Staff Training And Development; A Tool For Increase In Performance In Organization In Abia State (A Case Of Federal Ministry Of Education Abia State)

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Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


This work on staff training and development: A tool for increase in performance in organization in Abia State has been undertaken to kill the gap occasioned by lack of training and development which lead to poor performance in organization.

This is because life is dynamic and new inventions and ways of doing things in organization are continually evolving and since people work and rise in hierarchy to take more responsibilities, there is need to equip them with necessary skills that will help both present jobs and future responsibilities which can only achieved through training and development programmes.

This work applied survey approach in the study of four out of seven department in the Federal ministry of Education Abia.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Contents

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

  • 1.2 Background of the study
  • 1.3 Statement of problems
  • 1.4 Objectives of the study
  • 1.5 Research questions
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitations of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Training as a tool for changing behavior
  • 2.3 Training as a means of acquiring skills and knowledge
  • 2.4 Training as a tool for development of employee potential
  • 2.5 Different between training, development and education
  • 2.6 Typologies of training and development.
  • 2.7 Training process
  • 2.8 The role of the trainer
  • 2.9 Importance of training and development in organization
  • 2.10 Training and development in ministry (Nigeria Experience)
  • 2.11 Duties and responsibilities of Federal Ministry of Education Abia State.
  • 2.12 Assessment of training and development effort in Nigeria

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Sources/Methods of data collection
  • 3.4 Population and sample size
  • 3.5 Sample technique
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.7 Method of date analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Analysis of data
  • 4.4 Interpretation of results

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

In any administrative organization, a large or small, public or private, competent personnel are required for the actualization of the organization’s goal and objectives.

After workers have been hired to work for an organization, one striking thing about them is that they have different backgrounds, though they may have the same qualification.

Also by having not worked for that organization before, they may not have indebt knowledge for the techniques, procedures, and culture of the organization.

In the same vein, Okezie, Obi and Abonyi (2005) stated that; Life is dynamic and new inventions and ways of doing things are continually evolving change is now regarded as anything permanent in life. In the work place, the workers need to be aware of these changes and also innovate accordingly.

As people work and rise in the hierarchy, they take on more responsibilities which may not even bear much resemblance to the ones they were exposed to at the early stage, hence they are supposed to be prepared early enough so that future challenges would not overwhelm them. They above in a nutshells, under show the need to equip the workers with necessary skill that will help in both present jobs and future responsibility and which can be achieved through training and development.

It is common for people to see training and development as the same thing. However, it is important to point out that though, they are similar but are not the same things.

In the work of Campbell 91971), training “is a planner learning experience designed to bring about permanent change in an individual knowledge, attitude or skill”

Cole in Obikeke, Obi and Abonyi (2005) opined that training – any learning activity which is directed towards the acquisition of a specific knowledge and skill for the purpose of an occupation or task.
In addition, Ogunna (1996) opine that training “is a process by which the attitude, skills, technical knowledge and abilities of the employee to perform specific job are increased”.

Development on the other hand, according Onuoha in Obikeze Obi and Abonyi (2005) states that staff development involves “preparing employees for high responsibilities in the future”
It is also a programme with the intent to improve employees conceptual and human skill in preparation for future jobs.

In addition to that Cole in Obikeze, Obi and Abonyi (2005) opine that staff development is refers to any future needs rather than the present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.

Writing on the staff development and training in organization, Ubeku (1975) state that “employees who have received adequate training before being assigned responsibilities lack the necessary confidence with which to carryout their job”. That the employees should be helped to growth into more responsibilities by systematic training and development so that he will be confident enough to carryout the responsibilities of their jobs.

However, Campbell (1971) states that the distinction between training and development is that development aimed at the managerial personnel and that training course are designed for short term and stated set purpose, such as operation of some pieces of machinery and others.

From the above, it is now clear that there is a major different between training and development. Though both of them are geared toward increasing or improving the skills of workers.
Training is concerned with teaching the workers specific skills that will assist them in their immediate task while development is concerned with teaching the workers more general skills that will assist them in career growth, thereby enquiring for the future.

Commenting on the inevitability of training and development, Onyemesim (2008) indicate that effective training programme can result in increased productivity, reduce labour turnover, and greater employee satisfaction.

Countless writers on the subject on the other hand come out with the conclusion that the need for training and development cannot be overemphasized, yet public organization place it at the bottom of their priorities.

Still on that Ogunna (1996), opine that “training of personnel has not been given adequate alteration in Nigeria while Federal Ministry are specialized bodies of government and norms peculiar to it.
Britain gives specific alternation to regular specialized training for public organization staff. So, this was inherited by Nigeria during colonial era.

The Federal Government in its programme of training designed three universities, namely Obafemi Awolowo University for the western zone, University of Nsuka for the Eastern zone and Ahmadu Belo University Zaria for the Northern zone as national training centers for organizational personnel. In addition to formal academic training. The centre organized regular seminar and workshops for the public and private organizational personnel. However, various categories in addition to these national centers were also ill equipped, poorly financed and inefficiently managed staff towards the development of workers.
Secondly, the training of staff in the organization and handled by non experts and in some cases by people who never studied Public Administration as a subject.

Thirdly, sometimes the training programme contract is awarded to in-law, friends and relation in a manner that will heavily enrich the officer that controls the training vote.

Moreover, training programme contract is often fives as a form of public political patronage or friendship favour. Sometimes that training contract is given to non-existence consultancy firm. There is an absence of well articulated and properly designed training programme for the Federal Ministry of education personnel. In some case they are poorly planned ill-organized and ineffectively executed. In short, the Federal ministry of Education training in Nigeria is haphazardly gross inadequate and in inadequate and inefficient, which has led to low productivity in almost all the Federal ministry of the federation.

Federal ministry of education Abia State was established in the year 1993 under the military head of state, major General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida. This ministry was established for inspectorate service of both government and private schools. This ministry was sited at No 3 Ojike Street Umuahia in Umuahia North Local government of Abia State. The ministry is made up of coordinator of inspection (CJ) as the head of the ministry and other departments of Administrative department, Account, Store, Registry, Typing pool and technical department that made up the driver and security section.

  1. Like other Federal ministries in the Federation, Federal ministry of Education Abia State has the primary goal of carrying out inspection on the positions of schools and with regard to the provision of:
    • Good management of the school
    • Quality of teachers
    • Conducive environment
    • Data of the number of schools and staff
    • Staff and overall standard.
  2. Conducting workshop which as a problem living oriented discussion meeting. These handle very technical issues and strive to find solutions or generate information and ideas about them.
  3. Recruitment of workers on grade level 1 to 6 through the “Junior staff Committee (local)” in the primary and secondary schools.

But it has failed abysmally in this quest for development because there a high rate of economic underdevelopment show cased inform of lack of well trained personnel, Godfatherism, bribery and corruption. The most crucial problem facing Federal Ministry of Education in Abia State is not from financing but inadequate quality manpower resources. Staff are not well qualified and lack the requisite experience. Training and development programme are hindered by those factors mentioned above.

In conclusion, personnel are the life of any organization. Its effective management is therefore very central and crucial in the achievement of organization objectives. The effectiveness of Federal ministry of education Abia State depends to a large extent on the efficiencies of its staff. What emerges as a conclusion is that staff is not given specialized training and development that will give effects to professionalism of the Federal ministries services.

1.2 Statement Of Problems

It is generally accepted that the livewire of any organization is the human resources. The quality of staff in the Federal ministry of Education will determine the quality of development service provide to the general public. Federal Ministry of education is full with these problems that make training and development an inevitable tool for increase in performance.

  1. Workers come from different backgrounds and lack indebt knowledge of techniques, procedure and culture of the organization
  2. Life is dynamic because there are always change of government, economic system and policies.
  3. New inventions and ways of doing things continually evolves for example manual typewriter to computer.
  4. Workers rise in the hierarchy which makes them take more responsibilities.
    From the above, it is necessary that a scholarly research will be done on this aspect of social science as to unveil as much as these problems.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

In view of the identified problems of this study, the objective of this research will include amount other things the following:

  1. To ascertain the relationship between staff determining and development and performance.
  2. To examine the extent to which training and development can contribute to increase in performance.
  3. TO identify problems associated with employee training and development programmers in administrative organization.
  4. To make useful recommendation based on finding of the study.

1.4 Research Questions

Training and development need refers to any deficiency of skills and knowledge on the part of the employee which can be rendered through training. When the performance of worker is not ideally poor and cannot be improved through motivation and simplifying the work procedures, then a training need has arisen. Also when an organization adopts a new system of operations or buy new machines, that are quite different from the one currently arisen. Theretofore, it is pertinent to ask the free questions.

  1. What is the relationship between training and development towards the staff in their performance in the organization.
  2. Will the different background of workers in the organization lead to poor performance.
  3. What is the impact of training and development in the organization .
  4. Do training and development in the organization lead to increase in workers performance.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

  1. In addition to serving as a partial fulfillment of the requirement(s) for an award of National Diploma. (ND), this study will benefit administrative organization, government, researchers and academics.
  2. On the part of administrative and the government, the importance of this study will expose to the importance of employee training and development and its relationship to organizational productivity and therefore provide guiding steps towards policy formulation, strategic planning and attain other major decision making in this regard.
  3. Researchers and academics will stand to benefit by way of having additional materials for academic work such as lecturing seminar and conference materials available in this complication is use for class work and assignment.
  4. Federal ministry of Education Abia State will be the highest beneficiary of this work, adequate facts and limitation regarding training and development will be identified and this will form a guiding yardstick or criteria for limitation so as to establish proper solution to its low productivity.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

Scope of the study deals with the areas a research covered. This study was scoped on staff training and development as a tool for increase in performance in organization in Abia State, with emphasis on the Federal ministry of Education Umuahia Abia State.

The ministry was made up of seven (7) department, which for the sake of convenience, the researcher intend to study only four (4) departments of Registry, Administration, Accounts and Store.

However, no move was made to go into other Federal ministry of Education of other states of the federation.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

The factors that militate against this work include:


This was in fact the most limitating factor; inspite of this, the researcher has to travel in search for materials that carry vital information for the work, coupled with high cost of minutes for browsing.


In this kind of research a lot of time is required by the researcher to conduct exclusively survey of the topic, but enough time was not given to get necessary information needed for the work.

Inadequate Information:

This involves the gathering of relevant materials of data to aid the researcher to achieve a successful research. This is very problematic in the sense that some the officers are afraid of the letting out of information for security reasons.


The research was confronted with the problem of secret code to obtain some vital information from the net and scanty of information when the code numbers could not be provided by the researcher.

Academic Overhead:

This is deals with different academic task faced by the researcher at the time of this work.

1.8 Definition Of Terms


Is the process of harmonizing and coordinating the activities of two or more people to accomplish certain ends.


The ability to produce required result.


Human elements in the organization.

Federal Ministry:

A body or agent of government of the federation established for a set goal.


An organize group of people that come together to work and achieve a set objective.


The ability to do something very well.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This work on the staff training and development as a tool for increase in the performance in the organization in Abia State a case study of Federal Ministry of Education Umuahia Abia State have been emphasized heavily on the previous chapters as on its importance and positive effects to the workers and the organization to mention but a few. However, this chapter is to bring the whole work in summary, conclusion and recommendation on a precise manner.

5.2 Summary Of Findings

The major findings of this work are as follows:

  1. Training and development is a variable tool for change of employee behaviors, development of employee potential as well as a means of acquiring skills and knowledge needed to meet the demand of the rapidly changing techniques in the service oriented establishment in Nigeria.
  2. Employee comes from different background with different culture, region and ideology. Training and development programme become inevitable to ensure a conflict free organization as well as efficient and utilization of those human resources to achieve the organizational objective.
  3. Training and development is relevant in an organization and lead to increase in productivity because it improves the ability of workers as we boast their moral thereby increasing their level of productivity.
  4. Federal ministry of Education employee support training and development programmes. Some are interested in the acquisition of skills during training and development exercise while others forgone the monetary incentive attached to the programme.
  5. From the assessment of training and development efforts in Nigeria ministries, some problems hence restricted it impact in ministries employee. These constraints include:
    • Cost of systematic training
    • Incompetent training officials/trainer
    • Employees perception
    • Inadequate planning
    • Corruption
    • Insufficient development and training facilities.
a) Cost of systematic training:

Systematic training is a training process that involves set of activities that happens simultaneously that leads to an effective implementation of a training programme. It starts from assessment of training and development needs determination of objective of training and development, designing he training and development programme, conducting the training and development as well as evaluating the programme. This process is a expansive and some organization cannot afford it.

b) Incompetent training:

These training officials lack the training and development skills and experience to teach these employees.

c) Employee’s perception:

Some employee perceptive training and development programme as a means of acquiring monetary and non-monetary incentive rather than the main aim of skills acquisitions.

d) Inadequate planning:

Organizations do not carryout in-depth planning exercise so as to ascertain the cost of training programme that will be adopted. This leads to under funding and abandonment of training programme.

e) Corruption:

This Surface in forms of mismanagement of funds meant for training exercise, over invoicing tribalism, nepotism, sexual gratification etc.

5.3 Conclusion

Sequel to the literature review data, interpretation and subsequent findings, it becomes proper to conclude that the concept of employee training and development plays a vital role in the increase in the productivity of an organization. It was proved that training of the organization workforce or human resources is indispensable, if the organization want to increase it’s productivity so as to achieve the organizational objectives.

Consequently upon the above, the work further concluded that adopting a systematic approach to employee training based on the identification of employee training needs as well as description of programme implementation of the training programme as well as evaluation or review of the programme to unveil it’s impact on the employee. Also, this work concludes that if the above stated problems restricting the impact of training and development such as corruption, incompetent trainers etc on the employees is removed or highly reduced them productivity will increase drastically.

Based on the data generated in the course of this study, the researcher can conclude that workers view training and development programme in two perspectives. Some see it as a means of skills and techniques acquisition while others perceive it as a medium of enriching themselves via the benefits attached to it.

In addition, departmental report combine with workers appraisal constitutes the most effectives. Strategy for the identification of training of need. Also the review of current or past training misstate and lapses as well as idea instrument of protecting future training and development programme.

Finally, as a step for employee training performance and durability, training programme should be adopted as the organizations policy for both recruitment and promotion exercise.

5.4 Recommendation

In view of the above findings, the following recommendation becomes imperative or necessary.

  1. dequate finance: According to Ogunna (1996) a policy plan on training and development “is not merely a paper work or a set of idea to be memorized and sung, but rather it is a set of value which require resources (money, men and materials) for its implementation” finance is therefore a crucial requirement for effective implementation of training policy and programme. The researcher recommends that the ministry should generate enough internal revenue so that will be used to sponsor training and development programme.
  2. Systematic training and development programme: Prior to the unsystematic, haphazard, quite inadequate and unsatisfactory in the training and development needs of Employees, this can be achieve through supervisor’s report, appraisal;, issuing of questionnaire as well as conduction interview. This will pave way for the determination of the type of training that will be adopted whether on the job or off the job training. The implementation stage should be handed by human resources specialist as well as professional in the filed of personnel; management. According to Ubeku (1975) “an organization has to evaluate it’s training programme so as to ascertain producing the result needed” improvement can be made to the training procedure order to reduce cost and improve efficiency and whether the type of training given is necessary to improve productivity. Therefore, the ministry should adopt systematic planning of training and development programme.
  3. Qualified personnel: Good training planning efficient implementation required effective technical inputs. Adequate well qualified and professional competent personnel to give technical advice, plan programme and execute training policy effectively. Private human resources firms should be contracted to carryout training and development programme, ministry should also partner with other Non-Governmental organization so as to improve flexibility and efficiency.
  4. Adequate information: Any meaningful development in the skill of human resources will lead to increase in productivity and this can not be achieved in a climate of in communication.
    Nwodu and Fab – Ukozor (2003) stated that “ministries employees should be informed or enlightened about the goals or objectives of a training programme so as to prepare them for the programme”. That before the formal training programme commence source or orientation should conduct a pre-training for trainee visualize the cum of training exercise. This will help to reposition the perception of workers who see training and development programme as means of enriching themselves momentarily instead of acquisition of skills.
  5. Effective management of fund and proper accountability: According Ogunna (1996) “the government ministry faced with the problems of mismanagement of available fund meant for training and development programme”. The researcher recommends that public accountability should be taken serious in ministry. That the ministry accounts should be regularly audited to ensure that there is prudent management funds and that all aspects of ministry financial memorandum. This will ensure that fund means for training and development programme cannot be transferred to private purse for personal comfort.
  6. Provision of training facilities and infrastructure: Some training programme needs to requires certain facilities for its effective implementation e.g vestibule training require infrastructures similar to that used by the employee to perform their formal task. Facilities like computers, tools, workshops, conducive training environment etc should be provided to ensure efficient and effective implementation of the programme.
  7. Elimination of favoritism, tribalism and sectionalism: that employees should be given equal opportunity to embark on training programme. It should be based on merit not tribe or section act sentiments. When opportunity come for sea training course, only employees that merit this opportunity should be subscribed for this training programme. Also in the issue of award of training and development programme, these contracts should be award to vibrant, qualified and acceptant training and development firms based on merit.

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