Solid Waste Management In Ogbete Main Market, Enugu
It is always known that cleanliness is next to godliness and health is wealth Good health is achieved if there is good management of the environment.
The need for a good management of the environment cannot be over emphasized since there is a continuing environmental decay as a result of increased urbanization.
Pollution is a major problem of urbanization of which most of the causes have been identified as industrial combustion, solid waste generation, oil spillage disposal etc. since these causes are inevitable; there is need for a good control of them. In this project there will be a critical look at solid waste management situation with special focus on Ogbete main market Enugu.
The project, which is required for the attainment of ND programme, will be divided into five chapters.
The chapter one, which is the introductory part of the project, the statement of the problem is intended to be those associated with solid waste management problems, which may include health hazard, ditty environment, blockage of drainage system etc. In the main study, all those problems will be discussed intensively.
The purpose of this project which will be treated in the main project will center on identifying the importance of such management and all the various strategies of checking excessive solid waste generation and management in the market in particular and Enugu city in general.
The background and need for the study will focus on past experiences of solid waste of management and problems associated with it so as to know how to improve subsequent situation. From all those information one can make some hypothesis, which can be either positive or negative at the end of he study.
In the chapter two, the project is intended to review some literatures on the subject matter, which takes the form of books, paper, journals, etc. here there will be a though review on some related topics such as solid waste management, policies on solid waste management, generation, classification and importance of solid waste management. These are expected to be extracted from library and other sources.
The chapter three will deal mainly on research methodology and design. Here the sources of data i.e. Primary and secondary sources will be highlighted.
Primary sources have to do with questionnaires, direct interview etc which secondary sources have to do with information from libraries, books, journals and magazine etc. Some statistical models such as bar chart, pie chart, and histogram will be used to present this data in a specific manner.
The chapter four has to do with data presentation and analysis. Here field data collected are analysis and presented in a format to achieve analytical conclusion. Statistical analytical methods are to be used here to arrive at scientifically conclusions.
Chapter five deals on findings of the reseach, recommendation he prefer to tackle solid waste management problems in the study area and conclusions.
Table Of Content
- 1.1 Statement of the problem
- 1.2 Purpose of the study
- 1.3 Background and need of the study
- 1.4 Theoretical foundation of the study
- 1.5 Research question
- 1.6 Scope of study
- 1.6.1 Delimitation
- 1.6.2 Limitation
- 1.7 Signification of the study
- 1.8 Overview of the study
- 2.1 Definition of solid waste
- 2.2 Solid waste
- 2.3 Characteristics of solid waste
- 2.4 Urbanization and solid waste generation
- 2.5 Solid waste management strategies
- 2.6 Importance of solid waste management
- 2.7 Problems of solid waste management
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Re-statement of the problem
- 3.3 The study area
- 3.4 Populations and sample size
- 3.5 Sources of data
- 3.6 Method of data collection
- 3.7 Libraries
- 3.8 Validity/reliability test of instrument
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data on respondent
- 4.2 Rate of solid waste generated by the respondents
- 4.3 estimation of daily, weekly, monthly and annual generation of solid waste in akwata area of ogbete main market
- 4.4 Solid waste storage system by the respondent
- 4.5 Information about ENSEPA
Findings, Recommendation and conclusion
- 5.1 Findings
- 5.2 Recommendation
- 5.3 Recommended treatment
- 5.4 Conclusion
Empirical evidence ranks Nigerian as one of the countries world that produces high qualities of solid waste. This phenomenon is predicted on her over increasing population complied with sophistication in taste and demand for domestic and industrial goods by her urban population. The uncontrolled generation and disposal of these wastes have deteriorated our otherwise conducive urban environment. Virtually all cities in Nigeria are characterized by helps or mounting of solid wastes. The health implications of this development on our urban streams, health and socio-economic development leave much to be desired.
The realization of good health, hygiene and sustainable development in any society is practically impossible when pollution by way of solid wastes impact strongly on hers socio – economic, cultural and environmental settings.
Policy markers, leaders of though and political office holders are daily confronted with endemic problems of what to do with mounting heaps of solid wastes in our urban environment. Many choice properties by virtue of their proximity to dump sites have deteriorated significantly and this has serious negative effect on their rental and capital values.
The present scenario depicts a state hopeless as virtually all Agencies of government entrusted with managing the wastes especially ENSEPA seems to be at cross road on what to do.
1.1 Statement of the Problems
Solid waste management is a very difficult task, as we all know. It creates a lot of problems to people which include:- drainage blockage (flooding), traffic jam, health hazard and unsightly environment.
In addition, environmental pollution in urban centers due to solid wastes is a matter of serious concern to the international community, for pollution in any form interferes with our good chain, health, comfort, amenities, properties values and living standards.
Today, all businesses are affected by both environmental changes and government effort towards controlling these changes.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to access solid waste situation in the citizen of Nigeria, more especially in Ogbete main market Enugu. More over the research aims at finding out what should be done in order to reduce the health hazards and of the increasing menace of solid wastes in our market and cities.
1.3 Background and Need for the Study
Urbanization, which is the purpose of people’s aggregation in cities, has witnessed tremendous increase in recent times. Most cities now in Nigeria have grown to full-scale urban status. The implications of urbanization is manifested in the areas of unemployment, inadequate social amenities due to undue pressures on the available ones by teaming population, increase in crime wave, sophistication and changes in demand and taste complied with high consumption on industrial and domestic goods leading to large volumes of solid wastes.
The presence of the solid wastes in our city environment without effective waste collection and disposal machinery has left most of these cities in solided state and their implications on the health of urban. It leaves much to be desired hence the need for this study.
1.4 Theoretical Foundation of the Study
This study is based ion W. Wilkie, Jodan’s Topical hygiene and sanitation theory, which state “that the collection and disposal of refuse and waste matter is any integral part of effective sanitation exercise.
From the above view and theory, any effective waste management packaged for proper address of our solid waste hydra headed problems benefit all individual main market.
1.5 Research Question
The following research questions wee formulated to guide the study. These include:
- How do you dispose your solid waste?
- Are there any waste bins in your shops?
- How often is waste evacuated from your day?
- Do you sort your waste before disposal?
- Are there sufficient equipment and manpower?
- Are the storage, collection and transportation in Ogbete main market dumps from individual shops?
- How far are waste dumps from individual shops?
1.6 Scope of Study
The study is therefore restricted to solid waste management in Ogbete main market. The scope of study is created into two sections:-
1.7 Significance of the Study
- The major significance of this study is that it will help in no small measure to maintain efficient and effective waste management system of the study area.
- Furthermore, it will help in improving the environmental condition of Ogbete main market.
- The findings of this study will also form the basis for further investigations in this study area.
- Finally, it will help in the prevention, reduction and control of the disease associated with solid wastes and food poisoning.
1.8 Overview of the Study
For effective coverage of this research it is divide into five (5) chapters made up as follows:
- Chapter one deals with the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, background and need for the study, the theoretical foundation of the study, research question, scope of study, significance of the study and overview of the study.
- Chapter two is the literature review. This chapter deals with the view of relevant literature by authorities in environmental and solid waste management.
- Chapter three is the research design and methodology, which gives the step-by-step procedure adopted in carrying out the study.
- Chapter five is the finding, recommendation and conclusion of the study.
Findings, Recommendation and conclusion
Discussion on the findings earlier summarized in the last chapter is presented here: the following findings as it relate to solid wastes management situation in the study are made;
- The average rate of solid waste generation per shop per day was found out to be 3.6kg/day.
- The total quantity of solid waste generated in the study area is 3.055 x 106kg, which is equivalent to 923m3 using density rate of 330m3kg.
From the tables in chapter four it shows that Enugu State Environmental Protection Authority (ENSEPA) contrary to its enabling edict No 18 provision does not embark on shop to shop collection of refuse.
More questions were asked on the failure of ENSEPA to live up to its refuse disposal duties and it was disclosed that most of the problems ENSEPA have is financial problem. Further examination on the persistence of these problems shows that ENSEPA has wide range of potential revenue sources if well harnessed especially in the area of sanitation rates collection. But the body is fundamentally deficient in organisation and lacks effective revenue collection and management strategy. This shows that the body to operate efficiently since its administrative machinery is impossible because they are weak.
The inadequate of the sanitation rates was ascertained from the respondents and it was discovered that it just required a slight review upwards from the existing level since government subvention will be withdrawal and to this, the sampled population suggested between N20 – N50 per shop/month on graduated levels. Average rate of n30.000/ shop hold was used in our revenue computation.
The ENSEPA has the problem of equipment/machinery, it was discovered that solid waste operations require peculiar type of equipment. But according to Hick (1984) he warned that the efficiency of solid waste operations does not depend on the level of sophistication of equipment. Therefore, simple equipment machinery is here recommended.
The study areas like other areas in Enugu has good road network and hence the operation of shop to shop refuse collection as advocated here is easy and effective. It was equally discovered that there was no primary sorting of wastes at generation centers. Shop and hence no practice of waste recycling.
After full statement of the findings in this study, it is recommended that solid waste collection and disposal in the study area particular for proper solid waste management, efficient can only be achieved by employing adequate professional like engineers, health management officers, surveyors and valuers, in fact all environmental management experts.
In addition to this, waste management experts should carry out their functions effectively; each department should have a clearly defined work schedule, so as to avoid conflicts. To help these, rigorous monitoring of day activities or operation of each of the experts should be maintained. The administrative staff of ENSEPA should be experts in their different fields. Example, an accountant should be employed to manage revenue department while solid waste experts like Estate surveyor and valuer, engineer and qualified health superintendent should head the operational and health department respectively.
The individual, commercial houses, industries and public institutions should participate effectively in solid waste management; they should provide themselves with refuse bins. They equally have to pay their sanitation rates as stipulated in the edict that established ENSEPA. To enforce this, law enforcement agents should bring defaulters to book, through this way, the shop will imbibe hygienic attitude towards keeping their environment free from spillage of solid waste if the ENSEPA can always send out its field workers to access the efficiency of the contractor and give the feedback.
Furthermore, ENSEPA ought to be assisted by the government because; it is the government that promulgated the edict that established ENSEPA. Government should train more personnel, so as to some in the rural areas. The government should also give subvention to ENSEPA in order to help it stand on its facts. The state and local government should take ENSEPA into consideration during allocation of fund in their annual budgets. ENSEPA in Enugu need adequate office accommodation to function effectively in order to enhance its efficiency.
To introduce modern method of solid waste collection, storage, treatment and disposal method, experts in these fields are therefore needed to implement the following suggested solid waste management methods. It was discovered that ESEPA has no sanitary handful where they deposit their wastes. This results in blockage of P.H. express way by Enugu.
5.3 Recommended Treatment
ENSEPA in Enugu should employ the following four methods of treating wastes, this range from physical, chemical, biological and recycling treatments.
a. Physical Treatment:
This is the process by which solid wastes are separated physically from one another. For materials are crushed compacted or grinded in the form it can be used for and filling.
b. Chemical Treatment:
This method involves detoxicating some toxic or other dangerous solid wastes with reagents, s that their harmful effect will be reduced.
c. Biological Treatment:
This involves the breaking down of organic wastes by organism or aerobic bacterial to produce a stable and products that may serve as fertilizers.
This method is a resource recovery method that sort out re-usable solid waste materials. It is a process that helps to conserve our natural resources of its continuous depletion. Useless paper can e recycled for further production of exercise books, plastics and metal can be recycled back to its for state. Other examples of waste materials that can be turned for the other purposes include bone from abattoirs which can be used for making breakable plates, scarp metals from abandoned cars (typical examples of scrap metals can be found in industrial streets, main market Ogbete) can be used for making refuse bins and sold to he public at a reduced price. Saw dust can be used for filling the potholes in a surrounding environment.
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