them.

The training and development of manpower programme is a very important activity every management cannot afford to miss, because it is not every thing that can be learned in a working situation. In fact, for attainment of organizational goals, training and development programmes should be organized. A substantial amount of money is needed for such programme, but it is regarded as money will invested because of its benefits among which are:

  1. It helps to lower cost waste
  2. It helps to maintain equipment
  3. It helps to increase employees obsolescence
  4. It helps to improve the quality of output
  5. It helps to prevent low turnover and absenteeism.
  6. It helps to reduce the number of cost of accident

In deed, it is not enough to stress for effective and efficient service delivery at power holding company of Nigeria with effective training and development activities. These are the reasons, why the researcher is out, in this study to learn from the above mentioned organization. They should answer on behalf of other organization.

As the saying goes, “it is when a man conceives new policies that he can execute them”. The training of power holding company of Nigeria staff is very important however good staffs that are employed are, unless properly trained, they cannot be constant sources of efficiency.

Moreover, the future of power holding company of Nigeria and its policies may depend on them since “an untrained man in a modern world which may be menace to society”. If there is any trouble anywhere or breakdown in a machine or a mistake in a ledger, how can a quack untrained man handle it, all he can do is to fumble and patch up the trouble any how, which may lead to a more serious breakdown or a greater confusion. Really, there is no place for the untrained worker or even the intelligent amateur in these days of specialized works.

In fact, training and development of workers play a large role in determining the effectiveness efficiency of the performance of (P.H.C.N).

Electric power originated towards the closing years of the list century, when the first generated plant was installed in the city of Lagos in 1898 to 1950, in order to integrate power development into a national effect, the government passed the electricity corporation of Nigeria ordinance brought under one control all the electricity undertakings previously administered by the Nigerian government electricity undertaking section of the public works department and all those undertaking which were under national authority and control.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In every organization, all over the world, the management set up of the organization’s goals and ways of achieving them. The power holding company of Nigeria is not an exception since it performs many activities in order to attain its goals effectively and efficient work are considered very important and necessary.

However, to keep and maintain their workers they should be trained and developed on regular basis. Therefore, this research is centred on the need for training and development of manpower for efficient performance on the light of the objectives of power holding company of Nigeria.

In order words, every organization needs to train and develop its employees for it to achieve its goals. There is therefore, the need to find answers to these questions, why is it that some organization, despite the high cost involved in training and development activities still find it necessary to training their employees? What are the effects of these training and development to programmes on workers more or less correlated with their efficient performance in their organization?

Answers to these questions therefore form the motives behind this study.

1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study

  1. What type of training programmes is available to employees in selected service organization in Zaria?
  2. How often is development programmes mounted for employees in selected service organization in Zaria?
  3. What are the impacts of training and development programmes on the productivity of the employees in service organization?

1.4 Aims And Objectives Of The Study

The aims and objectives of the study are as follows;

  1. To determine the training and development needs of employees in organization with particular reference to power holding company of Nigeria
  2. To ascertain the category of employees who have benefited and how often they benefit from training and development of manpower programme.
  3. To find out the effect of training and development exercise on the employees of power holding company of Nigeria in particular.
  4. To see the methods they employ and which methods is the most suitable in power holding company of Nigeria (P.H.C.N)
  5. To identify the problems encountered by the management in carrying out these methods
  6. To assess the performance of employees who have trained and developed.

1.5 Statement of Hypotheses

The under listed null hypotheses were tested in this study at 0.05 level of significance.

H01: There is no significance difference between the mean ratings of senior and junior employers regarding the type of training schemes available to employees in service organization in Zaria.

H02: There is no significance difference between the mean ratings of experience and inexperience employers in respect of how often the development programmes are mounted for employees in selected service organization in Zaria.

H03: There is no significance difference between the mean ratings of senior and junior employers as to the impact of training and development programmes on the performance of employees in the service organization.

1.6 Significance of the Study

In Nigeria today, the desire of rapid economic development and technological advancement make this study a subject of significance. To this end, various debates, researches, Conferences and Seminars have been conducted by workers.

This study will be of invaluable assistance to Management Development Institutes, employers of labour, the government, policy makers, politician, administrators, human resources personnel, researchers, students and future administrative leaders.

It is expected that the study will inform the heads of organizations that to increase workers performance, there is the need to have and retain well trained and motivated employees.

It is also to help develop and maintain a quality work life, which will provide an opportunity for employee’s ‟ job satisfaction and self- actualization”.

Nonetheless, it will help managers of various organizations to generate ideas and solution to problems based on the best way to run training in their organization in order to achieve desired goals and objectives. Finally, the study will aid management to introduce modern schemes for training and development; to be able to meet the challenges of change in the future.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study centers on the staff of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN)

Zaria who have at one time or the other been a part of the training conducted by the PHCN training school. This study is limited to PHCN Zaria because; it cannot cover all the national districts across Nigeria. The scope of this study covers the period of 2007 – 2011

It is a national district with a considerable staff strength that could facilitate adequate reliability and validity of the study. Moreover, accessibility and/or availability of data to the researcher coupled with time and financial constraints can limit the scope.

1.8 Definition of Concepts

Effects were made at defining the following terminologies used in this study to avoid ambiguity and elicit proper understanding.

Human resource Management:

This is the way organizations manage their staff and help them to develop (McCourt & Eldridge 2003, 2) in order to be able to execute organizations’ missions and goals successfully.

Human resource Development:

This is the integration of individual, career and organization development roles in order to achieve maximum productivity, quality, opportunity and fulfillment of organizations members as they work to accomplish the goals of the organization (Pace, Smith & Mills 1991, 6).


This is a type of activity which is planned, systematic and it results in enhanced level of skill, knowledge and competency that are necessary to perform work effectively (Gordon 1992).


This is a broad ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) aimed at bringing someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or a new role in the future (McNamara 2008).


Total supply of personnel available or engaged for a specific job or task (Business Dictionary)


This is an act of formulating a program for a definite course of action (Financial Dictionary)

Employee performance:

This is defined as the outcome or contribution of employees to make them attain goals (Herbert, John & Lee 2000) while performance may be used to define what an organization has accomplished with respect to the process, results, relevance and success Uganda National Development Program (1995). Afshan et al. (2012) define performance as the achievement of specific tasks measured against predetermined or identified standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. Employee performance can be manifested in improvement in production, easiness in using the new technology, highly motivated workers.

Chapter Six

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

6.1 Summary

The aim of this study is to determine whether motivation is effective in achieving higher productivity among workers in Power Holdings Company of Nigeria, other relevant areas which the study highlighted are: the reaction of the workers towards their duties when motivation is employed by the employer and how the managers can apply motivational theories of management in their attempt to direct the job behaviour of employees towards the goals of their establishment.

The general description of the area of study, which depicted the inevitability of motivation in achieving higher productivity in an organization, was stated. In the course of the study, statement of problem such as; workers leaving the organization due to poor motivation, their unwillingness to perform their duties well and how to motivate them to achieving desired productivity level were pointed out. To ascertain the application of the motivational techniques by the organization concerned and to know the problem inhibiting the success of the employees’ motivation in the organization forms essential part of the objectives of the study. Questions relating to the objectives and problems were also looked at.

The study looked into some review literatures that covered different models and theories on motivation by different scholars, various definitions given by several management scholars, different means of motivating workers or simply type of motivation and the importance of motivation. Various textbooks, journals, articles and other scholarly materials were used to get terms, ideas, concepts and academic as well as professional viewpoints.

The management team of Power Holdings Company of Nigeria, together with important officers of the organization were selected as the study population with the use of simple random sampling. Both primary and secondary data were also used for this research work. The primary data was based on questionnaire while the secondary data was based on published and unpublished works. The data collected were processed and analyzed through the use of t-test statistics.

6.2 Conclusion

Human resources (personnel) in any organization remain the most invaluable asset for growth and development, hence training and retraining is essential components of manpower development. Training and personnel development is a mixture of activities aimed at improving the performance of personnel in organizations for the attainment of continuous improvement in productivity. Training and human development assists employees to learn how to use the resources in an approve way that allows organization to meet its desired output. Staff are required to perform varied competences in their profession that will make then saleable in the labor market. It is the possession of these skills needed by the labour market that will enable them contribute maximally to service organizations and national development of the Nigerian nation. However, for the organization and government to make training and personnel development to become effective in the service cycle, they have to tackle the challenges of introducing new orientations on training contents, training evaluation, attitudes to training and training utilization.

6.3 Recommendations

The essence of training and development in service organization cannot be over emphasized. It has been observed that training is very important in every aspect of an organization. It enhances the efficiency of staff, increases output and motivates employees for better performance.

It has been discovered that training and human development are not isolated from human resources. Even in the advanced countries and in most computerized organization, training and development cannot be overlooked because; human are the ones to operate this equipment.

From the findings, the following recommendations were made:

Organization is seen to be effective and efficient if there is demonstrable increase in productivity, therefore, any training and personnel development must be based on proper analysis of its contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization. Staff should be expose to regular professional training areas such as foundation, career or development, preservice and off-the-job-pupilage training as to enhance their productivity in the organization. It is also necessary for the staff to be exposed to seminars, conferences and workshops to enable them keep abreast with the challenges posed by modern business offices.

The development programmes of managers should be done on yearly or regular basis; hence training involves systematic, professional and development of skills, knowledge and attitude necessary for performing specific schedule of duties. There should be free flow of information to enable all the staff aware of the training and development programme available both internally and externally.

There should be effective utilization of integration of resources, physical and human will to yield high output or performance. Also, on-the-job and in-house methods of training should be used extensively by organizations and government, especially in the training of junior staff as they tend to be cheaper and more effective.

PHCN should also introduce reward system for outstanding performance so as to motivate employees to always put in their best during each training period. This will assist them in identifying those staff that has special skills and talents. PHCN should expose all their staff to training at least once in every year. This will make the employees to meet up with the changes in their services and work processes as may be driven by the competitive environment.
Instead of downsizing those employees with years of experience and recruiting new ones, service organization should rather invest in (committed to) training and development of their experienced staff. This will help them to reduce the cost of frequent recruitment and selection.

Statistical Analysis Of The Effect Of Training And Development Of Man Power In An Organization For efficient Performance Using (P. H. C. N)

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