Solid Wastes Management Model And Strategy In A Typical Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Solid Wastes Management Model And Strategy In A Typical Nigeria


Abstract


The purpose of this study is to outline the major trends and challenges that will shape the future of waste management for the next few decades in UNIUYO. There are certain trends and facts that more or less create the ‘bigger picture’ in which the waste management industry will evolve. It is clear that new challenges are emerging, and the current situation must be seen in a different way because the disposal site is limited and also it has to be made cost effective. Amounts of waste generation are largely determined by two factors: first, the rate of population increasing in UNIUYO and second, its per capita waste generation – which are controlled by the evolution of economic growth, life style and food habits. The present study explains the correlation analysis of among different factors of waste and the objective is to assess the future waste generation stream in UNIUYO. The results show that for a decoupling to take place between economic growth and waste generation, the waste generation by UNIUYO students in relation to their economic activities must decrease in the future


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Waste generation is an issue of worldwide concern. The generators of waste are broadly classified as residential, industrial, commercial, institutional, construction, demolition, municipal and agricultural types. Solid waste is also generated by human and animal activities that are discarded as useless or unwanted waste. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standard in cities of developing countries have lead to increase in the quantity and complex composition of municipal solid waste. Management of solid waste resulting from rapid urbanization has become a serious concern for government departments, pollution control agencies, regulatory bodies and public in most of the developing countries.

The quantity of waste generated depends on a number of factors such as food habits, standard of living, degree of commercial activities and seasons. Data on quantity variation and generation are useful in planning for collection, transportation and disposal systems. UNIUYO now generate three times more waste than they did in 1981 because of increasing urbanization and changing life styles. The rate of increase of waste generated per capita is estimated at 0.75 to 1.25% annually. Waste generation rates in small towns are lower than those of metro cities, and the per capita generation rate of waste in UNIUYO 0.35 kg/ day. It was also estimated that the total waste generated by 14.12 thousand people living in the institution areas was 4837 metric tonne/day in 2013.


1.1 Aim/ Objective Of The Project

The aims of this work is to:

  1. Minimize the amount of¤ waste generated (source reduction)
  2. Recover waste materials¤ and recycle them
  3. Dispose of waste safely¤ and effectively Source reduction is the preferred approach

1.2 Define Project Area

The University of Uyo (UNIUYO) is located in Uyo, capital of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The university was formerly known as the University of Cross River State (UNICROSS). On October 1, 1991 the federal government of Nigeria established it as a federal university and the name was changed to the University of Uyo. The university inherited students, staff, academic programmes and the entire facilities of the erstwhile University of Cross River State established by Cross River State in 1983. Academic activities commenced during the 1991/92 academic session.

UNIUYO has about 13 faculties and is expanding.

The Vice-Chancellor is Professor Enefiok Essien. In 2015 the Emir of Hadejia, Adamu Maje was appointed chancellor.

UNIUYO is in the heart of Uyo, capital of Akwa Ibom, Nigeria’s second largest oil-producing state. Uyo is easily accessible by road,though there is an international airport for external use(s). It operates from four campuses:

The Permanent Site/Main Campus which accommodates Parts of Central Administration, Faculties of Engineering and Natural and Applied Sciences, International Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability Research (ICEESR), and the Postgraduate School

The Town Campus which accommodates Faculties of Arts, Education, Social Sciences, Pharmacy

The Annex Campus, home for the Faculties of Agriculture, Business Administration, Law, Environment Studies and General Studies

The Ime Umana Campus, Ediene Abak, which accommodates the Pre-Degree, JUPEB and other special courses.

The Permanent Site/Main Campus of the university along Nwaniba Road, Uyo is about 4.5 km from the city centre and covers an area of about 1,443 hectares.


1.3 Scope Of The Study

Waste generation rates estimate the amount of waste created by residences or businesses over a certain amount of time (day, year, etc.). Waste generation includes all materials discarded, whether or not they are later recycled or disposed in a landfill. Waste generation rates for residential and commercial activities can be used to estimate the impact of new developments on the local waste stream.


1.4 Factors Affect Waste Generation Rates

Geographic and physical factors that affect the quantities of waste generated and collected include:

  1. Geographical location – related primarily to the different climate that can influence both the amount generated and collection operation.
  2. Season of the year
  3. Frequency of collection
  4. Characteristics of population
  5. Extent of salvage and recycling.
  6. Legislation
  7. Public attitude

1.5 Problem Of The Study

University waste generated contributes to environmental problems including habitat destruction, surface and groundwater pollution, and other forms of air, soil, and water contamination. Incineration creates toxic substances, while landfills emit methane (which contributes to global warming) and other gases to the school’s environment.


1.6 Purpose Of The Study

This study was conducted to provide a detailed description of solid waste generation and characteristics, and management in university of Uyo. Solid waste generation rates estimate the amount of waste created by residences or businesses over a certain amount of time (day, year, etc.) in the institution. Solid Waste generation includes all materials discarded, whether or not they are later recycled or disposed in a landfill. Solid Waste generation and management rates for residential and commercial activities can be used to estimate the impact of new developments on the local waste stream.


Solid Wastes Management Model And Strategy In A Typical Nigeria


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Solid Wastes Management Model And Strategy In A Typical Nigeria


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