Solid Waste Separation And Utilization

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Solid Waste Separation And Utilization


Abstract


This project was done to bring to lime light the appropriate method of solid waste handling, separation and utilization, in order to reduce the impact on the environment – environmental degradation. In this work, effort was made to point out the required steps taken in solid waste management.

Segregation at the source was done to get either the vegetable waste separated from the plastic waste; metallic waste from plastic waste. Segregation at the source was carried out to avert difficulties associated with waste (solid) handling, separation and in general the management of waste.

More still, the biodegradable more further treated as in composting; and non biodegradable treated as in recycling of metals (Aluminium) or plastics; all geared towards ensuring that wastes (litters) were not towering to an outrageous extent, such that the stench would not upset public health. The waste can be incinerated or burnt as in combustion.

There are various use to which the solid wastes are put; use as manure to increase and supplement the soil nutrient requirement; the gas (methane) effusing from the compost could be tapped and sold on a domestic gas; while combustion facilities burn municipal solid waste at a high temperature reducing waste volume and generating electricity.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Solid Waste Mgt. Separation And Utilization
  • 2.2 Solid Waste (Sewage) Treatment
  • 2.2A Screenings
  • 2.2B Grit Collection
  • 2.3C Sludge
  • 2.4D Primary Sludge
  • 2.5E Trickling Filter Sludge
  • 2.5F Activated Sludge
  • 2.2.1 Digestion
  • 2.2.1A Sludge Gas
  • 2.2.1B Sludge – Drying Beds
  • 2.2.1C Sludge Processing
  • 2.3 Solid Waste Disposal
  • 2.3A Incineration of Sludge (Solid Waste)
  • 2.3B Burial
  • 2.3C Drying
  • 2.4 Solid Waste Removal From Sewage
  • 2.4A Coarse Solid Removal
  • 2.4B Find Solid Removal
  • 2.4C Sedimentation
  • 2.4D Chemical Precipitation
  • 2.5 Oxidation Processes
  • 2.5A Filtration
  • 2.5B Aeration
  • 2.5C Activated Sludge
  • 2.6 Municipal Solid Waste (Msw)
  • 2.6.1 Hazardous Waste
  • 2.6.2 Hospital Waste
  • 2.7 Segregation
  • 2.7.1 Recycling and Reuse
  • 2.7.2 Composition
  • 2.8 Utilization

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Design of New Concepts and Processes
  • 3.1A Stream Number, Name, and Description
  • 3.1B Equipment Code, Name and Description
  • 3.2 Practical Measurement of Heaps of Solid Waste

Chapter Four

  • Discussion

Chapter Five

  • Recommendation and Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

Solid waste is among those used items, which found no use at the material time. Humankind has been generating waste over the years, but recently, with progress of civilization, the waste generated became of a more complex nature.

As such the need to separate and utilize them became paramount than ever; the attendant utility derivable from the separated and proceed waste should not but be overemphasized.

This we research on the various methods of separation and utilization of solid waste in chapter two alongside with the accompanying chemical treatment of the sludge, while in chapter three effort will be made to design a concept that can separate, process and utilize the waste generated in our locality together with the calculation of the capacity of a waste bin, and that of the waste generation of an area. Finally, chapter four in the discussion of what got done in the proceeding chapter followed by conclusion and appendix (map of Enugu Urban).


Chapter Four


Discussion

We have done a research project on the separation and utilization of solid waste. A study and research on the waste in Enugu has shown that if a recycling plant for the separation of waste is set in place, that the waste could be utilized in various ways.

However, we conceptualized a design for the separation of solid waste. The concept has a tank (A) that should contain the municipal solid waste and an inflow of water to suspend some materials. A screen is put in place, to help separate the grits, while the rake skims the floats to the next tank (B), there a magnetic separator does separate the metallic materials and the plastics are ground via a funnel to the communitor alongside with a feed (underflow) from tank (A). There are provisions for discharge of high density material via the manholes.

After grinding, the whole feed is channeled to the tank (C) where the final skimming is carried out, this skimming of the floats, discharges them to the clarifiers (cyclone separation), where chaffs are separated from plastic chips etc.

While the sludge is discharged into a sludge digestion tank for further treatment.

Much still, the utilization of solid wastes are treated as in the generation of heat for cooking and tapping of the effusing gas for heating. In the diagram of local cooking stove, rice chaff and saw dust is used for cooking by compacting the chaff under very high pressure and making an opening for oxygen supply; during heating, it heats up quickly with high calorific valve.

Also the measurement of the refuse bin was taken to ascertain the quantity of waste generated and whether the quantity could feed the recycling plants; if eventually the plant comes up stream.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

In a bid to address the ravenous impact of indiscriminate disposal of waste coupled with emanating problems of solid waste separation, and eventual utilization of the separated waste: this project has explored and pointed out strategies aimed at mitigating the pollution of our environment through poor solid waste management.

Segregation at the source has a major role to play in reduction of the volume of waste discharge, and this is to be used to reduce waste of resources in sorting out of various material; recycling as a means of utilization of solid waste has helped in the management and reduction of waste volume.

Comporting is carried out to effectively utilize the garbage waste generated; it has to be encouraged so that the vegetable waste will be useful as a manure, and the effusing gas (methane) should be tapped and sold as heating gas.

Combustion is equally done to flare the waste, mostly the heat generated should be used in heating of furnace.
Conclusively, solid waste separation and utilization entails an all encompassing studies to point out the useful means of separating waste; and utilization as in waste-to-wealth, and waste-to-energy.


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